A1. The post discharge stroke care services in Malaysia: a pilot analysis of self-reported practices of family medicine specialists at public health centres
Authors: Aznida Firzah Abdul Aziz, Nor Azah Aziz, Saperi Sulong and Syed Mohamed Aljunid
A2. Home-based carer-assisted therapy for people with stroke: findings from a randomised controlled trial
Authors: Nor Azlin Mohd Nordin, Noor Azah Aziz, Saperi Sulong and Syed Mohamed Aljunid
A3. Disaster management: a study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency nurse and community health nurse
Authors: Nurul’Ain Ahayalimudin, Aniza Ismail and Ismail Mohd Saiboon
A4. Patient-reported outcomes after one year of periodontal treatment at public specialist dental clinics in Peninsular Malaysia
Authors: Tuti Ningseh Mohd Dom, Syed Mohamed Al Junid, Mohd Rizal Abd Manaf, Khairiyah Abd Muttalib, Ahmad Sharifuddin Mohd Asari, Rasidah Ayob, Yuhaniz Ahmad Yaziz, Noorlin Ishak, Hanizah Abdul Aziz and Noordin Kasan
A5. Level of patients' satisfaction toward National Health Insurance in Istanbul City-Turkey
Authors: Saad Ahmed Ali Jadoo, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Zafar Ahmed and Ammar Jawdat
A6. Epidemiological pattern of acute respiratory infection among under-fives in Almazar Aljanoubi District -South Jordan
Authors: Ibrahim Al-nawaiseh, Ahmad Alkafajei, Jamal Hisham Hashim, Zaleha Md Isa, Nedal Awad Alnawaiseh and Samar Jameel Salahat
A7. Function and quality of life following stroke rehabilitation: have our stroke patients gained optimum recovery?
Authors: Nor Azlin Mohd Nordin, Noor Azah Aziz, Saperi Sulong and Syed Mohamed Aljunid
A8. Health impact of intimate partner violence and implication on services in Malaysia
Authors: Siti Hawa Ali, Tengku Nur Fadzilah Tengku Hassan, Halim Salleh and Harmy Mohamed Yusoff
A9. Human impact and financial loss of floods in Southeast Asia, from 2007 to 2011
Authors: Isidore Koffi Kouadio, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi and Syed Mohamed Aljunid
A10. Factors affecting demand for individual health insurance in Malaysia
Authors: Arpah Abu Bakar, Angappan Regupathi, Syed Mohamed Aljunid and Mohd Azahadi Omar
A11. Case control study on risk factors associated with esophageal cancer in Yemen
Authors: Al-abed Ali Ahmed Al-abed, Azmi Mohd Tamil and Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai
A12. Obesity and the poor women living in urban slum areas: health system response
Authors: Digna N Purwaningrum, Mubasysyir Hasanbasri and Laksono Trisnantoro
A13. Potential of mobile technology in meeting the public health needs in developing countries
Authors: Isidore Koffi Kouadio, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Namaitijiang Maimaiti, Azam Rahimi and Syed Mohamed Aljunid
A14. Quality of life among Jordanian patients on haemodialysis and their caregivers
Authors: Emad A Shdaifat and Mohd Rizal Abdul Manaf
A15. Patient satisfaction with services in physiotherapy clinics: a cross sectional study at teaching hospitals in Klang Valley
Authors: Mohamad Nasaruddin Mahdzir and Aniza Ismail
A16. How should the health system react to informal drug dispensaries? The case of self-medication in Yogyakarta Province
Authors: Eunice Setiawan, Mubasysyir Hasanbasri and Laksono Trisnantoro
A17. Cervical cancer in Malaysia: can we improve our screening and preventive practice?
