Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

  1. Premalatha GD, Ravindran J
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2000 Mar;55(1):146-51; quiz 152.
    PMID: 11072503
    The number of women in the workforce in increasing. A substantial proportion are in the reproductive age which brings to attention the problem of work exposures that adversely affect reproductive outcome. These exposures include chemicals, radiation, strenuous physical activity and infections. They affect reproduction by effect on the germ cells, through hormonal distribution which in turn affects transport of germ cells or zygote, implantation and development. Some of these exposures are teratogenic. At present, some regulations and policies seem to be directed at women workers while there is evidence to show that women are not the only victims. Paternal exposures have also been reported to be associated with infertility, spontaneous abortions and other adverse outcomes. There is insufficient information about reproductive effects of work exposures and hence further research is required in this area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/adverse effects
  2. Tan CC
    Scand J Work Environ Health, 1991 Aug;17(4):221-30.
    PMID: 1925433
    Nurses are an integral component of the health care delivery system. In discharging their duties, nurses encounter a variety of occupational health problems which may be categorized into biological hazards, chemical hazards, physical hazards, and psychosocial hazards. A review of some examples of each of these four types of hazards is presented in this article. Particular attention has been devoted to hepatitis B, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, tuberculosis, cytotoxic drugs, anesthetic agents, needlestick injury, back pain, and stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/adverse effects
  3. Rahim, Z.H.A.
    Ann Dent, 1998;5(1):-.
    Saliva collection is non-invasive and less stressful when compared with blood collection. Extensive studies on saliva has been carried out and the use of saliva as a biological sample in clinical diagnosis and for monitoring hormones, drugs and pollutants and viruses has been recommended. The complexities associated with saliva such as proper collection device and strict standardisation of a number of factors which include time of collection, types of saliva and storage made it less favourable to blood.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances
  4. Ho, C. L. I., Choo, B. Q.
    In this paper, stormwater runoff from a residential catchment located in Miri, Sarawak, was characterized to determine the pollutant concentrations and loading. The observed average event mean concentrations were 116 mg/L for TSS, 115 mg/L for COD, 1.5 mg/L for NH3-N, and 0.23 mg/L for Pb. Based on Interim National Water Quality Standards (INWQS) for Malaysia, the average event mean concentration, EMC value for TSS exceeded class II (50 mg/L), exceeded class V (>100 mg/L) for COD, and exceeded class III (0.9 mg/L) for NH3-N. All four water quality parameters exhibited first flush characteristic but to varying magnitude which was influenced by the storm characteristics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances
  5. Hayyan M, Hashim MA, Hayyan A, Al-Saadi MA, AlNashef IM, Mirghani ME, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2013 Feb;90(7):2193-5.
    PMID: 23200570 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.11.004
    In continuation of investigation for environmentally benign protocol for new solvents termed deep eutectic solvents (DESs), it is herein reported results concerning the toxicity and cytotoxicity of choline chloride (ChCl) based DESs with four hydrogen bond donors including glycerine, ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and urea. The toxicity was investigated using two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cytotoxicity effect was tested using the Artemia salina leach. It was found that there was no toxic effect for the tested DESs on all of the studied bacteria confirming their benign effects on these bacteria. Nevertheless, it was found that the cytotoxicity of DESs was much higher than their individual components (e.g. glycerine, ChCl) indicating that their toxicological behavior is different. For our best knowledge this is the first time that toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs were studied. The toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs varied depending on the structure of components. Careful usage of the terms non-toxicity and biodegradability must be considered. More investigation on this matter is required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/toxicity*
  6. Ta GC, Mokhtar MB, Peterson PJ, Yahaya NB
    Ind Health, 2011;49(6):765-73.
