Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Yip E, Cacioli P
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2002 Aug;110(2 Suppl):S3-14.
    PMID: 12170237 DOI: 10.1067/mai.2002.124499
    Gloves that will provide a barrier of protection from infectious organisms are an essential feature of medical practice for the protection of both patients and medical personnel. Natural rubber latex has consistently been the most satisfactory raw material for the manufacture of gloves. Certain latex proteins, carried over into the finished product by inadequate manufacturing processes, may pose a risk of provoking allergic reactions in some patients and medical workers. As with any allergy, the risk depends on the route of exposure and dose. Hence, the method of manufacture, including the means used to coat gloves to make donning easy, can influence the eventual exposure of sensitive people to latex allergens. In this article, we describe the several processes in use and their effects on latex protein content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective*
  2. New, C.Y., Wong, C.Y., Usha, M., Ubong, A., Son, R., Nakaguchi, Y., et al.
    Food Research, 2017;1(2):33-37.
    Cross contamination is one of the most important contributing factors in foodborne illness
    originating in household environments. The objective of this research was to determine the
    transfer between naturally contaminated chicken liver and leg to cutting board, hand glove,
    knife and cucumber, during slicing. The microorganism tested was Campylobacter jejuni and
    the results showed that the pathogen transferred to all utensils, at different transfer rate, despite
    the low level of the naturally contaminating pathogen. With unknown concentration bacteria in
    the naturally contaminated samples, a proportion of the utensils were still contaminated with C.
    jejuni and not surprisingly, when the sample were contaminated with higher concentrations of
    the pathogen, a higher proportion of the utensils had detectable C. jejuni cells present, though
    in many cases cross contamination seems to be a random event. Transfer of the naturally
    contaminating C. jejuni from the chicken liver and leg to the utensils were
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective
  3. Tan, S.L., Cheng, P.L., Soon, H.K., Ghazali, H., Mahyudin, N.A.
    A study was conducted to determine personal hygiene knowledge among 25 food handlers at 12 selected primary schools in Klang Valley area, Selangor, Malaysia. A qualitative approach using in-depth interviews was employed and respondents were selected by a convenience sampling. The results showed that the respondents had basic knowledge on personal hygiene practices, mainly on hand washing (30.7%) and glove use (18.7%). The food handlers (90%) practiced various good hand washing practices, with only 36% did not practice washing hands after eating or drinking. Most respondents (>70%) practiced glove use, however more than 50% did not wash hands with every glove change, change gloves when change type of products and after preparing raw material. The study showed that the food handlers have basic knowledge one good personal hygiene practices. However, some discrepancies were revealed in the proper hand washing procedure. This study recommended good hand washing procedure to be reiterated among the food handlers. There is also an immediate need for continuous training among food handlers regarding good personal hygiene practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective
  4. Kahar Bador M, Rai V, Yusof MY, Kwong WK, Assadian O
    J. Hosp. Infect., 2015 Jul;90(3):248-52.
    PMID: 25982193 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2015.03.009
    Inappropriate use of medical gloves may support microbial transmission. New strategies could increase the safety of medical gloves without the risk of patient and surface contamination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective/microbiology*; Gloves, Protective/standards
  5. Das S
    ANZ J Surg, 2008 Nov;78(11):939.
    PMID: 18959687 DOI: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2008.04708.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective/adverse effects*
  6. Yeang HY, Arif SA, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Loke YH, Sander I, Sulong SH, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2004 Sep;114(3):593-8.
    PMID: 15356563 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.05.039
    Sensitization to natural rubber latex has been linked to proteins from medical latex gloves. Various assays to estimate the amount of residual allergenic proteins extractable from latex gloves to assess their potential exposure hazard have inherent weaknesses.

    This investigation was aimed at developing 2-site immunoenzymetric assays and identifying appropriate protein markers to assess the allergenic potential of latex gloves.

    The presence of 6 latex allergens--Hev b 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 13--was measured in a cross-section of commercial latex medical gloves by using monoclonal and polyclonal antibody-based 2-site immunoenzymetric assays. The overall allergenic potential of these gloves was assessed by IgE-inhibition assay. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to identify marker allergens that best explained the variation in latex glove allergenicity.

