Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 94 in total

  1. Ian E, Gwen CL, Soo CT, Melissa C, Chun-Kai H, Eosu K, et al.
    Asian J Psychiatr, 2016 Aug;22:182-9.
    PMID: 26617385 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2015.10.009
    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder incurs a significant burden on HIV patients in Asia-Pacific countries; however, the incidence is difficult to estimate due to a lack of local epidemiological data. The impact of neurocognitive impairment in HIV patients is often underestimated due to a lack of education and awareness, and there are consequently gaps in the provision of screening and diagnosis to enable earlier intervention to limit neurocognitive impairment.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications*
  2. Mohamed N, Saddki N, Yusoff A, Mat Jelani A
    BMC Oral Health, 2017 Aug 22;17(1):119.
    PMID: 28830386 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-017-0409-y
    BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a multidimensional construct that refers to an individual's self-perceived well-being. This study used the revised Wilson and Cleary HRQOL model to investigate the associations among oral symptoms, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL), and HRQOL of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 121 PLWHA receiving medical care in Kota Bharu (Kelantan, Malaysia) participated in this cross-sectional study. The Malay version of the short Oral Health Impact Profile (S-OHIP(M)) and the Malay version of the 36-item Medical Outcome Study Short Form (SF-36) were used to assess OHRQOL and HRQOL, respectively. A higher S-OHIP(M) score indicates greater oral impact and worse OHRQOL; a higher SF-36 score indicates better HRQOL. An additional structured self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain other variables of interest from the participants.

    RESULTS: Most participants had at least one oral symptom (69.4%), and the most common oral symptom was a cavitated tooth (55.4%). The prevalence of oral impacts was 33.9%, and the mean S-OHIP(M) score was 8.8 (SD = 7.92). The mean S-OHIP(M) score was significantly higher in participants who had toothaches, cavitated teeth, gum abscesses, and bad breath. In addition, participants with lower S-OHIP(M) scores had significantly higher scores in all SF-36 domains.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence for an association among oral symptoms, OHRQOL, and HRQOL in PLWHA from Malaysia. In particular, the presence of oral symptoms was significantly associated with more severe oral impacts and poorer OHRQOL. The presence of less severe oral impacts was associated with a better HRQOL.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications*
  3. Ding CH, Yusoff H, Muttaqillah NAS, Tang YL, Tan TL, Periyasamy P, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Apr;40(1):69-72.
    PMID: 29704387 MyJurnal
    Pneumocystis pneumonia is an important human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated opportunistic infection, and especially so in pregnant HIV-positive patients. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman in her first trimester of pregnancy who initially presented with acute gastroenteritis symptoms but due to a history of high-risk behaviour and the observation of oral thrush, she was worked up for HIV infection. Her retroviral status was positive and her CD4+ T cell count was only 8 cells/µL. She was also worked up for pneumocystis pneumonia due to the presence of mild resting tachypnoea and a notable drop in oxygen saturation (from 100% to 88%) following brief ambulation. Her chest radiograph revealed bilaterally symmetrical lower zone reticular opacities and Giemsa staining of her bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was negative for Pneumocystis jirovecii cysts. However, real-time P. jirovecii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing on the same BAL specimen revealed the presence of the organism. A course of oral co-trimoxazole plus prednisolone was commenced and her clinical condition improved.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications*
  4. Bunupuradah T, Kariminia A, Aurpibul L, Chokephaibulkit K, Hansudewechakul R, Lumbiganon P, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2016 Feb;35(2):201-4.
    PMID: 26484429 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000961
    We analyzed final height of 273 perinatally HIV-infected Asian adolescents older than 18 years at their last clinic visit. By the World Health Organization child growth reference, 30% were stunted, but by the Thai child growth reference, 19% were stunted. Half of those who were stunted at antiretroviral therapy initiation remained stunted over time. Being male and having a low baseline height-for-age Z score of less than -1.0 were associated with low final height Z score.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications*
  5. Vagenas P, Azar MM, Copenhaver MM, Springer SA, Molina PE, Altice FL
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep, 2015 Dec;12(4):421-36.
