Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 101 in total

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  1. Bala U, Tan KL, Ling KH, Cheah PS
    BMC Res Notes, 2014;7:714.
    PMID: 25304607 DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-714
    Over the past several decades, many studies concerning peripheral nerve damage or regeneration have been performed. Mice have been widely used for many of these studies, with the sciatic nerve being the most targeted and preferred nerve. Therefore, techniques for harvesting mouse sciatic nerves of a maximum length that is sufficient for different analyses will be highly valuable. Here we describe a simple step-by-step guide for harvesting the maximum length of mouse sciatic nerve and compare the length of the harvested nerves gathered with the proposed method with nerves obtained using a conventional mid-thigh incision approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  2. Perumal R, Tan I
    IUBMB Life, 2007 Jul;59(7):465-8.
    PMID: 17654123
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  3. Zain MA, Pandy V, Majeed ABA, Wong WF, Mohamed Z
    Exp. Anim., 2019 Feb 26;68(1):113-124.
    PMID: 30393276 DOI: 10.1538/expanim.18-0078
    Chronic stress has been associated with impairment of memory, learning, and social cognition. In animal studies, chronic stress has been shown to impair rodent sociability behaviour which mimics social withdrawal as observed in depression patients. The effect of chronic stress on social recognition, however, is uncertain. Moreover, with reference to spatial learning and memory, the effect of chronic stress is dependent on the type of behavioural task: an appetitively or aversively motivated tasks. The effect of chronic stress was consistent in impairing spatial learning and memory in the appetitive task; however, the effect was inconsistent in an aversive task like the Morris water maze. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of chronic restraint stress on sociability and social recognition by using a modified protocol of the three-chamber paradigm and the effect of chronic restraint stress on spatial learning and memory by using the Morris water maze test in young adult C57BL/6J male mice. The present report also describes a modified protocol of the three-chamber paradigm. Our modification is based on measurement of sniffing behaviour, which is a direct social interaction that represents sociability. We used the chronic restraint stress paradigm for 6 h/day for 21 days to induce depression-like symptoms in male C57BL/6J mice which were validated by forced-swim test. We observed that the stressed group had impairments in their sociability behaviour but that social recognition was not affected. Furthermore, we confirmed that chronic stress produced no significant impairment in spatial learning and memory of the mice in the water maze.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  4. Chowdhury MR, Moshikur RM, Wakabayashi R, Tahara Y, Kamiya N, Moniruzzaman M, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2019 May 08;565:219-226.
    PMID: 31077761 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.05.020
    In order to prevent common hypersensitivity reactions to paclitaxel injections (Taxol), we previously reported an ionic liquid-mediated paclitaxel (IL-PTX) formulation with small particle size and narrow size distribution. The preliminary work showed high PTX solubility in the IL, and the formulation demonstrated similar antitumor activity to Taxol, while inducing a smaller hypersensitivity effect in in vitro cell experiments. In this study, the stability of the IL-PTX formulation was monitored by quantitative HPLC analysis, which showed that IL-PTX was more stable at 4 °C than at room temperature. The in vivo study showed that the IL-PTX formulation could be used in a therapeutic application as a biocompatible component of a drug delivery system. To assess the in-vivo biocompatibility, IL or IL-mediated formulations were administered intravenously by maintaining physiological buffered conditions (neutral pH and isotonic salt concentration). From in vivo pharmacokinetics data, the IL-PTX formulation was found to have a similar systemic circulation time and slower elimination rate compared to cremophor EL mediated paclitaxel (CrEL-PTX). Furthermore, in vivo antitumor and hypersensitivity experiments in C57BL/6 mice revealed that IL-PTX had similar antitumor activity to CrEL-PTX, but a significantly smaller hypersensitivity effect compared with CrEL-PTX. Therefore, the IL-mediated formulation has potential to be an effective and safe drug delivery system for PTX.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  5. Sanchez-Bezanilla S, Nilsson M, Walker FR, Ong LK
    Front Mol Neurosci, 2019;12:181.