    PMID: 22020020
    The European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have applied different approaches to facilitate the implementation of the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The EU applied the mandatory approach by gazetting the EU Regulation 1272/2008 incorporating GHS elements on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures in 2008; whereas the WHO utilized a voluntary approach by incorporating GHS elements in the WHO guidelines entitled 'WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard' in 2009. We report on an analysis of both the mandatory and voluntary approaches practised by the EU and the WHO respectively, with close reference to the GHS 'purple book'. Our findings indicate that the mandatory approach practiced by the EU covers all the GHS elements referred to in the second revised edition of the GHS 'purple book'. Hence we can conclude that the EU has implemented the GHS particularly for industrial chemicals. On the other hand, the WHO guidelines published in 2009 should be revised to address concerns raised in this paper. In addition, both mandatory and voluntary approaches should be carefully examined because the classification results may be different.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/classification*
  7. Inayat-Hussain SH, Fukumura M, Muiz Aziz A, Jin CM, Jin LW, Garcia-Milian R, et al.
    Environ Int, 2018 08;117:348-358.
    PMID: 29793188 DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.05.010
    BACKGROUND: Recent trends have witnessed the global growth of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production. Epidemiologic studies have suggested associations between proximity to UOG operations with increased adverse birth outcomes and cancer, though specific potential etiologic agents have not yet been identified. To perform effective risk assessment of chemicals used in UOG production, the first step of hazard identification followed by prioritization specifically for reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity is crucial in an evidence-based risk assessment approach. To date, there is no single hazard classification list based on the United Nations Globally Harmonized System (GHS), with countries applying the GHS standards to generate their own chemical hazard classification lists. A current challenge for chemical prioritization, particularly for a multi-national industry, is inconsistent hazard classification which may result in misjudgment of the potential public health risks. We present a novel approach for hazard identification followed by prioritization of reproductive toxicants found in UOG operations using publicly available regulatory databases.

    METHODS: GHS classification for reproductive toxicity of 157 UOG-related chemicals identified as potential reproductive or developmental toxicants in a previous publication was assessed using eleven governmental regulatory agency databases. If there was discordance in classifications across agencies, the most stringent classification was assigned. Chemicals in the category of known or presumed human reproductive toxicants were further evaluated for carcinogenicity and germ cell mutagenicity based on government classifications. A scoring system was utilized to assign numerical values for reproductive health, cancer and germ cell mutation hazard endpoints. Using a Cytoscape analysis, both qualitative and quantitative results were presented visually to readily identify high priority UOG chemicals with evidence of multiple adverse effects.

    RESULTS: We observed substantial inconsistencies in classification among the 11 databases. By adopting the most stringent classification within and across countries, 43 chemicals were classified as known or presumed human reproductive toxicants (GHS Category 1), while 31 chemicals were classified as suspected human reproductive toxicants (GHS Category 2). The 43 reproductive toxicants were further subjected to analysis for carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Calculated hazard scores and Cytoscape visualization yielded several high priority chemicals including potassium dichromate, cadmium, benzene and ethylene oxide.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal diverging GHS classification outcomes for UOG chemicals across regulatory agencies. Adoption of the most stringent classification with application of hazard scores provides a useful approach to prioritize reproductive toxicants in UOG and other industries for exposure assessments and selection of safer alternatives.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/analysis*
  8. Kravchenko J, Corsini E, Williams MA, Decker W, Manjili MH, Otsuki T, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2015 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S111-27.
    PMID: 26002081 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgv033
    An increasing number of studies suggest an important role of host immunity as a barrier to tumor formation and progression. Complex mechanisms and multiple pathways are involved in evading innate and adaptive immune responses, with a broad spectrum of chemicals displaying the potential to adversely influence immunosurveillance. The evaluation of the cumulative effects of low-dose exposures from the occupational and natural environment, especially if multiple chemicals target the same gene(s) or pathway(s), is a challenge. We reviewed common environmental chemicals and discussed their potential effects on immunosurveillance. Our overarching objective was to review related signaling pathways influencing immune surveillance such as the pathways involving PI3K/Akt, chemokines, TGF-β, FAK, IGF-1, HIF-1α, IL-6, IL-1α, CTLA-4 and PD-1/PDL-1 could individually or collectively impact immunosurveillance. A number of chemicals that are common in the anthropogenic environment such as fungicides (maneb, fluoxastrobin and pyroclostrobin), herbicides (atrazine), insecticides (pyridaben and azamethiphos), the components of personal care products (triclosan and bisphenol A) and diethylhexylphthalate with pathways critical to tumor immunosurveillance. At this time, these chemicals are not recognized as human carcinogens; however, it is known that they these chemicalscan simultaneously persist in the environment and appear to have some potential interfere with the host immune response, therefore potentially contributing to promotion interacting with of immune evasion mechanisms, and promoting subsequent tumor growth and progression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/adverse effects*; Hazardous Substances/immunology*
  9. Karwowski MP, Morman SA, Plumlee GS, Law T, Kellogg M, Woolf AD
    Environ Geochem Health, 2017 Oct;39(5):1133-1143.
