Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 67 in total

  1. Meftah, H., Mohd Azimin, E.
    Foreign bodies in packaged foods may pose both a safety risk and a risk of perceived degradation of
    quality. When food products are manufactured or packaged, small foreign objects might end up in the product. It is naturally desirable for the food industry that all foreign bodies are detected and removed before they reach customers. In this study, the ultrasonic method was used to detect the foreign bodies in canned foods. In order to establish a technical concept for the detection of foreign bodies in canned foods, an experimental investigation was carried out using pulse-echo ultrasonic testing. A number of simulated foreign object pieces were deliberately put inside the canned food and the results were analyzed. The approach demonstrates that ultrasound has potential for application in many industrial food packaging environments where foreign objects need to be detected. Indeed, detection up to 4 millimeter foreign body size has been done for rock and metal foreign bodies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry
  2. Lau, E., Hamzah, S.N.Z., Sallih, S.A., Arip, M.A.
    This study explores the relationship between the total exports and total imports of the food industry in Sarawak from 1961 through 2007. We examined the sample period of the pre-1997 crisis (1961-1996) and the full sample period (1961-2007) to investigate disparities for pre-crisis sample. Analysis was carried out using standard econometric procedure and Dynamic OLS estimation for the annual observations of the two sample period. This study’s major findings are: (1) long run relationships were detected in the full sample period whereas they were absent in the pre-crisis period; (2) imbalances in food were found to be weakly sustainable for the full sample; (3) for every ringgit increase in imports, exports rose by RM0.803 for the full sample, revealing that imports grew at a rate faster than exports. This finding suggests that reducing the size of imports may improve imbalances in Sarawak’s food industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry
  3. Khomsaton Abu Bakar, Selambakkannu, Sarala, Jamaliah Sharif, Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan, Ming, Ting Teo, Natasha lsnin, et al.
    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was chosen to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal from textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater. Two biological treatments, the first consisting a mix of non irradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textiles wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. Reduction percentage of COD in textiles wastewater increased from 29.4% after radiation to 62.4% after further undergoing biological treatment. After irradiation, the BOD5 of textiles wastewater was reduced by 22.1%, but reverted to the original value of 36mg/1 after undergoing biological treatment. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADM1 after irradiation and continued to decrease to 109.3 ADMI after passing through biological treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry
  4. Hassan, S.H., John Kua, S.B., Harun, H.
    The attention on genetically modified (GM) food industry is increasing due to the flourishing
    of biotechnology. However, there are some debates on the associated benefits and risks of
    employing modification technology in food industry. This study strives to examine the causes
    that determine consumers’ benefit and risk perceptions on GM foods. Besides, the influence of
    perceived benefit and risk of GM food on consumers’ attitude is investigated. The empirical
    results of this study showed that GM food knowledge, and GM food characteristics have been
    acting as important predictors of both benefits and risks perceptions. Further, it is also found
    that perceived benefits showed significant positive influence on attitude, and attitude affects
    purchase intention towards GM food. Research implications to policy makers, scientists, and
    market practitioners are covered, in which suggestions and recommendations are provided
    to these parties. Lastly, research implications and recommendations to future research are
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry
  5. Abraham SCE
    Family Practitioner, 1977;2:61-63.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry
  6. Farouk MM, Al-Mazeedi HM, Sabow AB, Bekhit AE, Adeyemi KD, Sazili AQ, et al.
    Meat Sci., 2014 Nov;98(3):505-19.
    PMID: 24973207 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.05.021
    There are many slaughter procedures that religions and cultures use around the world. The two that are commercially relevant are the halal and kosher methods practiced by Muslims and Jews respectively. The global trade in red meat and poultry produced using these two methods is substantial, thus the importance of the quality of the meat produced using the methods. Halal and kosher slaughter per se should not affect meat quality more than their industrial equivalents, however, some of their associated pre- and post-slaughter processes do. For instance, the slow decline in blood pressure following a halal pre-slaughter head-only stun and neck cut causes blood splash (ecchymosis) in a range of muscles and organs of slaughtered livestock. Other quality concerns include bruising, hemorrhages, skin discoloration and broken bones particularly in poultry. In addition to these conventional quality issues, the "spiritual quality" of the meat can also be affected when the halal and kosher religious requirements are not fully met during the slaughter process. The nature, causes, importance and mitigations of these and other quality issues related to halal and kosher slaughtering and meat production using these methods are the subjects of this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry*
  7. Boey PL, Maniam GP, Hamid SA
    J Oleo Sci, 2009;58(10):499-502.