    PMID: 31417355 DOI: 10.3389/fnmol.2019.00181
    2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining is a commonly used method to determine the volume of the cerebral infarction in experimental stroke models. The TTC staining protocol is considered to interfere with downstream analyses, and it is unclear whether TTC-stained brain samples can be used for biochemistry analyses. However, there is evidence indicating that, with proper optimization and handling, TTC-stained brains may remain viable for protein analyses. In the present study, we aimed to rigorously assess whether TTC can reliably be used for western blotting of various markers. In this study, brain samples obtained from C57BL/6 male mice were treated with TTC (TTC+) or left untreated (TTC-) at 1 week after photothrombotic occlusion or sham surgery. Brain regions were dissected into infarct, thalamus, and hippocampus, and proteins were extracted by using radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer. Protein levels of apoptosis, autophagy, neuronal, glial, vascular, and neurodegenerative-related markers were analyzed by western blotting. Our results showed that TTC+ brains display similar relative changes in most of the markers compared with TTC- brains. In addition, we validated that these analyses can be performed in the infarct as well as other brain regions such as the thalamus and hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate that TTC+ brains are reliable for protein analyses using western blotting. Widespread adoption of this approach will be key to lowering the number of animals used while maximizing data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  6. Azuma H, Okamoto M, Oku Y, Kamiya M
    Parasitol. Res., 1995;81(2):103-8.
    PMID: 7731915
    The intraspecific variation of four laboratory-reared isolates of Taenia taeniaformis the SRN and KRN isolates from Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, captured in Japan and Malaysia, respectively; the BMM isolated from a house mouse, Mus musculus, captured in Belgium; and the ACR isolate from a gray red-backed vole, Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, captured in Japan was examined by various criteria. Eggs of each of the four isolates were orally inoculated into several species of intermediate host. They were most infective to the rodent species from which the original metacestode of each isolate had been isolated in the field, and only the ACR isolate was infective to the gray red-backed vole. Although little difference was found between the SRN, KRN, and BMM isolates by the other criteria, including the morphology of rostellar hooks, the protein composition of the metacestode, and restriction endonuclease analysis of DNA, the ACR isolate was clearly different from the others. It was considered that the ACR isolate was independent as a strain distinct from the other three isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL/parasitology
  7. Radford R, Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier A, Wong MB, Eaton ED, Quilty M, Blizzard C, et al.
    Mol. Cell. Neurosci., 2015 Mar;65:68-81.
    PMID: 25731829 DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2015.02.015
    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) exhibits widespread astrogliosis together with α-synuclein (α-syn) glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in mature oligodendrocytes. We quantified astrocyte activation by morphometric analysis of MSA cases, and investigated the correlation to GCI proximity. Using Imaris software, we obtained "skinned" three-dimensional models of GFAP-positive astrocytes in MSA and control tissue (n=75) from confocal z-stacks and measured the astrocyte process length and thickness and radial distance to the GCI. Astrocytes proximal to GCI-containing oligodendrocytes (r<25μm) had significantly (p, 0.05) longer and thicker processes characteristic of activation than distal astrocytes (r>25μm), with a reciprocal linear correlation (m, 90μm(2)) between mean process length and radial distance to the nearest GCI (R(2), 0.7). In primary cell culture studies, α-syn addition caused ERK-dependent activation of rat astrocytes and perinuclear α-syn inclusions in mature (MOSP-positive) rat oligodendrocytes. Activated astrocytes were also observed in close proximity to α-syn deposits in a unilateral rotenone-lesion mouse model. Moreover, unilateral injection of MSA tissue-derived α-syn into the mouse medial forebrain bundle resulted in widespread neuroinflammation in the α-syn-injected, but not sham-injected hemisphere. Taken together, our data suggests that the action of localized concentrations of α-syn may underlie both astrocyte and oligodendrocyte MSA pathological features.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  8. Muthuraju S, Islam MR, Pati S, Jaafar H, Abdullah JM, Yusoff KM
    Int. J. Neurosci., 2015;125(9):686-92.