Authors: Shanthi Varatharajan, M Majdah, Syed Aljunid, Won-Sun Chen, A Mukarramah and Chee-Meng Yong
A18. Burden of risk factors for non-communicable diseases: an epidemiological review of the evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Indonesia
Authors: Dwidjo Susilo, Istiti Kandarina, Siwi Padmawati and Laksono Trisnantoro
A19. Carbonated drinks, chips intake and their relation to Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among primary school children in Baghdad city, Iraq
Authors: Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Zaleha Md Isa, Mohammed A AbdalQader, Isidore Koffi Kouadio, Azam Rahimi, Namaitijiang Maimaiti and Syed Mohamed Aljunid
A20. Outcomes of home health care and telephone home visit by pharmacist in type 2 diabetes patients on hospital readmission: a case study at Bangplama Hospital, Suphanburi Province, Thailand
Authors: Nilawan Upakdee and Suwicha Mankongdee
A21. Selection of HMG-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors using multiattribute scoring tool
Authors: Azuana Ramli, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Saperi Sulong and Faridah Aryani Mohd Yusof
A22. Role of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of sporadic colorectal cancer
Authors: Fung Lin Yong, Chee Wei Law and Chee Woon Wang
A23. Health systems, policies and infant mortality in developing countries
Authors:David Baguma, Jamal Hisham Hashim and Syed Mohamed Aljunid
A24. Health system for maternal health – a case study from Papua, Indonesia
Authors: Tiara Marthias and Laksono Trisnantoro
A25. Main challenges in developing biotechnology industry in Malaysia: perspectives from the innovative biotechnology firms
Authors: Gulifeiya Abuduxike, Syed Mohamed Aljunid and Saperi Sulong
A26. Periodontal disease as an indicator of chronic non-communicable diseases: evidence from literatures
Authors:Tuti Ningseh Mohd Dom, Shahida Mohd Said, Aznida Firzah Abdul Aziz, Mohd Rizal Abdul Manaf and Syed Mohamed Aljunid
A27. Alert Village: an awareness and health promotion programme on healthy behaviors
Authors: Asmaripa Ainy, Misnaniarti Makky and Nur Alam Fajar
A28. Burden of non-communicable diseases among the Orang Asli community and patient satisfaction on non-communicable diseases management at public health facilities
Authors: Netty Darwina and Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh
A29. Beta-thalassaemia major – a public health problem in Malaysia: impacts, coping strategies and needs of parents with affected children
Authors: Nursalihah Muhammad, Jin Ai Mary Anne Tan, Elizabeth George and Wong Li Ping
A30. Incidence of bacterial meningitis in South East Asia region
Authors: Namaitijiang Maimaiti, Zaleha Md Isa, Azam Rahimi, Isidore Koffi Kouadio, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi and Syed Mohamed Aljunid
A31. Evidence-based budgeting policy in maternal and child health programme: do they work?
Authors: M Faozi Kurniawan, Deni Harbianto, Digna Purwaningrum and Tiara Marthias
A32. Improving mental health policy in the case of schizophrenia in Thailand: evidence-based information for efficient solutions
Authors: Pudtan Phanthunane, Theo Vos, Harvey Whiteford and Melanie Bertram
A33. A study on social determinants of infant mortality in Malaysia
Authors: Amaluddin Ahmad
A34. Expression of circulating micro-RNAs in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy
Authors: Soh Zi Ling, Chee Kok Han, Wong Chew Ming and Wang Chee Woon
A35. The influence of mother’s embrace on the level of infant pain during injection
Authors:Arie Kusumaningrum and Regina Natalia
A36. Information needs as perceived by caregivers and patients following stroke: a qualitative systematic review
Authors: Nor Haty Hassan, Syed Mohamed Aljunid and Peter Davis
A37. Factors influencing willingness to pay for healthcare
Authors: Azimatun Noor Aizuddin, Saperi Sulong and Syed Mohamed Aljunid
A38. Influence of antenatal care on birth weight: a cross sectional study in Baghdad City, Iraq
Authors: Mohammed A Abdal Qader, Idayu Badilla, Rahmah Mohd Amin and Hasanain Faisal Ghazi
A39. Asthma treatment adherence among asthmatic patients in Yazd
Authors: Azam Rahimi, Saperi Sulong, Namaitijiang Maimaiti, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Koffi Isidore Kouadio and Hidayatulfathi Othman
A40. Cost analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC) management in UKM Medical Centre using clinical pathway
Authors: Natrah Mohd, Sharifa Ezat, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Mohd Rizal Abdul Manaf, Saperi Sulong, Ismail Sagap and Muhd Azrif
In the first paper in this Series we assessed theoretical and empirical evidence and concluded that the health of people living in slums is a function not only of poverty but of intimately shared physical and social environments. In this paper we extend the theory of so-called neighbourhood effects. Slums offer high returns on investment because beneficial effects are shared across many people in densely populated neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood effects also help explain how and why the benefits of interventions vary between slum and non-slum spaces and between slums. We build on this spatial concept of slums to argue that, in all low-income and-middle-income countries, census tracts should henceforth be designated slum or non-slum both to inform local policy and as the basis for research surveys that build on censuses. We argue that slum health should be promoted as a topic of enquiry alongside poverty and health.
OBJECTIVE: There is currently no documentation on the availability and implementation of policies related to men's health in Asia. This Delphi study aimed to achieve an Asian consensus on men's health policy based on the opinions and recommendations from men's health key opinion leaders.
STUDY DESIGN: A two-phase Delphi online survey was used to gather information from men's health stakeholders across Asian countries.
METHODS: All stakeholders were invited to participate in the survey through men's health conferences, personal contacts, recommendations from international men's health organizations and snowballing method. Stakeholders were asked about their concerns on 17 men's health key issues as well as their opinion on the availability and recommendations on men's health policies and programmes in their countries.