    PMID: 19745576
    Aquaculture activity has increased the population of crab, hence increasing the generation of related wastes, particularly the shell. In addition, the number of molting process in crabs compounds further the amount of waste shell generated. As such, in the present work, the application of the waste crab shell as a source of CaO in transesterification of palm olein to biodiesel (methyl ester) was investigated. Preliminary XRD results revealed that thermally activated crab shell contains mainly CaO. Parametric study has been investigated and optimal conditions were found to be methanol/oil mass ratio, 0.5:1; catalyst amount, 4 wt. %; and reaction temperature, 338 K. As compared to laboratory CaO, the catalyst from waste crab shell performs well, thus creating another low-cost catalyst source for producing biodiesel as well as adding value to the waste crab shell. Reusability of crab shell CaO has also been studied and the outcome confirmed that the catalyst is capable to be reutilized up to 11 times, without any major deterioration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry*
  8. Leong WF, Che Man YB, Lai OM, Long K, Misran M, Tan CP
    J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009 Sep 23;57(18):8426-33.
    PMID: 19694442 DOI: 10.1021/jf901853y
    The purpose of this study was to optimize the parameters involved in the production of water-soluble phytosterol microemulsions for use in the food industry. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to model and optimize four of the processing parameters, namely, the number of cycles of high-pressure homogenization (1-9 cycles), the pressure used for high-pressure homogenization (100-500 bar), the evaporation temperature (30-70 degrees C), and the concentration ratio of microemulsions (1-5). All responses-particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), and percent ethanol residual (%ER)-were well fit by a reduced cubic model obtained by multiple regression after manual elimination. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and absolute average deviation (AAD) value for PS, PDI, and %ER were 0.9628 and 0.5398%, 0.9953 and 0.7077%, and 0.9989 and 1.0457%, respectively. The optimized processing parameters were 4.88 (approximately 5) homogenization cycles, homogenization pressure of 400 bar, evaporation temperature of 44.5 degrees C, and concentration ratio of microemulsions of 2.34 cycles (approximately 2 cycles) of high-pressure homogenization. The corresponding responses for the optimized preparation condition were a minimal particle size of 328 nm, minimal polydispersity index of 0.159, and <0.1% of ethanol residual. The chi-square test verified the model, whereby the experimental values of PS, PDI, and %ER agreed with the predicted values at a 0.05 level of significance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry/methods*
  9. Tan L, Ng SH, Omar A, Karupaiah T
    Child Obes, 2018 07;14(5):280-290.
    PMID: 29985649 DOI: 10.1089/chi.2018.0037
    BACKGROUND: Unhealthy food marketing to children is a key risk factor for childhood obesity. Online video platforms have surpassed television as the primary choice for screen viewing among children but the extent of food marketing through such media is relatively unknown. We aimed to examine food and beverage advertisements (ads) encountered in YouTube videos targeting children in Malaysia.

    METHODS: The social media analytics site SocialBlade.com was used to identify the most popular YouTube videos (n = 250) targeting children. Ads encountered while viewing these videos were recorded and analyzed for type of product promoted and ad format (video vs. overlay). Food and beverage ads were further coded based on food category and persuasive marketing techniques used.

    RESULTS: In total 187 ads were encountered in sampled videos. Food and beverage ads were the most common at 38% (n=71), among which 56.3% (n = 40) promoted noncore foods. Ads for noncore foods were more commonly delivered as video rather than overlay ads. Among ads promoting noncore foods, the most commonly employed persuasive marketing techniques found were taste appeal (42.3%), uniqueness/novelty (32.4%), the use of animation (22.5%), fun appeal (22.5%), use of promotional characters (15.5%), price (12.7%), and health and nutrition benefits (8.5%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Similar to television, unhealthy food ads predominate in content aimed toward children on YouTube. Policies regulating food marketing to children need to be extended to cover online content in line with a rapidly-evolving digital media environment. Service providers of social media can play a part in limiting unhealthy food advertising to children.

