Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

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  1. Ismail SN, Maulidiani M, Akhtar MT, Abas F, Ismail IS, Khatib A, et al.
    Molecules, 2017 Sep 25;22(10).
    PMID: 28946701 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22101612
    Gaharu (agarwood, Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.) is a valuable tropical rainforest product traded internationally for its distinctive fragrance. It is not only popular as incense and in perfumery, but also favored in traditional medicine due to its sedative, carminative, cardioprotective and analgesic effects. The current study addresses the chemical differences and similarities between gaharu samples of different grades, obtained commercially, using ¹H-NMR-based metabolomics. Two classification models: partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Random Forests were developed to classify the gaharu samples on the basis of their chemical constituents. The gaharu samples could be reclassified into a 'high grade' group (samples A, B and D), characterized by high contents of kusunol, jinkohol, and 10-epi-γ-eudesmol; an 'intermediate grade' group (samples C, F and G), dominated by fatty acid and vanillic acid; and a 'low grade' group (sample E and H), which had higher contents of aquilarone derivatives and phenylethyl chromones. The results showed that ¹H- NMR-based metabolomics can be a potential method to grade the quality of gaharu samples on the basis of their chemical constituents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods*
  2. Zainuddin N, Karpukhina N, Law RV, Hill RG
    Dent Mater, 2012 Oct;28(10):1051-8.
    PMID: 22841162 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2012.06.011
    The purpose of this study was to characterize commercial glass polyalkenoate cement (GPC) or glass ionomer cement (GIC), Glass Carbomer(®), which is designed to promote remineralization to fluorapatite (FAp) in the mouth. The setting reaction of the cement was followed using magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods*
  3. Sim YL, Ariffin A, Khan MN
    J. Org. Chem., 2008 May 16;73(10):3730-7.
    PMID: 18410141 DOI: 10.1021/jo702695k
    The apparent second-order rate constant (k OH) for hydroxide-ion-catalyzed conversion of 1 to N-(2'-methoxyphenyl)phthalamate (4) is approximately 10(3)-fold larger than k OH for alkaline hydrolysis of N-morpholinobenzamide (2). These results are explained in terms of the reaction scheme 1 --> k(1obs) 3 --> k(2obs) 4 where 3 represents N-(2'-methoxyphenyl)phthalimide and the values of k(2obs)/k(1obs) vary from 6.0 x 10(2) to 17 x 10(2) within [NaOH] range of 5.0 x 10(-3) to 2.0 M. Pseudo-first-order rate constants (k(obs)) for alkaline hydrolysis of 1 decrease from 21.7 x 10(-3) to 15.6 x 10(-3) s(-1) with an increase in ionic strength (by NaCl) from 0.5 to 2.5 M at 0.5 M NaOH and 35 degrees C. The values of k obs, obtained for alkaline hydrolysis of 2 within [NaOH] range 1.0 x 10(-2) to 2.0 M at 35 degrees C, follow the relationship k(obs) = kOH[HO(-)] + kOH'[HO (-)] (2) with least-squares calculated values of kOH and kOH' as (6.38 +/- 0.15) x 10(-5) and (4.59 +/- 0.09) x 10(-5) M (-2) s(-1), respectively. A few kinetic runs for aqueous cleavage of 1, N'-morpholino-N-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-5-nitrophthalamide (5) and N'-morpholino-N-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-4-nitrophthalamide (6) at 35 degrees C and 0.05 M NaOH as well as 0.05 M NaOD reveal the solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effect (= k(obs) (H 2) (O)/ k(obs) (D 2 ) (O)) as 1.6 for 1, 1.9 for 5, and 1.8 for 6. Product characterization study on the cleavage of 5, 6, and N-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-4-nitrophthalimide (7) at 0.5 M NaOD in D2O solvent shows the imide-intermediate mechanism as the exclusive mechanism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods
  4. Pariyani R, Ismail IS, Ahmad Azam A, Abas F, Shaari K
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2017 Sep;97(12):4169-4179.
    PMID: 28233369 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8288
    BACKGROUND: Java tea is a well-known herbal infusion prepared from the leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS). The biological properties of tea are in direct correlation with the primary and secondary metabolite composition, which in turn largely depends on the choice of drying method. Herein, the impact of three commonly used drying methods, i.e. shade, microwave and freeze drying, on the metabolite composition and antioxidant activity of OS leaves was investigated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate classification and regression analysis tools.