    All 6 latex allergens were detected in at least some of the glove samples. Hev b 5 and Hev b 13 were identified as the marker allergens that combined best to explain the variation in the glove allergenicity. The significant multiple correlation (R=0.855) between these 2 markers and glove allergenic potency forms the basis of an assay to gauge latex glove allergenicity.

    The overall allergenic potential of latex gloves can be estimated by using Hev b 5 and Hev b 13 as indicator allergens. The correlation between glove allergenicity and the level of these allergens was maintained for low-protein gloves (<200 microg/g). This estimation of glove allergenicity was superior to that obtained by using total protein readings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective/adverse effects*
  7. Allmers H
    Contact Derm., 2001 Jan;44(1):30-3.
    PMID: 11156008
    72 subjects reporting symptoms indicating Type I hypersensitivity reactions to natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves were included in this study. 44 of them had a positive prick test to NRL. They underwent wearing tests using 2 types of NRL gloves with high (n=63) and low (n=70) allergen contents. Unigloves Malaysia with a high allergen content caused positive skin reactions in 47% of SPT-positive and no IgE-negative subjects. After application of Hand Sense skin protection cream, the frequency of positive skin responses in wearing tests decreased to 30% in prick-test-positive subjects. The Biogel Diagnostic gloves with low allergen caused hypersensitivity with and without Hand Sense in 2 cases (5%) of the prick-test-positive. 60% of all test participants had a positive prick test to NRL. No prick-test-negative subjects showed any urticaria during the glove-wearing test. Our study demonstrates that high allergen contents in latex gloves frequently elicit skin responses in NRL-sensitized subjects. Since other skin protection creams have shown to increase allergic symptoms, it is encouraging to report that Hand Sense skin cream may hamper the uptake of allergens from gloves, thus decreasing allergic reactions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective/adverse effects*
  8. Md Rezali KA, Griffin MJ
    Ergonomics, 2018 Sep;61(9):1246-1258.
    PMID: 29628001 DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2018.1462407
    This study investigated effects of applied force on the apparent mass of the hand, the dynamic stiffness of glove materials and the transmission of vibration through gloves to the hand. For 10 subjects, 3 glove materials and 3 contact forces, apparent masses and glove transmissibilities were measured at the palm and at a finger at frequencies in the range 5-300 Hz. The dynamic stiffnesses of the materials were also measured. With increasing force, the dynamic stiffnesses of the materials increased, the apparent mass at the palm increased at frequencies greater than the resonance and the apparent mass at the finger increased at low frequencies. The effects of force on transmissibilities therefore differed between materials and depended on vibration frequency, but changes in apparent mass and dynamic stiffness had predictable effects on material transmissibility. Depending on the glove material, the transmission of vibration through a glove can be increased or decreased when increasing the applied force. Practitioner summary: Increasing the contact force (i.e. push force or grip force) can increase or decrease the transmission of vibration through a glove. The vibration transmissibilities of gloves should be assessed with a range of contact forces to understand their likely influence on the exposure of the hand and fingers to vibration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective*
  9. Ismail I, Gaskin S, Pisaniello D, Edwards JW
    Ind Health, 2018 Apr 07;56(2):166-170.
    PMID: 29199264 DOI: 10.2486/indhealth.2017-0157
    Elbow length PVC gloves are often recommended for protection against organophosphorus pesticide (OP) exposure in agriculture. However, performance may be reduced due to high temperature, UV exposure and abrasion. We sought to assess these impacts for two OPs under normal use and reasonable worst-case scenarios. Glove permeation tests were conducted using ASTM cells with two PVC glove brands at 23°C and 45°C for up to 8 h. Technical grade dichlorvos and formulated diazinon were used undiluted and at application strength. Breakthough of undiluted dichlorvos occurred at both 23°C and 45°C, but only at 45°C for application strength. Breakthrough of diazinon was not achieved, except when undiluted at 45°C. UV-exposed and abraded gloves showed reduced performance, with the effect being approximately two-fold for dichlorvos. Only small differences were noted between glove brands. Extra precautions should be taken when handling concentrated OPs at high temperature, or when using abraded or sunlight-exposed gloves.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective/standards*
  10. Devaraj, V., Zairossani, M.N.
    ASM Science Journal, 2012;6(1):15-21.
    Malaysia is the world’s top manufacturer of examination and surgical natural rubber (NR) gloves, exported mainly to the USA and Europe. The glove manufacturing process yields effluent which must be treated to comply with the stringent regulatory requirements imposed by the Malaysian Department of Environment. To make glove manufacturing an eco-friendly process, efforts are geared towards minimizing and utilizing waste or converting it into raw material for making value-added products. Waste generated from the glove industry is mainly rubber sludge which is obtained from the chemical flocculation stage of the effluent treatment process and consists of mainly rubber, remnants of compounding ingredients and water. R&D work by the Malaysian Rubber Board on waste utilization and resource recovery investigations have revealed many uses for this sludge. This paper briefly outlines only one of the many options available, which is the conversion of the sludge into sludge derived fuel (SDF). Preliminary study has identified three formulations of SDF with calorific values (CV) exceeding 16 000 kJ/kg, matching a good grade coal. This was considered as promising results which warrant explorative work for further increasing the CV of SDF to turn it into a viable fuel substitute in the latex products manufacturing industry and subsequently apply for a Clean Development Mechanism status to generate income.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective
  11. Faller EM, Bin Miskam N, Pereira A
    Ann Glob Health, 2018 08 31;84(3):338-341.
    PMID: 30835385 DOI: 10.29024/aogh.2316
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Healthcare workers are prone to occupational hazards. The study aims to identify the occupational health hazards among healthcare workers in the Philippines and its essential relevant developmental framework. This article evolved on the responses of participants on how they can improve strategies and barriers for healthcare workers to comply with Occupational Health and Safety (OSH).