    PMID: 25180987 DOI: 10.3109/00207454.2014.961065
    Dopamine (DA) is one of the key neurotransmitters in the striatum, which is functionally important for a variety of cognitive and motor behaviours. It is known that the striatum is vulnerable to damage from traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, a therapeutic approach has not yet been established to treat TBI. Hence, the present work aimed to evaluate the ability of Normobaric hyperoxia treatment (NBOT) to recover dopaminergic neurons following a fluid percussion injury (FPI) as a TBI experimental animal model. To examine this, mice were divided into four groups: (i) Control, (ii) Sham, (iii) FPI and (iv) FPI+NBOT. Mice were anesthetized and surgically prepared for FPI in the striatum and immediate exposure to NBOT at various time points (3, 6, 12 and 24 h). Dopamine levels were then estimated post injury by utilizing a commercially available ELISA method specific to DA. We found that DA levels were significantly reduced at 3 h, but there was no reduction at 6, 12 and 24 h in FPI groups when compared to the control and sham groups. Subjects receiving NBOT showed consistent increased DA levels at each time point when compared with Sham and FPI groups. These results suggest that FPI may alter DA levels at the early post-TBI stages but not in later stages. While DA levels increased in 6, 12 and 24 h in the FPI groups, NBOT could be used to accelerate the prevention of early dopaminergic neuronal damage following FPI injury and improve DA levels consistently.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  9. Dups J, Middleton D, Long F, Arkinstall R, Marsh GA, Wang LF
    Virol. J., 2014;11:102.
    PMID: 24890603 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-11-102
    Nipah virus and Hendra virus are closely related and following natural or experimental exposure induce similar clinical disease. In humans, encephalitis is the most serious outcome of infection and, hitherto, research into the pathogenesis of henipavirus encephalitis has been limited by the lack of a suitable model. Recently we reported a wild-type mouse model of Hendra virus (HeV) encephalitis that should facilitate detailed investigations of its neuropathogenesis, including mechanisms of disease recrudescence. In this study we investigated the possibility of developing a similar model of Nipah virus encephalitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  10. Lee YY, Tang TK, Ab Karim NA, Alitheen NB, Lai OM
    Food Funct, 2014 Jan;5(1):57-64.
    PMID: 24247642 DOI: 10.1039/c3fo60358j
    Structured lipid medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) are claimed to be able to manage obesity. The present study investigated the body fat influence of enzymatically interesterifed palm-based medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (P-MLCT) on diet-induced obesity (DIO) C57BL/6J mice compared with commercial MLCT oil (C-MLCT) and a control, which was the non enzymatically modified palm kernel and palm oil blend (PKO-PO blend). It also investigated the low fat and high fat effects of P-MLCT. DIO C57BL/6J mice were fed ad libitum with low fat (7%) and high fat (30%) experimental diets for 8 weeks before being sacrificed to obtain blood serum for analysis. From the results, there is a trend that P-MLCT fed mice were found to have the lowest body weight, body weight gain, total fat pad accumulation (perirenal, retroperitoneal, epididymal and mesenteric), total triglyceride levels and efficiency in controlling blood glucose level, compared with C-MLCT and the PKO-PO blend in both low fat and high fat diets. Nevertheless, the PKO-PO blend and P-MLCT caused significantly (P < 0.05) higher total cholesterol levels compared to C-MLCT. P-MLCT present in low fat and high fat dosage were shown to be able to suppress body fat accumulation. This effect is more prominent with the low fat dosage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  11. Puvanesuaran VR, Ibrahim N, Noordin R, Balakrishnan V
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2012 Sep;16(9):1179-83.
    PMID: 23047500
    AIM: A method was developed to separate contaminant-free viable Toxoplasma gondii cysts from brain samples of infected mice for molecular biology studies and reinfection.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mice brains were homogenized and washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) Tween 80 prior to fractionation using 19-22% dextran solution. Finally, the supernatant was purified by two-step membrane filtration (100-160 microm and < 10 microm) to obtain pure T. gondii cyst. The isolates were analyzed through microscopic observation, qPCR and by reinfection of new batch of mice.
    RESULTS: T. gondii cysts were best isolated with 21% dextran solution and two step filtration.
    CONCLUSIONS: The method was observed not to disrupt the integrity of the cysts containing bradyzoites. In addition, the isolated cysts in the filtrate were found to be contaminant-free, viable and able to infect healthy mice when introduced orally; which, mimics the natural infectivity pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  12. Moriya S, Soga T, Wong DW, Parhar IS
    Neurosci. Lett., 2016 May 27;622:67-71.