    RESULTS: A total of 31 constituents comprising primary and secondary metabolites belonging to the chemical classes of fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, terpenoids and phenolic compounds were identified. Shade-dried leaves were identified to possess the highest concentrations of bioactive secondary metabolites such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, orthosiphol and apigenin, followed by microwave-dried samples. Freeze-dried leaves had higher concentrations of choline, amino acids leucine, alanine and glutamine and sugars such as fructose and α-glucose, but contained the lowest levels of secondary metabolites.

    CONCLUSION: Metabolite profiling coupled with multivariate analysis identified shade drying as the best method to prepare OS leaves as Java tea or to include in traditional medicine preparation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods*
  5. Sidek S, Ramli N, Rahmat K, Ramli NM, Abdulrahman F, Kuo TL
    Eur Radiol, 2016 Dec;26(12):4404-4412.
    PMID: 26943134
    To compare the metabolite concentration of optic radiation in glaucoma patients with that of healthy subjects using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS).
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods; Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods*
  6. Saadi S, Ariffin AA, Ghazali HM, Miskandar MS, Boo HC, Abdulkarim SM
    Food Chem, 2012 May 1;132(1):603-12.
    PMID: 26434338 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.095
    The main goal of the present work was to assess the mechanism of crystallisation, more precisely the dominant component responsible for primary crystal formations and fat agglomerations. Therefore, DSC results exhibited significant effect on temperature transition; peak sharpness and enthalpy at palm stearin (PS) levels more than 40wt.%. HPLC data demonstrated slight reduction in the content of POO/OPO at PS levels less than 40wt.%, while the excessive addition of PS more than 40wt.% increased significantly PPO/POP content. The pNMR results showed significant drop in SFC for blends containing PS less than 40wt.%, resulting in low SFC less than 15% at body temperature (37°C). Moreover, the values of viscosity (η) and shear stress (τ) at PS levels over 40wt.% expressed excellent internal friction of the admixtures. All the data reported indicate that PPO/POP was the major component of primary nucleus developed. In part, the levels of PS should be less than 40wt.%, if these blends are designed to be used for margarine production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods*
  7. H M, Khatib A, Shaari K, Abas F, Shitan M, Kneer R, et al.
    J. Agric. Food Chem., 2012 Jan 11;60(1):410-7.
    PMID: 22084897 DOI: 10.1021/jf200270y
    The metabolites of three species of Apiaceae, also known as Pegaga, were analyzed utilizing (1)H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) resolved the species, Centella asiatica, Hydrocotyle bonariensis, and Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides, into three clusters. The saponins, asiaticoside and madecassoside, along with chlorogenic acids were the metabolites that contributed most to the separation. Furthermore, the effects of growth-lighting condition to metabolite contents were also investigated. The extracts of C. asiatica grown in full-day light exposure exhibited a stronger radical scavenging activity and contained more triterpenes (asiaticoside and madecassoside), flavonoids, and chlorogenic acids as compared to plants grown in 50% shade. This study established the potential of using a combination of (1)H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analyses in differentiating three closely related species and the effects of growth lighting, based on their metabolite contents and identification of the markers contributing to their differences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods*
  8. Maulidiani, Shaari K, Paetz C, Stanslas J, Abas F, Lajis NH
    Nat Prod Commun, 2009 Aug;4(8):1031-6.
    PMID: 19768978
    Phytochemical investigation on Globba pendula resulted in the isolation of a new naturally occurring 16-oxo-(8)17-12-labdadien-15,11-olide 1 and benzofuran-2-carboxaldehyde 2. Other known compounds including isoandrographolide, indirubin, vanillin, vanillic acid, 2(3H)-benzoxazolone, as well as beta-sitosteryl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, beta-sitosterol, and 7alpha-hydroxysitosterol were also isolated. The structures were established based on spectroscopic data and comparison with the literature. Furthermore, the compound isoandrographolide has demonstrated strong cytotoxic properties towards a panel of cancer cell lines (MCF-7, PC-3, and H-460) with the IC50 values of 7.9, 8.7, and 9.0 microM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods
  9. Chan KL, Sugiyama H, Saito I, Hara M
    Phytochemistry, 1995 Nov;40(5):1373-4.