    METHODS: A qualitative study design in which 15 healthcare workers from nurses (4), pharmacists (3), medical technologies (4) and medical doctors (4) participated: two focus group of three to four participants each and eight in-depth interviews. The thematic sessions were identified, including occupational health and safety policy implementations, hazards experiences, barriers, and strategies for quality improvement for OSH. Focus groups and interviews using transcript-based analysis were identified relating to emerging themes on the challenges they had experienced while accessing provisions of OSH in their workplace.

    RESULTS: Majority of the participants revealed the existence of policy on Occupational Health and Safety (provisions, guidelines and regulations on OHS from the government) and mentioned that there were limited OHS officers to supervise the healthcare workers in their workplace. Some have limited accessibility to the requirements of the implementation of OHS (free facemasks, gloves, disinfectants, machines, OSH staff, etc.) among healthcare workers, while the workload of the staff in the implementation of OHS in the workplace gradually increased. The results indicated that the respondents were knowledgeable in the implementation of OHS in the workplace, and that there was no existing ASEAN framework on the protection and promotion of the rights of healthcare workers in their workplace. Facilities need to improve health assessment, and to ensure constant evaluation of the existing laws for healthcare workers (quality assurance of existing policies) in their working areas. Direct access to OSH officers, occupational hazards education, emergency contact etc. must be improved. Adherence must be strengthened to fully comply with the OHS standards.