    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry*
  10. Mohd. Adzahan, N., Benchamaporn, P.
    The application of non-thermal processing technology (NTP) is increasing within the food industry. The absence of heat in this technology offer some advantages such as the sensory and nutritional attributes of the product remaining unaffected, thus yielding products with better quality compared to traditional processing methods. Suitability of technology for a certain application varies according to the nature of the reason and the purpose for processing. Some NTP has long been used in the food industry in Southeast Asia, but most are still at the initial stage of research. Despite several existing challenges, these technologies have the potential to be taken up as an alternative to processing of value-added food products especially now when consumer and trade demands as well as economic strength in the region is changing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry
  11. Khan, A. A., Butt, M.S., Randhawa, M.A., Karim, R., Sultan, M.T., Ahmed, W.
    Globally, agro-industrial by products such as fruit waste has attained immense recognition to be used for the extraction of valuable functional ingredients. Pectin is naturally occurring biopolymer that is widely recognized in food industry as well as in biotechnology. Keeping in view, current research was conducted for extraction, characterization and utilization of grapefruit peel pectin from Duncan cultivar. The extracted pectin was characterized for different parameters that explored its role in value added products. Acid extraction was carried out and then pectin was characterized for equivalent weight, ash content and methoxyl content. With the addition of extracted pectin, jam was prepared and analysed for physicochemical analysis and sensory attributes. The maximum extraction (22.55%) was done from grapefruit peel at temperature-120°C with pH-1.5, while minimum extraction (0.41%) was obtained at temperature-120°C with pH-2. Moreover, adding pectin in jam formulation resulted in significant effect on texture of the final product. Conclusively, pectin holds a great potential to be extracted and utilized in fruit based products for best quality and value addition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry
  12. Nazaruddin, R., Noor Baiti, A.A., Foo, S.C., Tan, Y.N., Ayob, M.K.
    Recent research suggesting the existence of potential source of pectin from roselle calyces. Pectin was successfully extracted from seven different varieties of roselle calyces. Pectin extraction was conducted using hydrochloric acid (HCl, 0.03 N, pH 1.5) or ammonium oxalate (0.25% w/v, pH 4.6) at 85⁰C for 1 h. Chemical characteristics of the HCl- and ammonium oxalate extracted pectin were compared. Results indicated that ammonium oxalate exhibited greater efficiency in pectin extraction than HCl. Highest pectin yield at 18.7% was obtained by ammonium oxalate extraction of roselle calyx variety Acc.6 compared to only 9.77% by HCl extraction. The lowest pectin yield at 11.3% and 5.78% were observed respectively in ammonium oxalate and HCl extractions of roselle calyx variety UKMR-3. Some important characteristics of ammonium oxalate extracted pectin of roselle Acc.6 were 5.98% moisture, 3.81% ash, 4.64% methoxyl content, 42.24% anhydrouronic acid (AUA) and degree of esterification (DE) 60%. This study suggested that the high DE% roselle pectin is an alternative source of pectin for food industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry
  13. Geetha, P., Arivazhagan, R., Periyar Selvam, S., Ida, I.M.
    Chhana jalebi is a popular product in middle and northern parts of India and is prepared by frying of batter made from chhana, maida and water and finally soaking in sugar syrup. This chhana based fried sweet product is being prepared and sold by halwais in Indian sweet market. It has a coiled structure with syrupy interiors and chewy body. It has close resemblance to maida jalebi and khoa jalebi, but has firmer coils. The manufacturing procedure varies widely from manufacturer to manufacturer. There was no proper (standard) manufacturing method available for the preparation of chhana jalebi. Hence, a study was conducted to standardize a method for its manufacture consequently it will be helpful to produce the jalebi on a commercial scale. The chhana jalebi was standardized by various process parameters such as fat level in milk 3%, ratio of maida - chhana combination 1:1, water level in batter 45%, frying time and temperature 160-170°C, sugar syrup concentration 68°Brix and soaking time 2 min. Standardized product was analyzed by various physical, chemical, microbial, sensory and textural characteristics. The product had a light brown coloured coiled appearance, crispy body and texture. The nutritional composition percentage of chhana jalebi was protein 5.71±0.20, carbohydrate 67.11±0.19, fat 12.53±0.17 and moisture 20.23±0.25. The shelf life of the jalebi was found to be 5 days at 28°C. This was enhanced to 18 days by using potassium sorbate as preservative at the permitted levels. The optimized process and enhanced shelf life will pave way for commercialization and mechanization of chhana jalebi by food industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry
  14. Jagadeesan B, Gerner-Smidt P, Allard MW, Leuillet S, Winkler A, Xiao Y, et al.
    Food Microbiol., 2019 Jun;79:96-115.