    PMID: 8534399
    The kapurimycin A3-guanine adduct was formed by alkylation of the antitumour antibiotic with d(CGCG)2. The site of alkylation of the guanine was confirmed by comparative NMR studies with N-7-methyl-guanine in DMSO-d6.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods
  10. Ebrahimi F, Ibrahim B, Teh CH, Murugaiyah V, Lam CK
    Planta Med., 2017 Jan;83(1-02):172-182.
    PMID: 27399233 DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-110857
    Quassinoids, the major secondary metabolites of Eurycoma longifolia roots, improve male fertility. Hence, it is crucial to investigate their quantitative level in E. longifolia extracts. A profile was established to identify the primary metabolites and major quassinoids, and quantify quassinoids using external calibration curves. Furthermore, the metabolic discrimination of E. longifolia roots from different regions was investigated. The (1)H-NMR spectra of the quassinoids, eurycomanone, eurycomanol, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside were obtained. The (1)H-NMR profiles of E. longifolia root aqueous extracts from Perak (n = 30) were obtained and used to identify primary metabolites and the quassinoids. Selangor, Kedah, Terengganu (n = 5 for each), and Perak samples were checked for metabolic discrimination. Hotelling's T(2) plot was used to check for outliers. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis was run to reveal the discriminatory metabolites. Perak samples contained formic, succinic, methylsuccinic, fumaric, lactic, acetic and syringic acids as well as choline, alanine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, α-glucose, eurycomanone, eurycomanol, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside. The extracts from other locations contained the same metabolites. The limit of quantification values were 1.96 (eurycomanone), 15.62 (eurycomanol), 3.91 (13,21-dihydroeurycomanone), and 31.25 (eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside) ppm. The Hotelling's T(2) plot revealed no outlier. The orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis model showed that choline, eurycomanol, eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside, and lactic and succinic acid levels were different among regions. Terengganu and Perak samples contained higher amounts of eurycomanol and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside, respectively. The current approach efficiently detected E. longifolia root metabolites, quantified the quassinoids, and discriminated E. longifolia roots from different locations. These findings could be applicable to future research on E. longifolia where the higher content of quassinoids is required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods*
  11. Fadzillah NA, Man Yb, Rohman A, Rosman AS, Ismail A, Mustafa S, et al.
    J Oleo Sci, 2015;64(7):697-703.
    PMID: 25994556 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess14255
    The authentication of food products from the presence of non-allowed components for certain religion like lard is very important. In this study, we used proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy for the analysis of butter adulterated with lard by simultaneously quantification of all proton bearing compounds, and consequently all relevant sample classes. Since the spectra obtained were too complex to be analyzed visually by the naked eyes, the classification of spectra was carried out.The multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS) regression was used for modelling the relationship between actual value of lard and predicted value. The model yielded a highest regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.998 and the lowest root mean square error calibration (RMSEC) of 0.0091% and root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0090, respectively. Cross validation testing evaluates the predictive power of the model. PLS model was shown as good models as the intercept of R(2)Y and Q(2)Y were 0.0853 and -0.309, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods*
  12. Islam MS, Al-Majid AM, Barakat A, Soliman SM, Ghabbour HA, Quah CK, et al.
    Molecules, 2015 May 07;20(5):8223-41.
    PMID: 25961163 DOI: 10.3390/molecules20058223
    This paper describes an efficient and regioselective method for the synthesis of novel fluorinated spiro-heterocycles in excellent yield by cascade [5+1] double Michael addition reactions. The compounds 7,11-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-2,4-dimethyl- 2,4-diazaspiro[5.5] undecane-1,3,5,9-tetraone (3a) and 2,4-dimethyl-7,11-bis (4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,4-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-1,3,5,9-tetraone (3b) were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and NMR techniques. The optimized geometrical parameters, infrared vibrational frequencies and NMR chemical shifts of the studied compounds have also been calculated using the density functional theory (DFT) method, using Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr functional and the 6-311G(d,p) basis set. There is good agreement between the experimentally determined structural parameters, vibrational frequencies and NMR chemical shifts of the studied compounds and those predicted theoretically. The calculated natural atomic charges using NBO method showed higher polarity of 3a compared to 3b.The calculated electronic spectra are also discussed based on the TD-DFT calculations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods
  13. Ma NL, Teh KY, Lam SS, Kaben AM, Cha TS
    Bioresour. Technol., 2015 Aug;190:536-42.