    CONCLUSION: The researchers inferred that issues and concerns regarding compliance on provisions of occupational health and safety among health care workers must be properly addressed through immediate monitoring and reevaluation of personnel in terms of their knowledge and practices in OHS. Barriers and challenges have been identified in the study that can lead to improved compliance among healthcare workers in regards to OHS.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective
  12. Hazwani Syaza Ahmad, Hanafi Ismail, Azura Abd Rashid
    Sains Malaysiana, 2015;44:835-842.
    Epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-50) has been used as a compatibilizer for natural rubber-recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene
    rubber (NR/NBRr) blends, vulcanized by sulfur. NBR gloves have excellent resistance to punctures, tear and many types
    of chemicals, while NR has good physical and mechanical properties. Incorporation of ENR-50 into the rubber blends
    has improved processability, stiffness, resilience and excellent oil resistance. NR/NBRr blends were prepared by two-roll
    mill with five different compositions with the ENR-50 content fixed at 10 phr. Cure characteristics, mechanical properties
    and morphology (SEM) studies were performed to determine the compatibility of NR/NBRr blends in the presence of ENR-
    50. The cure characteristics showed that NR/NBRr blends with the presence of ENR-50 have lower scorch time (ts2) and
    cure time (t90) than NR/NBRr blends without ENR-50. However, the NR/NBRr blends with ENR-50 exhibited higher minimum
    torque (ML
    ) and maximum torque (MH) which indicated difficult processability of the blends after compatibilization.
    Incorporation of ENR-50 into NR/NBRr blends improved all the tensile properties (tensile strength, tensile modulus and
    elongation at break) compared with NR/NBRr blends without ENR-50. The improvement in hardness upon compatibilization
    is due to an increase in crosslink density. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images) of the fracture surfaces indicates
    that, with the addition of ENR-50 in NR/NBRr blends, better adhesion between NR and NBRr was obtained, thus improving
    the compatibility of NR/NBRr blends.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective
  13. Katherason SG, Naing L, Jaalam K, Nik Mohamad NA, Bhojwani K, Harussani ND, et al.
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2010 Mar 08;4(2):118-23.
    PMID: 20212345
    BACKGROUND: Hand decontamination is a critical infection control practice in the prevention of nosocomial infection. This study was conducted to observe the hand hygiene practices of nurses and doctors in two intensive care units (ICUs) in Malaysia.

    METHODOLOGY: Staff members were observed during patient contacts, and their hand washing techniques and hand hygiene practices were monitored. Five contact periods were observed for staff members while they cared for their assigned patients. Hand hygiene practices before and after patient contacts were categorized as clean uncontaminated, clean recontaminated, new gloves, and unchanged contaminated gloves. Compliance to hand-washing steps and time taken for hand washing were analyzed. Appropriate use of gloves based on CDC criteria also was assessed.

    RESULTS: Compliance to hand hygiene practices was 70% before each patient contact. Staff members did not completely adhere to the hand-washing steps. The average time taken to wash hands was 20 seconds, and the necessary steps (rubbing palm over dorsum; rubbing fingers interlaced, and rotational rubbing of thumbs) were practiced minimally by all staff. Hand washing protocol was generally followed by all staff (100%). Alcohol hand rubs were available but were used moderately (60%); when used, staff members did not wait for the alcohol to dry. Only 4% of staff changed contaminated gloves between patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: Hand hygiene compliance by ICU staff members needs to be improved. Improving adherence to correct hand hygiene techniques will require effective education programs and behavioral modification techniques. Moreover, hand hygiene guidelines must be incorporated into new staff orientation programs and the continuing education curriculum in the two hospitals studied.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective/statistics & numerical data*
  14. Chaubal TV, Bapat RA, Patil PG, Shetty A
    Contact Derm., 2016 Oct;75(4):256-7.
    PMID: 27620128 DOI: 10.1111/cod.12625
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective/adverse effects*
  15. Naing L, Nordin R, Musa R
    PMID: 11944730
    Increasing risk of HIV infections among health care workers has been a continuing concern. The study was designed to identify the compliance of glove utilization, and factors related to non-compliance. A sample of 150 staff nurses were recruited from the study population of 550 nurses in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. Data were collected by using a structured self-administered questionnaires. The response rate was 98.4%. The study revealed a low compliance (13.5%) of glove utilization (for all 9 procedures), which varied among different procedures (27-97%). Younger nurses and those with shorter duration of working experience had better knowledge of Universal Precautions. Nurses in intensive care unit and operation theatre were better in both knowledge and compliance of glove utilization. The three commonest misconceptions were identified as "selective use of gloves for high risk groups and suspected cases", and "tendency to depend on HIV prevalence". Nurses reported practical problems including administrative and personal related such as "stock irregularity" (46%), "glove not available at the emergency sites" (44%), and "reduction of tactile sensation" (39%). It was concluded that poor knowledge and practical problems were possible responsible factors for the low compliance. A good training for nurses comprising principle and practice of Universal Precautions, updated knowledge of blood and body fluid borne infections and risk and its management, will probably improve the compliance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective/utilization*
  16. Hamilton RG, Adkinson NF
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 1996 Nov;98(5 Pt 1):872-83.
    PMID: 8939150
    BACKGROUND: Nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and rubber glove extracts are the only sources of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) latex that have potential for use as skin testing reagents in the diagnosis of latex allergy. Their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as skin test reagents are unknown.