    PMID: 30621881 DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2018.11.005
    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) combined with powerful bioinformatic approaches are revolutionising food microbiology. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of single isolates allows the most detailed comparison possible hitherto of individual strains. The two principle approaches for strain discrimination, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and genomic multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) are showing concordant results for phylogenetic clustering and are complementary to each other. Metabarcoding and metagenomics, applied to total DNA isolated from either food materials or the production environment, allows the identification of complete microbial populations. Metagenomics identifies the entire gene content and when coupled to transcriptomics or proteomics, allows the identification of functional capacity and biochemical activity of microbial populations. The focus of this review is on the recent use and future potential of NGS in food microbiology and on current challenges. Guidance is provided for new users, such as public health departments and the food industry, on the implementation of NGS and how to critically interpret results and place them in a broader context. The review aims to promote the broader application of NGS technologies within the food industry as well as highlight knowledge gaps and novel applications of NGS with the aim of driving future research and increasing food safety outputs from its wider use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry/instrumentation; Food Industry/standards; Food Industry/trends
  15. Teoh WL, Khoo MB, Teh SY
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(7):e68580.
    PMID: 23935873 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068580
    Designs of the double sampling (DS) X chart are traditionally based on the average run length (ARL) criterion. However, the shape of the run length distribution changes with the process mean shifts, ranging from highly skewed when the process is in-control to almost symmetric when the mean shift is large. Therefore, we show that the ARL is a complicated performance measure and that the median run length (MRL) is a more meaningful measure to depend on. This is because the MRL provides an intuitive and a fair representation of the central tendency, especially for the rightly skewed run length distribution. Since the DS X chart can effectively reduce the sample size without reducing the statistical efficiency, this paper proposes two optimal designs of the MRL-based DS X chart, for minimizing (i) the in-control average sample size (ASS) and (ii) both the in-control and out-of-control ASSs. Comparisons with the optimal MRL-based EWMA X and Shewhart X charts demonstrate the superiority of the proposed optimal MRL-based DS X chart, as the latter requires a smaller sample size on the average while maintaining the same detection speed as the two former charts. An example involving the added potassium sorbate in a yoghurt manufacturing process is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed MRL-based DS X chart in reducing the sample size needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry/methods; Food Industry/statistics & numerical data*
  16. Scott KP, Grimaldi R, Cunningham M, Sarbini SR, Wijeyesekera A, Tang MLK, et al.
    J. Appl. Microbiol., 2020 Apr;128(4):934-949.
    PMID: 31446668 DOI: 10.1111/jam.14424
    AIMS: The concept of using specific dietary components to selectively modulate the gut microbiota to confer a health benefit, defined as prebiotics, originated in 1995. In 2018, a group of scientists met at the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics annual meeting in Singapore to discuss advances in the prebiotic field, focussing on issues affecting functionality, research methodology and geographical differences.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: The discussion ranged from examining scientific literature supporting the efficacy of established prebiotics, to the prospects for establishing health benefits associated with novel compounds, isolated from different sources.

    CONCLUSIONS: While many promising candidate prebiotics from across the globe have been highlighted in preliminary research, there are a limited number with both demonstrated mechanism of action and defined health benefits as required to meet the prebiotic definition. Prebiotics are part of a food industry with increasing market sales, yet there are great disparities in regulations in different countries. Identification and commercialization of new prebiotics with unique health benefits means that regulation must improve and remain up-to-date so as not to risk stifling research with potential health benefits for humans and other animals.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: This summary of the workshop discussions indicates potential avenues for expanding the range of prebiotic substrates, delivery methods to enhance health benefits for the end consumer and guidance to better elucidate their activities in human studies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry/legislation & jurisprudence; Food Industry/standards*