    PMID: 27113202 DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2016.04.052
    The decrease in serotonergic neurotransmission during aging can increase the risk of neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression in elderly population and decline the reproductive system. Therefore, it is important to understand the age-associated molecular mechanisms of brain aging. In this study, the effect of aging and chronic escitalopram (antidepressant) treatment to admit mice was investigated by comparing transcriptomes in the preoptic area (POA) which is a key nucleus for reproduction. In the mid-aged brain, the immune system-related genes were increased and hormone response-related genes were decreased. In the escitalopram treated brains, transcription-, granule cell proliferation- and vasoconstriction-related genes were increased and olfactory receptors were decreased. Since homeostasis and neuroprotection-related genes were altered in both of mid-age and escitalopram treatment, these genes could be important for serotonin related physiologies in the POA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  13. Housseau F, Wu S, Wick EC, Fan H, Wu X, Llosa NJ, et al.
    Cancer Res., 2016 04 15;76(8):2115-24.
    PMID: 26880802 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-0749
    IL17-producing Th17 cells, generated through a STAT3-dependent mechanism, have been shown to promote carcinogenesis in many systems, including microbe-driven colon cancer. Additional sources of IL17, such as γδ T cells, become available under inflammatory conditions, but their contributions to cancer development are unclear. In this study, we modeled Th17-driven colon tumorigenesis by colonizing Min(Ap) (c+/-) mice with the human gut bacterium, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), to investigate the link between inflammation and colorectal cancer. We found that ablating Th17 cells by knocking out Stat3 in CD4(+) T cells delayed tumorigenesis, but failed to suppress the eventual formation of colonic tumors. However, IL17 blockade significantly attenuated tumor formation, indicating a critical requirement for IL17 in tumorigenesis, but from a source other than Th17 cells. Notably, genetic ablation of γδ T cells in ETBF-colonized Th17-deficient Min mice prevented the late emergence of colonic tumors. Taken together, these findings support a redundant role for adaptive Th17 cell- and innate γδT17 cell-derived IL17 in bacteria-induced colon carcinogenesis, stressing the importance of therapeutically targeting the cytokine itself rather than its cellular sources. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2115-24. ©2016 AACR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  14. Khor KH, Moore TA, Shiels IA, Greer RM, Arumugam TV, Mills PC
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(1):e0146022.
    PMID: 26727203 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146022
    PURPOSE: Inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of specific cardiovascular diseases, but it is uncertain if mediators released during the inflammatory process will affect the continued efficacy of drugs used to treat clinical signs of the cardiac disease. We investigated the role of the complement 5a receptor 1 (C5aR1/CD88) in the cardiac response to inflammation or atenolol, and the effect of C5aR1 deletion in control of baseline heart rate in an anesthetized mouse model.

    METHODS: An initial study showed that PMX53, an antagonist of C5aR1 in normal C57BL6/J (wild type, WT) mice reduced heart rate (HR) and appeared to have a protective effect on the heart following induced sepsis. C5aR1 knockout (CD88-/-) mice had a lower HR than wild type mice, even during sham surgery. A model to assess heart rate variability (HRV) in anesthetized mice was developed to assess the effects of inhibiting the β1-adrenoreceptor (β1-AR) in a randomized crossover study design.

    RESULTS: HR and LF Norm were constitutively lower and SDNN and HF Norm constitutively higher in the CD88-/- compared with WT mice (P< 0.001 for all outcomes). Administration of atenolol (2.5 mg/kg) reduced the HR and increased HRV (P< 0.05, respectively) in the wild type but not in the CD88-/- mice. There was no shift of the sympathovagal balance post-atenolol in either strains of mice (P> 0.05), except for the reduced LF/HF (Lower frequency/High frequency) ratio (P< 0.05) at 60 min post-atenolol, suggesting increased parasympathetic tone of the heart due to the effect of atenolol administration. The HR of the WT mice were lower post atenolol compared to the CD88-/- mice (P = 0.001) but the HRV of CD88-/- mice were significantly increased (P< 0.05), compared with WT mice.