    PMID: 26412084 DOI: 10.1007/s11904-015-0285-5
    Alcohol use is highly prevalent globally with numerous negative consequences to human health, including HIV progression, in people living with HIV (PLH). The HIV continuum of care, or treatment cascade, represents a sequence of targets for intervention that can result in viral suppression, which ultimately benefits individuals and society. The extent to which alcohol impacts each step in the cascade, however, has not been systematically examined. International targets for HIV treatment as prevention aim for 90 % of PLH to be diagnosed, 90 % of them to be prescribed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 90 % to achieve viral suppression; currently, only 20 % of PLH are virally suppressed. This systematic review, from 2010 through May 2015, found 53 clinical research papers examining the impact of alcohol use on each step of the HIV treatment cascade. These studies were mostly cross-sectional or cohort studies and from all income settings. Most (77 %) found a negative association between alcohol consumption on one or more stages of the treatment cascade. Lack of consistency in measurement, however, reduced the ability to draw consistent conclusions. Nonetheless, the strong negative correlations suggest that problematic alcohol consumption should be targeted, preferably using evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological interventions, to indirectly increase the proportion of PLH achieving viral suppression, to achieve treatment as prevention mandates, and to reduce HIV transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications*
  6. Fu JJ, Bazazi AR, Altice FL, Mohamed MN, Kamarulzaman A
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(9):e44249.
    PMID: 23028508 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044249
    Throughout Asia, people who use drugs are confined in facilities referred to as compulsory drug detention and rehabilitation centers. The limited transparency and accessibility of these centers has posed a significant challenge to evaluating detainees and detention conditions directly. Despite HIV being highly prevalent in this type of confined setting, direct evaluation of detainees with HIV and their access to medical care has yet to be reported in the literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications*
  7. Khan SA, Moorthy J, Omar H, Hasan SS
    BMC Public Health, 2012;12:850.
    PMID: 23043358 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-850
    The continuous increase in number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) represents a serious health and economic burden. HIV positive individuals with oral lesions have significantly lower oral health-related quality of life than HIV positive individuals without oral lesions. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) within a cohort of HIV/AIDS positive patients towards HIV/AIDS associated oral lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications*
  8. Iqbal A, Lim YA, Surin J, Sim BL
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(2):e31139.
    PMID: 22347442 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031139
    Currently, there is a lack of vital information in the genetic makeup of Cryptosporidium especially in developing countries. The present study aimed at determining the genotypes and subgenotypes of Cryptosporidium in hospitalized Malaysian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications
  9. Nissapatorn V, Kamarulzaman A, Init I, Tan LH, Rohela M, Norliza A, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2002 Sep;57(3):304-10.
    PMID: 12440270 MyJurnal
    A cross-sectional study was carried out in University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. Blood samples from 100 HIV-infected patients and 203 Healthy Blood Donors (HBD) were collected and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected by using conventional ELISA. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS and Healthy Blood Donors were found to be 21% and 28.1% respectively. There was no significant association between the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and various possible risk factors i.e. contact with cat, consumption of undercooked meat and history of blood transfusion in both groups. No significant differences between Toxoplasma seroprevalence in HIV/AIDS and Healthy Blood Donors in association with presence of single or multiple risk factors were found. The mean CD4 count among HIV/AIDS patients in this study was 202.23 cell/cumm. There was no significant association between CD4 count and seropositivity for Toxoplasma antibodies in HIV/AIDS patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications
  10. Mohammad Z, Naing NN, Salleh R, Ahmad N, Hamzah WM, Mahmud R
    PMID: 12118468
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has had a profound influence on the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). The potential for HIV-associated TB cases to transmit M. tuberculosis and to produce a secondary increase in TB morbidity is unknown. A cross-sectional study was carried out to compare the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection among the household contacts of HIV-positive and HIV-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. Records of tuberculin (Mantoux) tests administered during routine contact investigations at the Chest Clinic, Hospital Kota Bharu, from 1999 to 2000 were reviewed. The HIV status of the patients was based on the results of ELISA tests while information on household contacts was gathered during visits to their houses. Ninety-four contacts of 39 HIV-negative patients and 44 contacts of 17 cases of HIV-positive patients were included in this preliminary study. 30% (12/40) of the contacts of HIV-positive PTB had a positive tuberculin compared with 52.8% (47/ 94) of the contacts of HIV-negative patients [OR = 0.41, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.17 - 0.97; p = 0.016]. The difference was still significant after performing multivariate logistic regression analysis to adjust for variables associated with infectiousness of TB (adjusted OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.07 - 0.87; p = 0.03). This study has shown that HIV-infected PTB patients are less infectious to their contacts than HIV-negative patients. The presence of MV in the community may not necessitate a change of the current policy of the management of contacts.