    PMID: 27704308 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-016-9881-6
    Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13-18 mcg/dL, reference level <5 mcg/dL) in a 9-month-old infant, linked to a non-commercial Malaysian folk diaper powder. Analyses showed the powder contains 62 % lead by weight (primarily lead oxide) and elevated antimony [1000 parts per million (ppm)], arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm). These metals are highly bioaccessible in simulated gastric fluids, but only slightly bioaccessible in simulated lung fluids and simulated urine, suggesting that the primary lead exposure routes were ingestion via hand-mouth transmission and ingestion of inhaled dusts cleared from the respiratory tract. Four weeks after discontinuing use of the powder, the infant's venous blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/analysis; Hazardous Substances/blood
  10. Anuar, I., Zahedi, F., Kadir, A., Mokhtar, A.B.
    Background: The occupationally acquired accident and injuries in Malaysian medical laboratories are still largely unexplored prior to this survey. Some of these questions are attempted in this survey and act as source of reference for the number and accident injuries in medical laboratories in the area of Klang Valley and also in Malaysia.
    Methods : This survey was carried out based on recordable cases throughout the calendar year of 2001 to 2005 from 3 main medical laboratories of Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) and Pusat Perubatan Universiti Malaya (PPUM).
    Results : The average annual incident rate for this three medical laboratories is 2.05/100 full time equivalent (FTE) employees. The annual incident rate in individual medical laboratory is 2.04/100 FTE (HKL), 2.07/100 FTE (HUKM) and 2.04/100 FTE (PPUM) employees, respectively. The most common injury that is 25.3% of the total cases reported was due to cuts by sharp objects and the second most common injury was exposure to biohazard and chemical substances which constitutes 19.9% of the total cases. . Needle prick injury (16.8%), fire (8.4%), fall/slip (6.3%) and gases leak and locked in cold room were reported as one case each.
    Conclusion : The average incident rate from this study is remarkably similar compared with the incident injury rate reported by BLS (2006) which is 2.1/100 FTE in the average size of medical laboratory and diagnostic. Besides this incident rate of injury and illness as a comparison, it also can be used as a benchmark to evaluate the safety performance among medical laboratories in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances
  11. Alina, M., Azrina, A., Mohd Yunus, A.S., Mohd Zakiuddin, S., Mohd Izuan Effendi, H., Muhammad Rizal, R.
    Level of heavy metals in marine ecosystem has been intensively studied during recent years as these hazardous substances could be accumulated in the biota. Generally, the presence of contaminants in fish is a result of human activities such as industrial and agricultural wastes. In this study, the marine fish and shellfish from the Straits of Malacca were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) and Flow Injection Mercury System (FIMS) for Cd, As and Pb and Hg, respectively. The Straits of Malacca is one of the busiest shipping routes in the world that make the level of heavy metals potentially high besides the various industrial activities along the west region of Peninsular Malaysia. The range of heavy metals in samples were 1.0-3-6.5-3 µg/ g wet sample for Hg, 0.5-2-47-2 µg/ g wet sample for Cd, 0.01-0.39 µg/ g wet sample for Pb and 0.14-6.57 µg/ g wet sample for As. Most part of the values was below the permitted limit set by FAO/WHO 2004 as well as Food Act 1983 and Food Regulations 1985. Therefore it can be generalized that fish and shellfish from the Straits of Malacca are safe to consume in terms of these heavy metals concentrationand do not constitute a risk for human health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances
  12. Nor Halim Hasan, Said, M.R., Leman, A.M.
    Engineering control is a method of controlling the risk of exposure to contaminants. Health effects to industrial workers are more severe whilst high exposure and time exposed to contaminants at workplace. Installation of industrial ventilation or local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system is the proposed method to reduce the risk. This paper discusses the past, present and future relating to LEV system in Malaysia. Current issues related to monitoring reported by Hygiene Technician in compliance with Occupational Safety and Health (Use of Standard Chemical Hazardous to Health Regulation 2000) carried out in several states in Malaysia as a sample. The nanotechnology is a new area at present and future. The involvement of government, employers and employees need to be justified due to the attention to prevent and control of any exposure. It is suggested that using the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation, a new design of LEV system can be upgraded and predicted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances
  13. Hutagalung SD, Kam CL, Darsono T
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:267-272.
    Many techniques have been applied to fabricate nanostructures via top-down approach such as electron beam lithography. However, most of the techniques are very complicated and involves many process steps, high cost operation as well as the use of hazardous chemicals. Meanwhile, atomic force microscopy (AFM) lithography is a simple technique which is considered maskless and involves only an average cost and less complexity. In AFM lithography, the movement of a probe tip can be controlled to create nanoscale patterns on sample surface. For silicon nanowire (SiNW) fabrication, a conductive tip was operated in non-contact AFM mode to grow nanoscale oxide patterns on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer surface based on local anodic oxidation (LAO) mechanism. The patterned structure was etched through two steps of wet etching processes. First, the TMAH was used as the etchant solution for Si removing. In the second step, diluted HF was used to remove oxide mask in order to produce a completed SiNW based devices. A SiNW based device which is formed by a nanowire channel, source and drain pads with lateral gate structures can be fabricated by well controlling the lithography process (applied tip voltage and writing speed) as well as the etching processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances
  14. Halmi, M.I.E.
    The rise in pollution cases globally is expected to increase in line with industrialization.
    Monitoring activities for pollutants have been hampered by the astronomical costs of
    instrumental-based approach. This has resulted in the intense research on low cost
    biomonitoring systems using enzymes, organisms including microorganisms. Only positive
    samples are sent for instrumental analysis; dramatically cutting the cost of instrumental
    analysis. This review attempts to outline and give due recognition to several selected bioassay
    systems that have been tested for their applicability using polluted water samples as a routine
    first line-of-defense. This includes small aquatic organisms-based assays, enzymes especially
    proteases and bacterial-based systems using respiratory dye or luminescence systems as a
    method for toxicant detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances
  15. NurKhairlida Muhamad Khai, Khai EL, Mazlin Mokhta, Choo TG, Marlia Mohd Hanafiah, Chan PW, et al.
    Chemical industry is one of the important industries in the world. However, incidents happened due to the release of hazardous materials, toxic and poisonous chemicals in the chemical industries can cause fatal to human and destruction of the environment. Learning from the Bhopal disaster's experience, chemical industries have developed a program - Responsible Care, aiming to regain public trust through improving the environment, health and safety performances. Malaysia has adopted Responsible Care program since 1994 under the stewardship of the Chemical Industries Council of Malaysia (CICM). Six codes of management practices have been developed by the CICM, covering distribution, community awareness and emergency response, pollution prevention, process safety, employee health & safety and product stewardship. It has been more than 20 years since its inception. However, to date, there are only 125 companies have signed the pledge to adopt Responsible Care program. The CICM has also conducted several initiatives to encourage participation of chemical companies to adopt Responsible Care program in Malaysia. Therefore, it is the aim of this paper to review the current status of Responsible Care program in Malaysia and also deliberate the way forward of this program.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances
  16. Syimir Fizal AN, Sohrab Hossain M, Alkarkhi AFM, Oyekanmi AA, Hashim SRM, Khalil NA, et al.
    Heliyon, 2019 Aug;5(8):e02368.
