MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six clear cell RCC cases were selected. There were 21 (58.3%) men and 15 (41.7%) women with median age of 56.6 years (range: 16-74 years). Chinese constituted 16 (44.4%) of the cases; Malays 14 (38.9%) cases and Indian 6 (16.7%) cases. There were 6 (16.7%) grade 1, 20 (55.6%) grade 2, 10 (27.8%) grade 3 and none was grade 4. The paraffin embedded tissues were cut at 4 μm thick and stained with COX-2 monoclonal antibody.
RESULTS: Eighteen (50%) of the RCC cases were immunopositive, of which all showed strong positivity. The immunopositive cases showed cytoplasmic membrane positivity.
CONCLUSION: There was no significant association between COX-2 expression with grade, age, sex and ethnicity (p=0.457, p=0.054, p=0.389 and p=0.568 respectively). Strong positivity of COX-2 suggest that COX-2 may play a role in cell proliferation and in carcinogenesis.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 74-year-old indigenous Malaysian man with underlying chronic kidney disease presented with recurrent admissions for hyponatremia with parameters indicative of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, constitutional symptoms, and diffuse skin lesions suggestive of multiple seborrheic keratoses. A radiological workup revealed metastatic renal cell carcinoma with evidence of metastasis to the brain, adrenal glands, bone, and lungs.
CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, renal malignancy presenting as syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and Leser-Trélat concurrently is rare. The causes of hyponatremia in the elderly, approach to investigation, and value as a poor prognostic marker in malignancy are highlighted. We also discuss Leser-Trélat syndrome, its pathophysiology, and its possible implications on clinical practice.