    OBJECTIVE: We conducted a phase 1/2 clinical study to examine the safety and diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and rubber glove extracts as skin test extracts to identify the most efficacious source material for future skin test reagent development.

    METHODS: Twenty-four adults not allergic to latex, 19 adults with hand dermatitis or pruritus, and 59 adults with a latex allergy were identified by clinical history. All provided blood and then received puncture skin tests and intradermal skin tests with nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and rubber glove extracts from Malaysian H. brasiliensis latex by use of sequential titration. A glove provocation test and IgE anti-latex RAST were used to clarify positive history-negative skin test response and negative history-positive skin test response mismatches.

    RESULTS: All three extracts were biologically safe and sterile. After normalization to 1 mg/ml of total protein, all three extracts produced equivalent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in puncture skin tests and intradermal skin tests at various extract concentrations. Optimal diagnostic accuracy was safely achieved at 100 micrograms/ml for intradermal skin tests (e.g., nonammoniated latex: puncture skin test sensitivity 96%, specificity 100%; intradermal skin test sensitivity 93%, specificity 96%). The presence of IgE antibody in skin was highly correlated with IgE anti-latex in serum (nonammoniated latex: r = 0.98, p < 0.001; ammoniated latex: r = 0.94, p < 0.001; rubber glove extract: r = 0.96, p < 0.001). All five available subjects with a positive history, negative skin test response, and absence of IgE antibody in serum had a negative glove provocation test response, indicating no clinical evidence of latex allergy. No systemic or large local allergic reactions were observed with puncture skin tests or intradermal skin tests.

    CONCLUSIONS: Equivalent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were observed with the nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and rubber glove extract skin test reagents after normalization for total protein; nonammoniated latex may be considered the reagent of choice on the basis of practical quality control and reproducibility considerations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective*
  17. Yeang HY, Chow KS, Yusof F, Arif SA, Chew NP, Loke YH
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol, 2000 Jul-Aug;10(4):215-22.
    PMID: 11039838
    Six Hevea brasiliensis latex protein allergens, Hevb 1, Hev b 2, Hev b 3, Hev b 4, and two variants of Hev b 7 (7b and 7c), were purified from Hevea latex, while a seventh protein, Hev b 5, was prepared in recombinant form. The presence of these proteins in glove extracts was indicated by their respective antibodies in the serum of rabbits immunized against the extracts. The relative propensities of IgE binding to the individual latex allergens were compared using sera from latex-allergic patients. IgE recognition of Hev b 4, Hev b 7b, Hev b 5 and Hev b 2 was most frequently encountered, with 75, 61, 31 and 28%, respectively, of the patient sera reacting. Sensitivity to multiple latex proteins was common, and out of the 31 seropositive patients, 23 (74%/ ) had IgE against at least two latex allergens, while 12 (39%) had IgE specific for at least three allergens. Statistical analysis of the data suggested that many patients might have acquired sensitivity to Hev b 2, Hev b 4 and Hev b 7b from a common source. (e.g., from latex products). On the other hand, sensitivity to Hev b 5 and to Hev b 7c were interrelated. It is plausible that sensitivity to these two proteins might have been acquired from sources other than latex products (e.g., from certain foods).
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective
  18. Boyle DK, Forsyth A, Bagg J, Stroubou K, Griffiths CE, Burke FJ
    J Dent, 2002 Jul-Aug;30(5-6):233-41.
    PMID: 12450714
    Glove wearing during patient treatment has been central to dental surgery infection control for over 15 years. However, little is known about the cutaneous effects of glove wearing on the hands of dental healthcare workers (DHCWs). The objective of this project was to assess the hand skin health of DHCWs before and after wearing gloves of two types and to compare this with a control group of non-DHCWs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gloves, Protective
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