    PMID: 31485542 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02368
    Understanding the tanker driver hazard awareness on chemical exposure is important to ensure that they are fortified with the appropriate information regarding the risk of their occupation. This present study was conducted to determine the awareness of the petrol tanker driver on the chemical exposure during transportation petroleum product. The assessment on hazardous awareness of the petrol tank driver was conducted through questionnaire survey. Wherein, the questionnaire was designed with considering the variables of age of the driver, working experience, working hours in a day and knowledge on chemical hazard presence in the petroleum oil. A reliability test of Cronbach's Alpha was performed to validate the questionnaire and the Chi-Square test was conducted to determine the correlation among the studied variables. The findings of the present study revealed that the drivers who are frequently come into direct contact with petrol cannot identify the spillage had occurred during working. The study identified that there is an urgency to conduct training on safe handling of petroleum oil in order to eliminate the risk of chemical hazards exposure to the tanker driver.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances
  17. Adira Wan Khalit WN, Tay KS
    Environ Sci Process Impacts, 2016 May 18;18(5):555-61.
    PMID: 27062128 DOI: 10.1039/c6em00017g
    Mefenamic acid (Mfe) is one of the most frequently detected nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the environment. This study investigated the kinetics and the transformation by-products of Mfe during aqueous chlorination. The potential ecotoxicity of the transformation by-products was also evaluated. In the kinetic study, the second-order rate constant (kapp) for the reaction between Mfe and free available chlorine (FAC) was determined at 25 ± 0.1 °C. The result indicated that the degradation of Mfe by FAC is highly pH-dependent. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, it was found that the kapp for the reaction between Mfe and FAC was decreased from 16.44 to 4.4 M(-1) s(-1). Characterization of the transformation by-products formed during the chlorination of Mfe was carried out using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight accurate mass spectrometry. Four major transformation by-products were identified. These transformation by-products were mainly formed through hydroxylation, chlorination and oxidation reactions. Ecotoxicity assessment revealed that transformation by-products, particularly monohydroxylated Mfe which is more toxic than Mfe, can be formed during aqueous chlorination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/chemistry*
  18. Rampal KG, Mohd Nizam J
    Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2006 Nov;46(2):131-5.
    PMID: 16899331
    In Malaysia exposures in the workplace are regulated under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 and also under the more comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) enacted in 1994. With OSHA 1994 the philosophy of legislating safety and health in the workplace changed from one that was very prescriptive and containing detailed technical provisions under FMA, 1967 to one that is more flexible and encourages self-regulation under OSHA 1994. OSHA 1994 is supported by regulations, codes of practices and guidelines to further clarify the provisions in the Act. Under the FMA 1967 emphasis was on safety while with OSHA 1994 there has been equal emphasis on addressing health hazards in the workplace. Regulations for occupational exposures are developed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with tripartite and stakeholder consultation. When developing these regulations International Labor Organization Conventions, laws of other countries and occupational exposure standards adopted internationally are reviewed. The government also conducts surveys to collect information on both exposures and health effects in workplaces to have better understanding on specific occupational health problems. Effective law enforcement is crucial in ensuring compliance to safety and health law. The challenge at the moment is to ensure all employers and employees, particularly those in the small and medium enterprises, understand and comply with the provisions stipulated in the legislation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/analysis*
  19. College of Pathologists, Academy of Medicine of, Malaysia
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Jun;27(1):71-2.
    PMID: 16676698
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/standards*
  20. Pakpahan EN, Isa MH, Kutty SR, Chantara S, Wiriya W
    Environ Technol, 2013 Jan-Feb;34(1-4):407-16.
    PMID: 23530354
    Petroleum sludge is a hazardous waste that contains various organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which have carcinogenic-mutagenic and toxic characteristics. This study focuses on the thermal treatment (indirect heating) of petroleum sludge cake for PAH degradation at 250, 450, and 650 degrees C using Ca(OH)2 + NaHCO3 as an additive. The treatment was conducted in a rotary drum electric heater. All experiments were carried out in triplicate. Concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in gas (absorbed on Amberlite XAD-4 adsorbent), particulate (on quartz filter) and residue phases were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The samples were extracted with acetonitrile by ultra-sonication prior to GC-MS analysis. The use of additive was beneficial and a temperature of 450 degrees C was suitable for PAH degradation. Low levels of PAH emissions, particularly carcinogenic PAH and toxic equivalent concentration (sigma TEC), were observed in gas, particulate and residue phases after treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances*
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