    CONCLUSION: Knockout of the C5aR1 attenuated the effect of β1-AR in the heart, suggesting an association between the β1-AR and C5aR1, although further investigation is required to determine if this is a direct or causal association.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  15. Jose S, Tan SW, Tong CK, Vidyadaran S
    Cell Biol. Int., 2015 Dec;39(12):1355-63.
    PMID: 26194799 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.10516
    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). Apart from playing vital roles as sentinel cells, they are crucial in physiological processes such as synaptic pruning during brain development. CNS disorders require an understanding of the contribution of each cellular compartment to the pathogenesis. Elucidating the role of microglia in disease development and progression in the intricate CNS environment is technically challenging and requires the establishment of reliable, reproducible techniques to isolate and culture microglia. A number of different protocols have been developed for isolation of neonatal microglia and here we compare two widely used methods, namely, mild trypsinization and EasySep® magnetic separation. EasySep® magnetic separation provided higher microglia yield, and flow cytometric evaluation of CD11b and F4/80 markers revealed that EasySep® separation method also produced significantly higher purity compared to mild trypsinization. Microglia isolated using EasySep® separation method were functional, as demonstrated by the generation of nitric oxide, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. In summary, this study has revealed that magnetic separation is superior to mild trypsinization in terms of yield and purity of microglia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  16. Botelho DJ, Leo BF, Massa CB, Sarkar S, Tetley TD, Chung KF, et al.
    Nanotoxicology, 2016;10(1):118-27.
    PMID: 26152688 DOI: 10.3109/17435390.2015.1038330
    Multiple studies have examined the direct cellular toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). However, the lung is a complex biological system with multiple cell types and a lipid-rich surface fluid; therefore, organ level responses may not depend on direct cellular toxicity. We hypothesized that interaction with the lung lining is a critical determinant of organ level responses. Here, we have examined the effects of low dose intratracheal instillation of AgNPs (0.05 μg/g body weight) 20 and 110 nm diameter in size, and functionalized with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone. Both size and functionalization were significant factors in particle aggregation and lipid interaction in vitro. One day post-intratracheal instillation lung function was assessed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue collected. There were no signs of overt inflammation. There was no change in surfactant protein-B content in the BAL but there was loss of surfactant protein-D with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized particles. Mechanical impedance data demonstrated a significant increase in pulmonary elastance as compared to control, greatest with 110 nm PVP-stabilized particles. Seven days post-instillation of PVP-stabilized particles increased BAL cell counts, and reduced lung function was observed. These changes resolved by 21 days. Hence, AgNP-mediated alterations in the lung lining and mechanical function resolve by 21 days. Larger particles and PVP stabilization produce the largest disruptions. These studies demonstrate that low dose AgNPs elicit deficits in both mechanical and innate immune defense function, suggesting that organ level toxicity should be considered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  17. Puvanesuaran VR, Nowroji K, Sreenivasan S, Noordin R, Balakrishnan V
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2012 Aug;16(8):1028-32.
    PMID: 22913152
    AIM: To determine the usefulness of prednisolone in increasing the number of Toxoplasma (T.) gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites in mice.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mice were water-fasted prior to being immunosuppressed with oral inoculation of prednisolone. Tachyzoites of 7T gondii RH strain were inoculated into mice and the number of the parasites in the intraperitoneal fluids was then determined at 96 hs post-infection. In addition, tachyzoites of T. gondii ME49 strains were orally introduced into mice and the number of brain cysts formed was observed by microscopic observation at 45 days post-infection.
    RESULTS: T. gondii propagation was found to be significantly improved by introduction of the prednisolone (p = 0.0004); and the number of parasite showed positive correlation with the increment in dosage of prednisolone (r = 0.9051).
    CONCLUSIONS: The use of prednisolone greatly improved the number of parasite formed in mice: both tachyzoite and cyst forms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  18. Rahmah N, Khairul Anuar A
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1992 Dec 15;189(2):640-4.