    Study site: Chest Clinic, Hospital Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications*
  11. Lim YA, Iqbal A, Surin J, Sim BL, Jex AR, Nolan MJ, et al.
    Infect. Genet. Evol., 2011 Jul;11(5):968-74.
    PMID: 21439404 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2011.03.007
    Given the HIV epidemic in Malaysia, genetic information on opportunistic pathogens, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in HIV/AIDS patients is pivotal to enhance our understanding of epidemiology, patient care, management and disease surveillance. In the present study, 122 faecal samples from HIV/AIDS patients were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using a conventional coproscopic approach. Such oocysts and cysts were detected in 22.1% and 5.7% of the 122 faecal samples, respectively. Genomic DNAs from selected samples were tested in a nested-PCR, targeting regions of the small subunit (SSU) of nuclear ribosomal RNA and the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes (for Cryptosporidium), and the triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene (for Giardia), followed by direct sequencing. The sequencing of amplicons derived from SSU revealed that Cryptosporidium parvum was the most frequently detected species (64% of 25 samples tested), followed by C. hominis (24%), C. meleagridis (8%) and C. felis (4%). Sequencing of a region of gp60 identified C. parvum subgenotype IIdA15G2R1 and C. hominis subgenotypes IaA14R1, IbA10G2R2, IdA15R2, IeA11G2T3R1 and IfA11G1R2. Sequencing of amplicons derived from tpi revealed G. duodenalis assemblage A, which is of zoonotic importance. This is the first report of C. hominis, C. meleagridis and C. felis from Malaysian HIV/AIDS patients. Future work should focus on an extensive analysis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in such patients as well as in domestic and wild animals, in order to improve the understanding of transmission patterns and dynamics in Malaysia. It would also be particularly interesting to establish the relationship among clinical manifestation, CD4 cell counts and genotypes/subgenotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in HIV/AIDS patients. Such insights would assist in a better management of clinical disease in immuno-deficient patients as well as improved preventive and control strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications*
  12. Srilatha PS, Suvarna N, Gupta A, Bhat G
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2011 Jan-Mar;54(1):219-20.
    PMID: 21393929 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.77420
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications
  13. Isa WY, Daud KM
    Intern. Med., 2011;50(16):1765-8.
    PMID: 21841342
    We report a case of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) in a patient with HIV infection and AIDS. A 33-year-old HIV-positive man with Hepatitis C and tuberculous lymphadenitis was admitted due to deep venous thrombosis and generalized muscle weakness. He had never received anti-retroviral medication. The blood gases and serum electrolytes showed hyperchloremic normal anion gap metabolic acidosis with severe hypokalemia and alkaline urine. Diagnosis of distal RTA was made. His renal function and serum globulin level remained within normal range throughout his illness. Clinicians should be alert to renal tubular disorders in HIV/AIDS patients even in the absence of anti-retroviral therapy or hypergammaglobulinemic state.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications*
  14. Jayaram G, Chew MT
    Acta Cytol., 2000 Nov-Dec;44(6):960-6.
    PMID: 11127753
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in lymphadenopathy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals (HIVII).

    STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-nine HIVII presenting with lymphadenopathy at University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, were subjected to FNAC. Cytologic smears were routinely stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain. Special stains and immunostains were used when necessary.

    RESULTS: In nine cases, the cytologic appearance was compatible with HIV type A and in one case with HIV type C lymphadenopathy. In 21 cases, acid-fast bacilli (AFB) were demonstrated in the cytologic smears, enabling a diagnosis of mycobacterial lymphadenitis. In one of these cases there was a concomitant infection with Penicillium marneffei that was overlooked on initial cytologic examination. The cause of granulomatous lymphadenitis could not be ascertained in one case, where neither AFB nor any other organisms were demonstrable. Two cases of histoplasma and one of cryptococcal lymphadenitis were diagnosed, as was one high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that could be immunophenotyped on cytologic material. In three cases the aspirates were inadequate for a cytologic diagnosis.

