Displaying all 6 publications

  1. Yibadatihan S, Jinap S, Mahyudin NA
    PMID: 25396715 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2014.978396
    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a useful source of protein and energy for livestock. Recently, it has been used as an ingredient in poultry feed. Mycotoxin contamination of PKC due to inappropriate handling during production and storage has increased public concern about economic losses and health risks for poultry and humans. This concern has accentuated the need for the evaluation of mycotoxins in PKC. Furthermore, a method for quantifying mycotoxins in PKC has so far not been established. The aims of this study were therefore (1) to develop a method for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in PKC and (2) to validate and verify the method. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using an electrospray ionisation interface (ESI) in both positive- and negative-ion modes was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB₁, AFB₂, AFG₁ and AFG₂), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB₁ and FB₂), T-2 and HT-2 toxin in PKC. An optimum method using a 0.2 ml min⁻¹ flow rate, 0.2% formic acid in aqueous phase, 10% organic phase at the beginning and 90% organic phase at the end of the gradient was achieved. The extraction of mycotoxins was performed using a solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (79:20:1, v/v) without further clean-up. The mean recoveries of mycotoxins in spiked PKC samples ranged from 81% to 112%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) for mycotoxin standards and PKC samples ranged from 0.02 to 17.5 μg kg⁻¹ and from 0.06 to 58.0 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. Finally, the newly developed method was successfully applied to PKC samples. The results illustrated the fact that the method is efficient and accurate for the simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in PKC, which can be ideal for routine analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food-Processing Industry/economics
  2. Lim PN, Wu TY, Sim EY, Lim SL
    J Sci Food Agric, 2011 Nov;91(14):2637-42.
    PMID: 21725978 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4504
    Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one the most commonly consumed legumes worldwide, with 200 million metric tons produced per year. However, the inedible soy husk would usually be removed during the process and the continuous generation of soybean husk may represent a major disposal problem for soybean processing industries. Thus, the main aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility to convert soybean husk (S) amended with market-rejected papaya (P) into vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food-Processing Industry/economics
  3. Hajeb P, Jinap S, Shakibazadeh Sh, Afsah-Hejri L, Mohebbi GH, Zaidul IS
    PMID: 25090228 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2014.942707
    This study aims to optimise the operating conditions for the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of toxic elements from fish oil. The SFE operating parameters of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and extraction time were optimised using a central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). High coefficients of determination (R²) (0.897-0.988) for the predicted response surface models confirmed a satisfactory adjustment of the polynomial regression models with the operation conditions. The results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of pressure and temperature were the most significant (p < 0.05) variables affecting the overall responses. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous elimination of toxic elements comprised a pressure of 61 MPa, a temperature of 39.8ºC, a CO₂ flow rate of 3.7 ml min⁻¹ and an extraction time of 4 h. These optimised SFE conditions were able to produce fish oil with the contents of lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury reduced by up to 98.3%, 96.1%, 94.9% and 93.7%, respectively. The fish oil extracted under the optimised SFE operating conditions was of good quality in terms of its fatty acid constituents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food-Processing Industry/economics
  4. Abedin MZ, Karim AA, Ahmed F, Latiff AA, Gan CY, Che Ghazali F, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2013 Mar 30;93(5):1083-8.
    PMID: 22936269 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5854
    Sea cucumber (Stichopus vastus) is considered an underutilized resource, since only its stomach and intestines are eaten raw as salad in a few countries and the remaining parts, especially the integument rich in collagen, is discarded. Hence a valuable by-product having potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications is wasted. In the present investigation, pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) from the integument of S. vastus was isolated, purified and characterized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food-Processing Industry/economics
  5. Yew SE, Lim TJ, Lew LC, Bhat R, Mat-Easa A, Liong MT
    J Food Sci, 2011 Apr;76(3):H108-15.
    PMID: 21535834 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02107.x
    Probiotic delivery system was developed via the use of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) cross-linked soy protein isolate (SPI) incorporated with agrowastes such as banana peel (BE), banana pulp (BU), and pomelo rind (PR). Inoculums of Lactobacillus bulgaricus FTDC 1511 were added to the cross-linked protein matrix. The incorporation of agrowastes had significantly (P<0.05) reduced the strength, pH value, and the lightness of the SPI gel carriers, while sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles revealed that the occurring cross-links within the SPI gel carriers were attributed to the addition of MTG. Scanning electron microscope micrographs illustrated that SPI carriers containing agrowastes have exhibited a less-dense protein matrix. All the SPI carriers possessed maximum swelling ratio at 4 to 4.5 within 15 min in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), whereas the maximum swelling ratios of SPI/BE, SPI/BU, and SPI/PR were higher compared to that of control in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Additionally, SPI carriers in SGF medium did not show degradation of structure, whereas a major collapse of network was observed in SIF medium, indicating controlled-release in the intestines. The addition of agrowastes into SPI carriers led to a significantly (P<0.0001) lower release of L. bulgaricus FTDC 1511 in SGF medium and a higher release in SIF medium, compared to that of the control. SPI carriers containing agrowastes may be useful transports for living probiotic cells through the stomach prior to delivery in the lower intestines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food-Processing Industry/economics
  6. Abdul Aziz NA, Wong LM, Bhat R, Cheng LH
    J Sci Food Agric, 2012 Feb;92(3):557-63.
    PMID: 25363645 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4606
    Mango is a highly perishable seasonal fruit and large quantities are wasted during the peak season as a result of poor postharvest handling procedures. Processing surplus mango fruits into flour to be used as a functional ingredient appears to be a good preservation method to ensure its extended consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food-Processing Industry/economics
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