RESULTS: There were a total of 128 stakeholders (policy makers, clinicians, researchers and consumers), from 28 Asian countries, who responded in the survey. Up to 85% of stakeholders were concerned about various men's health issues in Asia and in their respective country, particularly in smoking, ischaemic heart disease and high blood pressure. There is a lack of men's health policies and programmes in Asia (availability = 11.6-43.5%) and up to 92.9% of stakeholders recommended that these should be developed.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings call for policy change and development, and more importantly a concerted effort to elevate men's health status in Asia.
BACKGROUND: Involving patients in decision-making is an important part of patient-centred care. Research has found a discrepancy between patients' desire to be involved and their actual involvement in healthcare decision-making. In Asia, there is a dearth of research in decision-making. Using Malaysia as an exemplar, this study aims to review the current research evidence, practices, policies, and laws with respect to patient engagement in shared decision-making (SDM) in Asia.
METHODS: In this study, we conducted a comprehensive literature review to collect information on healthcare decision-making in Malaysia. We also consulted medical education researchers, key opinion leaders, governmental organisations, and patient support groups to assess the extent to which patient involvement was incorporated into the medical curriculum, healthcare policies, and legislation.
RESULTS: There are very few studies on patient involvement in decision-making in Malaysia. Existing studies showed that doctors were aware of informed consent, but few practised SDM. There was limited teaching of SDM in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula and a lack of accurate and accessible health information for patients. In addition, peer support groups and 'expert patient' programmes were also lacking. Professional medical bodies endorsed patient involvement in decision-making, but there was no definitive implementation plan.
CONCLUSION: In summary, there appears to be little training or research on SDM in Malaysia. More research needs to be done in this area, including baseline information on the preferred and actual decision-making roles. The authors have provided a set of recommendations on how SDM can be effectively implemented in Malaysia.
Matched MeSH terms: Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence
Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments' ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be proactive in their engagement with the trade negotiations.
The process of development in Malaysia has brought about significant socioeconomic and demographic transformations. Reduction in fertility and mortality, have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. Thus the proportion of the elderly is increasing. Population ageing, the most salient change affecting the demographic profile of Malaysia, will have a significant impact on the patterns of socio-economic development. In order to anticipate and respond in time to the far reaching socio-economic and humanitarian implications of ageing, it is imperative that the magnitude and the
momentum of its occurrence need to be recognised.
This paper looks at demographic trends, disease profile as well as health policy implications of ageing in Malaysia.
To answer the question posed the terms of reference of local ethical committees as well as a few from overseas were reviewed. It was noted that these committees were established by various professional bodies and functioned independently. Guidelines for ethical practice and conduct were made available to the profession with compliance left to the individual doctor. Amongst the many ethical issues of concern both to the public and the profession was that of self regulation. It is being suggested that these concerns be addressed rather then set up a national body.
Cities are complex adaptive systems whose responses to policy initiatives emerge from feedback interactions between their parts. Urban policy makers must routinely deal with both detail and dynamic complexity, coupled with high levels of diversity, uncertainty and contingency. In such circumstances, it is difficult to generate reliable predictions of health-policy outcomes. In this paper we explore the potential for low-order system dynamics (LOSD) models to make a contribution towards meeting this challenge. By definition, LOSD models have few state variables (≤5), illustrate the non-linear effects caused by feedback and accumulation, and focus on endogenous dynamics generated within well-defined boundaries. We suggest that experience with LOSD models can help practitioners to develop an understanding of basic principles of system dynamics, giving them the ability to 'see with new eyes'. Because efforts to build a set of LOSD models can help a transdisciplinary group to develop a shared, coherent view of the problems that they seek to tackle, such models can also become the foundations of 'powerful ideas'. Powerful ideas are conceptual metaphors that provide the members of a policy-making group with the a priori shared context required for effective communication, the co-production of knowledge, and the collaborative development of effective public health policies.
Shared decision making (SDM) activities in Malaysia began around 2010. Although the concept is not widespread, there are opportunities to implement SDM in both the public and private healthcare sectors. Malaysia has a multicultural society and cultural components (such as language differences, medical paternalism, strong family involvement, religious beliefs and complementary medicine) influence medical decision making. In terms of policy, the Ministry of Health has increasingly mentioned patient-centered care as a component of healthcare delivery while the Malaysian Medical Council's guidelines on doctors' duties mentioned collaborative partnerships as a goal of doctor-patient relationships. Current research on SDM comprises baseline surveys of decisional role preferences, development and implementation of locally developed patient decision aids, and conducting of SDM training workshops. Most of this research is carried out by public research universities. In summary, the current state of SDM in Malaysia is still at its infancy. However, there are increasing recognition and efforts from the academic institutions and Ministry of Health to conduct research in SDM, develop patient decision support tools and initiate national discussion on patient involvement in decision making.