  17. Al-Sheraji SH, Ismail A, Manap MY, Mustafa S, Yusof RM, Hassan FA
    J. Agric. Food Chem., 2011 Apr 27;59(8):3980-5.
    PMID: 21388187 DOI: 10.1021/jf103956g
    A dried high fiber product from bambangan (Mangifera pajang Kort.) fruit pulp was prepared and evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties, and soluble and insoluble dietary fiber composition. Mangifera pajang fibrous (MPF) consisted of 4.7% moisture, 0.8% fat, 4% protein, and 30 mg total polyphenol per g of dry sample, and 9, 79 and 88% soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber, respectively. Water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, swelling, and solubility were found to be 9 g/g dry sample, 4 g/g dry sample, 16 mL/g dry sample, and 11%, respectively. The glucose dialysis retardation index of MPF was approximately double that of cellulose fiber. Soluble dietary fiber contained mannose, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, erythrose, galactose, xylose, and fucose at 1.51, 0.72, 0.39, 0.16, 0.14, 0.05, 0.04, and 0.01%, respectively, with 5.8% uronic acid, while insoluble dietary fiber was composed of arabinose (18.47%), glucose (4.46%), mannose (3.15%), rhamnose (1.65%), galactose (1.20%), xylose (0.99%), and fucose (0.26%) with 15.5% uronic acid and 33.1% klason lignin. These characteristics indicate that MPF is a rich source of dietary fiber and has physicochemical properties which make it suitable as an added ingredient in various food products and/or dietetic, low-calorie high-fiber foods to enhance their nutraceutical properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry
  18. Abdullah, A.M., Hamidah, H., Alam, M.Z.
    Although one of the major users of flocculants are water and wastewater treatment industries, flocculants are also used in various food industries. The chemical flocculants are preferred widely in these industries due to low production cost and fast production ability. However, the negative effects of the chemical flocculants should not be neglected to gain the economic benefits only. Therefore, the researchers are working to discover efficient and economical flocculants from biological sources. Several attempts have been made and are still being made to extract or produce bioflocculants from natural sources such as plants, bacteria, fungi, yeast, algae, etc. The review revealed that significant amount of work have been done in the past, in search of bioflocculant. However, commercially viable bioflocculants are yet to be marketed widely. With the advent of new biotechnologies and advances in genetic engineering, the researchers are hopeful to discover or develop commercially viable, safe and environmentfriendly bioflocculants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry
  19. Tirmizi, L.I.T., Brand, H., Son, R., New, C.Y.
    Food Research, 2018;2(3):247-257.
    According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), globally 600 million people suffer
    from food-borne diseases (FBD), and 420,000 people die as a result. The European Food
    Safety Authority (EFSA) has stated that FBD are linked to the food industry, with the
    most common means of transmission being due to poor food handling and hygiene by
    food handlers working in the food industry. The aim of this research was to investigate the
    effectiveness of mandatory food handler training programmes (FHTP) to prevent FBD in
    Malaysia and Ireland. To do this, the FHTP existing in Malaysia and Ireland were
    analysed, in addition to the legislation they fall under in each respective country.
    Effectiveness was determined by investigating the level of food safety knowledge (FSK)
    and food safety practices (FSP) of food handlers in Malaysia and Ireland. A systematic
    literature review (SLR) and a narrative literature review (NLR) were conducted for this
    research. The SLR was based on the PRISMA diagram, using the Confidence in the
    Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research (CERQual) approach to evaluate the
    studies used for this research. A total of 8 Malaysian studies and 1 Irish study were used to
    determine the level of FSK and FSP of food handlers in each respective country, to
    examine the effectiveness of FHTP. The results of the studies used for this research have
    depicted overall good FSP and FSK of food handlers in Malaysia and Ireland; yet trends
    continue to show that food handlers are one of the biggest contributors to FBD,
    demonstrating that FHTP are not effective in preventing FBD. The findings from this
    research highlights that although these trainings can be an effective tool to prevent FBD, if
    they are not executed correctly, food handlers will continue to contribute to FBD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry
  20. Thung, T.Y., Lee, E., Tan, C.W., Malcolm, T.T.H., New, C.Y., Ramzi, O.S.B., et al.
    Food Research, 2018;2(5):404-414.
    Bacteriophages are ubiquitous in our world, mainly in the oceans, soil, the water and food
    we consume. They can be used efficiently in modern biotechnology, as well as alternatives
    to antibiotics for many antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. Phages can be used as vehicles
    for vaccines both DNA and protein, for the detection of pathogenic bacterial strain, as biocontrol
    agents in agriculture and food industry. This review outlines the properties as well
    as the influence of different external physical and chemical factors like temperature and
    acidity on phage persistence. A better understanding of the complex problem of phage
    sensitivity to external factors may be useful for other researchers working with phages.
    Furthermore, the applications of bacteriophages were described in this paper as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Industry
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