    PMID: 25812996 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.03.036
    This study demonstrates the use of NMR techniques coupled with chemometric analysis as a high throughput data mining method to identify and examine the efficiency of different disruption techniques tested on microalgae (Chlorella variabilis, Scenedesmus regularis and Ankistrodesmus gracilis). The yield and chemical diversity from the disruptions together with the effects of pre-oven and pre-freeze drying prior to disruption techniques were discussed. HCl extraction showed the highest recovery of oil compounds from the disrupted microalgae (up to 90%). In contrast, NMR analysis showed the highest intensity of bioactive metabolites obtained for homogenized extracts pre-treated with freeze-drying, indicating that homogenizing is a more favorable approach to recover bioactive substances from the disrupted microalgae. The results show the potential of NMR as a useful metabolic fingerprinting tool for assessing compound diversity in complex microalgae extracts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods*
  14. Prakash I, Bunders C, Devkota KP, Charan RD, Ramirez C, Snyder TM, et al.
    Molecules, 2014 Oct 28;19(11):17345-55.
    PMID: 25353385 DOI: 10.3390/molecules191117345
    To supply the increasing demand of natural high potency sweeteners to reduce the calories in food and beverages, we have looked to steviol glycosides. In this work we report the bioconversion of rebaudioside A to rebaudioside I using a glucosyltransferase enzyme. This bioconversion reaction adds one sugar unit with a 1→3 linkage. We utilized 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D TOCSY and NOESY) and mass spectral data to fully characterize rebaudioside I.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods
  15. Nawaz M, Arayne MS, Sultana N, Abbas HF
    PMID: 25300038 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2014.08.152
    This work describes a RP-HPLC method for the determination and interaction studies of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors (captopril, enalapril and lisinopril) in various buffers. The separation and interaction of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors was achieved on a Purospher Star, C18 (5 μm, 250×4.6 mm) column. Mobile phase consisted of methanol: water (80:20, v/v, pH 3.3); however, for the separation of lisinopril, it was modified to methanol-water (40:60, v/v, pH 3.3) and pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1). In all cases, UV detection was performed at 225 nm. Interactions were carried out in physiological pH i.e., pH 1 (simulated gastric juice), 4 (simulated full stomach), 7.4 (blood pH) and 9 (simulated GI), drug contents were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Method was found linear in the concentration range of 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) with correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.999. Precision (RSD%) was less than 2.0%, indicating good precision of the method and accuracy was 98.0-100.0%. Furthermore, cefpirome-ACE-inhibitors' complexes were also synthesized and results were elucidated on the basis of FT-IR, and (1)H NMR. The interaction results show that these interactions are pH dependent and for the co-administration of cefpirome and ACE-inhibitors, a proper interval should be given.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods
  16. Abdul Hamid NA, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Abas F, Park YS, Leontowicz H, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2017 May 10;138:80-91.
    PMID: 28189049 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2017.01.046
    It is known from our previous studies that kiwifruits, which are used in common human diet, have preventive properties of coronary artery disease. This study describes a combination of (1)H NMR spectroscopy, multivariate data analyses and fluorescence measurements in differentiating of some kiwifruit varieties, their quenching and antioxidant properties. A total of 41 metabolites were identified by comparing with literature data Chenomx database and 2D NMR. The binding properties of the extracted polyphenols against HSA showed higher reactivity of studied two cultivars in comparison with the common Hayward. The results showed that the fluorescence of HSA was quenched by Bidan as much as twice than by other fruits. The correlation between the binding properties of polyphenols in the investigated fruits, their relative quantification and suggested metabolic pathway was established. These results can provide possible application of fruit extracts in pharmaceutical industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods
  17. Abu Bakar Sajak A, Mediani A, Maulidiani, Ismail A, Abas F
    Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 2017 Jun;182(2):653-668.