BACKGROUND: The impact of declining physical activity and increased sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents globally prompted the development of national and international physical activity guidelines. This research aims to systematically identify and compare national and international physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents and appraise the quality of the guidelines to promote best practice in guideline development.
METHODS: This systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) and reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Only national, or international physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour guidelines were included in the review. Included guidelines targeted children and adolescents aged between 5 and 18 years. A grey literature search was undertaken incorporating electronic databases, custom Google search engines, targeted websites and international expert consultation. Guideline quality was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II Instrument (AGREE II).
RESULTS: The search resulted in 50 national or international guidelines being identified. Twenty-five countries had a national guideline and there were three international guidelines (European Union, Nordic countries (used by Iceland, Norway and Sweden), World Health Organization (WHO)). Nineteen countries and the European Union adopted the WHO guidelines. Guidelines varied in relation to date of release (2008 to 2019), targeted age group, and guideline wording regarding: type, amount, duration, intensity, frequency and total amount of physical activity. Twenty-two countries included sedentary behaviour within the guidelines and three included sleep. Total scores for all domains of the AGREE II assessment for each guideline indicated considerable variability in guideline quality ranging from 25.8 to 95.3%, with similar variability in the six individual domains. Rigorous guideline development is essential to ensure appropriate guidance for population level initiatives.
CONCLUSIONS: This review revealed considerable variability between national/international physical activity guideline quality, development and recommendations, highlighting the need for rigorous and transparent guideline development methodologies to ensure appropriate guidance for population-based approaches. Where countries do not have the resources to ensure this level of quality, the adoption or adolopment (framework to review and update guidelines) of the WHO guidelines or guidelines of similar quality is recommended.
Many nation states, including Malaysia are undergoing development and modernization while modernization brings tremendous achievements related to social and economic wellbeing, on the other hand, it also brings along with it the various untoward effects on the nation. One of the main factors which have an impact on modernization seems to be the rapid changes in the demographic pattern. In the initial stage of modernization, mass migration of rural populations to the urban areas, has been on going in Malaysia since the seventies. In the early nineties, the robust economic development in Malaysia necessitated the import of foreign labour from the neighbouring countries in order to provide cheap labour in the labour intensive industries. This demographic changes, internal and foreign migration, parallels the economic progress of the host countries. According to the latest report from the Immigration Department, there are more than 1.2 million registered foreign workers (up to January 1998) in Malaysia. This figure may exceed 2 million if we take into consideration the illegal immigrants and this is a big proportion (about 10%) of foreign workers in which has Malaysia's population of approxiamtely 20 million. The presence of such a big number of foreign workers during less than a decade is not merely an immigration issue, but it is a major concern for the nation especially with respect to health care, housing and education. As the immigrant community is highly dynamic, the emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a great concern for Malaysia especially in formulating health policies for Malaysia currently and in the future.
Barraclough S. The Malaysian tobacco industry, globalisation and public health: New opportunities for tobacco control. Public policy, culture and the impact of globalisation in Malaysia. Selangor, Malaysia: Malaysian Social Science Association; 2004. p. 112-27
The term "co-benefits" refers to positive outcomes accruing from a policy beyond the intended outcome, often or usually in other sectors. In the urban context, policies implemented in particular sectors (such as transport, energy or waste) often generate multiple co-benefits in other areas. Such benefits may be related to the reduction of local or global environmental impacts and also extend into the area of public health. A key to identifying and realising co-benefits is the adoption of systems approaches to understand inter-sectoral linkages and, in particular, the translation of this understanding to improved sector-specific and city governance. This paper reviews a range of policies which can yield health and climate co-benefits across different urban sectors and illustrates, through a series of cases, how taking a systems approach can lead to innovations in urban governance which aid the development of healthy and sustainable cities.
The growing demand for animal products and the widespread use of antibiotics in bringing food animals to market have heightened concerns over cross-species transmission of drug resistance. Both the biology and emerging epidemiology strongly support the need for global coordination in stemming the generation and propagation of resistance, and the patchwork of global and country-level regulations still leaves significant gaps. More importantly, discussing such a framework opens the door to taking modular steps towards solving these challenges - for example, beginning among targeted parties rather than all countries, tying accountability to financial and technical support, or taxing antibiotic use in animals to deter low-value usage of these drugs. An international agreement would allow integrating surveillance data collection, monitoring and enforcement, research into antibiotic alternatives and more sustainable approaches to agriculture, technical assistance and capacity building, and financing under the umbrella of a One Health approach.