Of the 572 neuroscience-related studies published in Nigerian from 1996 to 2017, <5% used state-of-the-art techniques, none used transgenic models, and only one study was published in a top-tier journal.
Muslim relies on the structure or guideline of shari'ah or the maqasid al-shariah, which consist of five essential values, namely preservation/protection of faith, life, intellect, property, and dignity/lineage - to guide them in discovering guiding principles for new concerns such as posed by neuroscience. Like in the case of brain imaging technology, there is in need for proper explanation within Islamic and among the Muslim scientists/scholars on how Islamic beliefs, values, and practices might cumulatively provide 'different' meanings to the practice and application of this technology, or whether it is in line with the shari'ah - in the context of preservation of health and protection of disease. This paper highlights the Islamic mechanism for neuroethics as basis for a holistic ethical framework of neuroscience to cope with its new, modern, and emerging technologies in the globalised world, and how Muslim should response to such changes.
Africa is faced with an increasing underrepresentation of her research progress in many fields of science including neuroscience. This underrepresentation stems from the very low investments directed towards research by African governments as these are thought to be high-priced. Scientists and researchers within the continent are left to compete highly for the very limited research grants or choose to fund research from their personal purse. Therefore, presenting a need for all possible strategies to make science and research approaches more affordable in Africa. This paper presents one of such strategy, which advocates the use of invertebrate animal models for neuroscience research in place of the commonly used vertebrate models. Invertebrates are cheaper, more available and easy to handle options and their use is on the rise, even in the developed societies of the world. Here, we investigate the current state of invertebrate neuroscience research in Africa looking at countries and institutions conducting neuroscience research with invertebrates and their publication output. We discuss the factors which impede invertebrate neuroscience research in Africa like lack of research infrastructure and adequate expert scientists and conclude by suggesting solutions to these challenges.
Neuroscience research and training in many African countries are difficult due to funding and infrastructure deficit. This has resulted in few neuroscientists within Africa. However, invertebrates such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans could provide the perfect answer to these difficulties. These organisms are cheap, easy to handle and offer a comparable advantage over vertebrates in neuroscience research modeling because they have a simple nervous system and exhibit well-defined behaviors. Studies using invertebrates have helped to understand neurosciences and the complexes associated with it. If Africa wants to catch up with the rest of the world in neuroscience research, it needs to employ this innovative cost-effective approach in its research. To improve invertebrate neuroscience within the Africa continent, the authors advocated the establishment of invertebrate research centers either at regional or national level across Africa. Finally, there is also a need to provide public funding to consolidate the gains that have been made by not-for-profit international organizations over the years.
The science of the brain and nervous system cuts across almost all aspects of human life and is one of the fastest growing scientific fields worldwide. This necessitates the demand for pragmatic investment by all nations to ensure improved education and quality of research in Neurosciences. Although obvious efforts are being made in advancing the field in developed societies, there is limited data addressing the state of neuroscience in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we review the state of neuroscience development in Nigeria, Africa's most populous country and its largest economy, critically evaluating the history, the current situation and future projections. This review specifically addresses trends in clinical and basic neuroscience research and education. We conclude by highlighting potentially helpful strategies that will catalyse development in neuroscience education and research in Nigeria, among which are an increase in research funding, provision of tools and equipment for training and research, and upgrading of the infrastructure at hand.
Diseases involving the nervous system drastically change lives of victims and commonly increase dependency on others. This paper focuses on senile dementia from both the neuroscientific and Islamic perspectives, with special emphasis on the integration of ideas between the two different disciplines. This would enable effective implementation of strategies to address issues involving this disease across different cultures, especially among the world-wide Muslim communities. In addition, certain incongruence ideas on similar issues can be understood better. The former perspective is molded according to conventional modern science, while the latter on the analysis of various texts including the holy Qur'an, sunnah [sayings and actions of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad (pbuh)] and writings of Islamic scholars. Emphasis is particularly given on causes, symptoms, treatments and prevention of dementia.
Universiti Sains Malaysia is the only institution in Malaysia which incorporates all fields of the neurosciences under one roof. The integration of basic and clinical neurosciences has made it possible for this institution to become an excellent academic and research centre. This article describes the history, academic contributions and scientific progress of neurosciences at Universiti Sains Malaysia.
12 months ago the first Neuroscience special issue of the Malaysia Journal of Medical Sciences was born with the intention to increase the number of local publication dedicated to neurosciences. Since then many events happened in the neuroscience world of Malaysia, those considered major were the establishment of a Neurotechnology Foresight 2050 task force by the Academy of Medicine Malaysia as well as the launching of Malaysia as the 18th member to join the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility on the 9th October 2015 which was officiated by the Deputy Ministers of Higher Education, Datuk Mary Yap.
The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences and the Orient Neuron Nexus have amalgated to publish a yearly special issue based on neuro- and brain sciences. This will hopefully improve the quality of peer-reviewed manuscripts in the field of fundamental, applied, and clinical neuroscience and brain science from Asian countries. One focus of the Universiti Sains Malaysia is to strengthen neuroscience and brain science, especially in the field of neuroinformatics.