    PMID: 27995574 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-016-2352-9
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered as a complex metabolic disease because it affects the metabolism of glucose and other metabolites. Although many diabetes studies have been conducted in animal models throughout the years, the pathogenesis of this disease, especially between lean diabetes (ND + STZ) and obese diabetes (OB + STZ), is still not fully understood. In this study, the urine from ND + STZ, OB + STZ, lean/control (ND), and OB + STZ rats were collected and compared by using (1)H NMR metabolomics. The results from multivariate data analysis (MVDA) showed that the diabetic groups (ND + STZ and OB + STZ) have similarities and dissimilarities for a certain level of metabolites. Differences between ND + STZ and OB + STZ were particularly noticeable in the synthesis of ketone bodies, branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), and sensitivity towards the oral T2DM diabetes drug metformin. This finding suggests that the ND + STZ group was more similar to the T1DM model and OB + STZ to the T2DM model. In addition, we also managed to identify several pathways and metabolism aspects shared by obese (OB) and OB + STZ. The results from this study are useful in developing drug target-based research as they can increase understanding regarding the cause and effect of DM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods
  18. Au A
    Adv Clin Chem, 2018 03 08;85:31-69.
    PMID: 29655461 DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2018.02.002
    Ischemic stroke is a sudden loss of brain function due to the reduction of blood flow. Brain tissues cease to function with subsequent activation of the ischemic cascade. Metabolomics and lipidomics are modern disciplines that characterize the metabolites and lipid components of a biological system, respectively. Because the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is heterogeneous and multifactorial, it is crucial to establish comprehensive metabolomic and lipidomic approaches to elucidate these alterations in this disease. Fortunately, metabolomic and lipidomic studies have the distinct advantages of identifying tissue/mechanism-specific biomarkers, predicting treatment and clinical outcome, and improving our understanding of the pathophysiologic basis of disease states. Therefore, recent applications of these analytical approaches in the early diagnosis of ischemic stroke were discussed. In addition, the emerging roles of metabolomics and lipidomics on ischemic stroke were summarized, in order to gain new insights into the mechanisms underlying ischemic stroke and in the search for novel metabolite biomarkers and their related pathways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods
  19. Azizan A, Ahamad Bustamam MS, Maulidiani M, Shaari K, Ismail IS, Nagao N, et al.
    Mar Drugs, 2018 May 07;16(5).
    PMID: 29735927 DOI: 10.3390/md16050154
    Microalgae are promising candidate resources from marine ecology for health-improving effects. Metabolite profiling of the microalgal diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans was conducted by using robust metabolomics tools, namely ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The unsupervised data analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), resolved the five types of extracts made by solvents ranging from polar to non-polar into five different clusters. Collectively, with various extraction solvents, 11 amino acids, cholesterol, 6 fatty acids, 2 sugars, 1 osmolyte, 6 carotenoids and 2 chlorophyll pigments were identified. The fatty acids and both carotenoid pigments as well as chlorophyll, were observed in the extracts made from medium polar (acetone, chloroform) and non-polar (hexane) solvents. It is suggested that the compounds were the characteristic markers that influenced the separation between the clusters. Based on partial least square (PLS) analysis, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and lutein displayed strong correlation to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity. This metabolomics study showed that solvent extractions are one of the main bottlenecks for the maximum recovery of bioactive microalgal compounds and could be a better source of natural antioxidants due to a high value of metabolites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods
  20. Ito T, Okada K, Leong KH, Hirai D, Hayashi Y, Kumada S, et al.
    Chem. Pharm. Bull., 2019;67(3):271-276.
    PMID: 30828004 DOI: 10.1248/cpb.c18-00888
    The different states of water incorporated in wet granules were studied by a low-field benchtop 1H-NMR time-domain NMR (TD-NMR) instrument. Wet granules consisting different fillers [cornstarch (CS), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and D-mannitol (MAN)] with different water contents were prepared using a high-speed granulator, and then their spin-spin relaxation time (T2) was measured using the NMR relaxation technique. The experimental T2 relaxation curves were analyzed by the two-component curve fitting, and then the individual T2 relaxation behaviors of solid and water in wet granules were identified. According to the observed T2 values, it was confirmed that the molecular mobility of water in CS and MCC granules was more restricted than that in the MAN granule. The state of water appeared to be associated with the drying efficiency and moisture absorption capacity of wet granules. Thus, it was confirmed that the state of water significantly affected the wet granulation process and the characteristics of the resultant granules. In the final phase of this study, the effects of binders on the molecular mobility of water in granulation fluids and wet granules were examined. The state of water in granulation fluids was substantially changed by changing the binders. The difference was still detected in wet granules prepared by addition of these fluids to the fillers. In conclusion, TD-NMR can offer valuable knowledge on wet granulation from the viewpoint of molecular mobility of water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods*
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