    CONCLUSION: Lymph node FNAC is a valuable investigative modality in HIVII. Most opportunistic infections (bacterial and fungal) can be correctly identified, and high grade lymphoma can be diagnosed and phenotyped.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications*
  15. Jing W
    J. Dermatol., 2000 Apr;27(4):225-32.
    PMID: 10824485
    A retrospective analysis of 182 HIV positive Malaysians was done in two centers, the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur (UHKL) and the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur (GHKL) from March 1997 to February 1998. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed. The analysis showed that 130 out of 182 patients had mucocutaneous disorders (71.4%). In the study there were 125 males (96.2%) and 5 females (3.8%). The majority of the patients were in the age group from 20 to 50 years. The patients who presented with mucocutaneous disease also had low CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, and most of them had AIDS defining illnesses. The number of cases with generalized hyperpigmentation was very high (35.7%), followed by papular eruptions (29.1%) and xerosis (27.5%). Seborrheic dermatitis was seen in 19.2% of the cases and psoriasis in 7.7%. The most common infections were oral candida 35.7%, tinea corporis and onychomycosis 9.9%, and herpes infection 4.3%. However, mucocutaneous manifestations of Kaposi's sarcoma were rare. The results suggested that mucocutaneous findings are useful clinical predictors of HIV infection or a sign of the presence of advanced HIV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications*
  16. Lim VK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1993 Jun;48(2):97-8.
    PMID: 8350810
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications
  17. Shankar EM, Vignesh R, Ellegård R, Barathan M, Chong YK, Bador MK, et al.
    Pathog Dis, 2014 Mar;70(2):110-8.
    PMID: 24214523 DOI: 10.1111/2049-632X.12108
    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection interfere and impact the pathogenesis phenomena of each other. Owing to atypical clinical presentations and diagnostic complications, HIV/TB co-infection continues to be a menace for healthcare providers. Although the increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a reduction in HIV-associated opportunistic infections and mortality, the concurrent management of HIV/TB co-infection remains a challenge owing to adverse effects, complex drug interactions, overlapping toxicities and tuberculosis -associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Several hypotheses have been put forward for the exacerbation of tuberculosis by HIV and vice versa supported by immunological studies. Discussion on the mechanisms produced by infectious cofactors with impact on disease pathology could shed light on how to design potential interventions that could decelerate disease progression. With no vaccine for HIV and lack of an effective vaccine for tuberculosis, it is essential to design strategies against HIV-TB co-infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications*
  18. Shetty P
    Lancet, 2013 Jun 15;381(9883):2073.
    PMID: 23769222 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61231-3
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications
  19. Lim YA, Rohela M, Sim BL, Jamaiah I, Nurbayah M
    PMID: 16438176
    A total of 66 fecal specimens obtained from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from Kajang Hospital were screened for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The fecal specimens were concentrated using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique, stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen and confirmed with immunofluorescence stain. It was established that 2 (3.0%) were positive for Cryptosporidium. The two cases involved a Chinese local man (with diarrhea) and an Indonesian foreigner (without diarrhea). A higher index of suspicion for clinical cryptosporidiosis in HIV patients, including those with chronic weight loss with or without diarrhea, is recommended. In addition, laboratory testing for Cryptosporidium in HIV-infected patients is highly recommended in order to have a better understanding of the epidemiology and management of the disease in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications*
  20. Jarmin R, Alwi RI, Shaharuddin S, Salleh KM, Gunn A
    Asian J Surg, 2004 Oct;27(4):342-4.
    PMID: 15564193
    A young man with HIV presented with biliary peritonitis secondary to spontaneous common bile duct perforation. Investigation revealed that the perforation was due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the bile duct is uncommon and usually presents with obstructive jaundice due to stricture. Bile duct perforation due to tuberculosis is extremely rare. Its management is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/complications
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