    PMID: 1472034
    Mice were chronically infected with cysts of ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii. At different periods post-infection, their spleens were removed and single cell suspensions were made. Lymphocyte transformation experiments were performed on the lymphocyte suspensions using three different kinds of antigens of ME49 strain of T. gondii, namely soluble, excretory/secretory and cystic forms. The results showed that the pattern of lymphocyte responsiveness was dependent on the kind of antigen employed for induction of the blastogenesis. Using soluble and cystic forms of the antigen, different periods of lymphocyte suppression and lymphocyte proliferation were demonstrated. However, with the use of excretory/secretory antigen, no significant suppression of lymphocyte stimulation was noted throughout the course of infection. Thus excretory/secretory antigen may be the best form of antigen for stimulation of the cell-mediated immune response and hence it appears to be a good candidate for vaccine in toxoplasmosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  19. Rahmah N, Anuar AK
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1992 Aug 31;187(1):294-8.
    PMID: 1520310
    C57BL/6 mice were orally infected with different doses of cysts of ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii to produce groups of acutely and chronically infected mice. Sera were obtained at different periods post-infection. SDS-PAGE was ran with excretory/secretory antigens of ME49 and RH strains of T. gondii, followed by Western blot analyses using the above sera and anti- IgA, IgM, IgG as conjugates. The SDS-PAGE profiles of the two antigens were similar. However the antigenic bands showed variations in all blots, most evidently in IgA blots of chronic sera. IgG blots showed greatest similarities in reactive bands. In IgM blots, more common bands were shown in chronic sera than in acute sera. Variations and similarities in prominence of some bands and time of their appearance were also noted, especially in IgM and IgG blots of chronic sera. Thus antigenic variations and similarities are present in excretory/secretory products of different strains of T. gondii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
  20. Lee YY, Tang TK, Phuah ET, Karim NAA, Alitheen NBM, Tan CP, et al.
    Food Res. Int., 2018 01;103:200-207.
    PMID: 29389606 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.10.022
    Medium-and-Long Chain Triacylglycerol (MLCT) is a type of structured lipid that is made up of medium chain, MCFA (C8-C12) and long chain, LCFA (C16-C22) fatty acid. Studies claimed that consumption of MLCT has the potential in reducing visceral fat accumulation as compared to long chain triacylglycerol, LCT. This is mainly attributed to the rapid metabolism of MCFA as compared to LCFA. Our study was designed to compare the anti-obesity effects of a enzymatically interesterified MLCT (E-MLCT) with physical blend of palm kernel and palm oil (B-PKOPO) having similar fatty acid composition and a commercial MLCT (C-MLCT) made of rapeseed/soybean oil on Diet Induced Obesity (DIO) C57BL/6J mice for a period of four months in low fat, LF (7%) and high fat, HF (30%) diet. The main aim was to determine if the anti-obesity effect of MLCT was contributed solely by its triacylglycerol structure alone or its fatty acid composition or both. Out of the three types of MLCT, mice fed with Low Fat, LF (7%) E-MLCT had significantly (P<0.05) lower body weight gain (by ~30%), body fat accumulation (by ~37%) and hormone leptin level as compared to both the LF B-PKOPO and LF C-MLCT. Histological examination further revealed that dietary intake of E-MLCT inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation. Besides, analysis of serum profile also demonstrated that consumption of E-MLCT was better in regulating blood glucose compared to B-PKOPO and C-MLCT. Nevertheless, both B-PKO-PO and E-MLCT which contained higher level of myristic acid was found to be hypercholesterolemic compared to C-MLCT. In summary, our finding showed that triacylglycerol structure, fatty acid composition and fat dosage play a pivotal role in regulating visceral fat accumulation. Consumption of E-MLCT in low fat diet led to a significantly lesser body fat accumulation. It was postulated that the MLM/MLL/LMM/MML/LLM types of triacylglycerol and C8-C12 medium chain fatty acids were the main factors that contributed to the visceral fat suppressing effect of MLCT. Despite being able to reduce body fat, the so called healthful functional oil E-MLCT when taken in high amount do resulted in fat accumulation. In summary, E-MLCT when taken in moderation can be used to manage obesity issue. However, consumption of E-MLCT may lead to higher total cholesterol and LDL level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL
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