President Obama of the United States of America announced this April the Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN for short) investment, while Professor Henry Markram's team based in the European Union will spend over a billion euros on the Human Brain Project, breaking through the unknowns in the fifth science of the decade: Neuroscience. Malaysia's growth in the same field needs to be augmented, and thus the Universiti Sains Malaysia's vision is to excel in the field of clinical brain sciences, mind sciences and neurosciences. This will naturally bring up the level of research in the country simultaneously. Thus, a center was recently established to coordinate this venture. The four-year Integrated Neuroscience Program established recently will be a sustainable source of neuroscientists for the country. We hope to establish ourselves by 2020 as a global university with neurosciences research as an important flagship.
People can work wonders without a room. Rooms make people think within a box, and people who are not confined within a room can wonder while thinking and solve problems as they see them in the environment. The dearth in the growth of professionals trained in the neurosciences who will use neurotechnology in the future is a dire situation facing Malaysia, according to the Academy of Sciences Malaysia's 2017 Emerging Science, Engineering and Technology (ESET) study. Further, this human resource needs to be fundamentally cultivated at schools from a very young age. The author describes the activities that have taken place in the country via a bottom-up approach over the last two years and hopes that eventually these endeavours will end with the creation of an ASEAN Brain, Mind, Behaviour and Neuroscience Institute for Creativity and Innovation being established with the full support of the Government of Malaysia or other local and international financial donors.
The development of neurosurgical services and training in Malaysia began in 1963, with the first centre established in its capital city at Hospital Kuala Lumpur, aimed to provide much needed neurosurgical services and training in the field of neurology and neurosurgery. This center subsequently expanded in 1975 with the establishment of the Tunku Abdul Rahman Neuroscience Institute (IKTAR); which integrated the three allied interdependent disciplines of neurosurgery, neurology and psychiatry. The establishment of this institute catalysed the rapid expansion of neurosurgical services in Malaysia and paved the way for development of comprehensive training for doctors, nurses, and paramedics. This culminated in the establishments of a local comprehensive neurosurgery training program for doctors in 2001; followed by a training program for nurses and paramedics in 2006. To date, there are more than 60 neurosurgeons providing expert care in 11 centers across Malaysia, along with trained personnel in the field of neurosciences.
Sekolah Menengah Sains Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra (SMSTMFP) and Sekolah Kebangsaan Kubang Kerian (3) (SKKK3) were selected by the Department of Neurosciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), in 2011 to be a 'school-based Neuroscience Club' via the 'Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP) - Community' project. This community project was known as "The Brain Apprentice Project". The objectives of this project were to promote science and the neurosciences beyond conventional classroom teachings whilst guiding creativity and innovation as well as to assist in the delivery of neuroscience knowledge through graduate interns as part of the cultivation of neuroscience as a fruitful future career option. All of the planned club activities moulded the students to be knowledgeable individuals with admirable leadership skills, which will help the schools produce more scientists, technocrats and professionals who can fulfil the requirements of our religion, race and nation in the future. Some of the activities carried out over the years include the "My Brain Invention Competition", "Mini Brain Bee Contest", "Recycled Melody" and "Brain Dissection". These activities educated the students well and improved their confidence levels in their communication and soft skills. The participation of the students in international-level competition, such as the "International Brain Bee", was one of the ways future professionals were created for the nation. The implementation of Neuroscience Club as one of the organisations in the school's cocurriculum was an appropriate step in transferring science and neuroscience knowledge and skills from a higher education institution, namely USM, to both of the schools, SMSTMFP and SKKK3. The club members showed great interest in all of the club's activities and their performance on the Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) or Primary School Achievement Test and Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) or Malaysian Certificate of Education examinations improved tremendously.
The Academy of Sciences Malaysia and the Malaysian Industry-Government group for High Technology has been working hard to project the future of big data and neurotechnology usage up to the year 2050. On the 19 September 2016, the International Brain Initiative was announced by US Under Secretary of State Thomas Shannon at a meeting that accompanied the United Nations' General Assembly in New York City. This initiative was seen as an important effort but deemed costly for developing countries. At a concurrent meeting hosted by the US National Science Foundation at Rockefeller University, numerous countries discussed this massive project, which would require genuine collaboration between investigators in the realms of neuroethics. Malaysia's readiness to embark on using big data in the field of brain, mind and neurosciences is to prepare for the 4th Industrial Revolution which is an important investment for the country's future. The development of new strategies has also been encouraged by the involvement of the Society of Brain Mapping and Therapeutics, USA and the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility.
Brain activity analysis is an important research area in the field of human neuroscience. Moreover, a subcategory in this field is the classification of brain activity in terms of different brain disorders. Since the Electroencephalography (EEG) signal is, in fact, a non-linear time series, employing techniques to investigate its non-linear structure is rather crucial. In this study, we evaluate the non-linear structure of the EEG signal between healthy and schizophrenic adolescents using fractal theory. The results of our analysis revealed that in terms of all recording channels, the EEG signal of healthy subjects is more complex compared to the ones suffering from schizophrenia. The statistical analysis also indicated that there is a significant difference in the complex structure of the EEG signal between these two groups of subjects. We also utilized approximate entropy in our analysis in order to verify the obtained results of the fractal analysis. The result of the entropy analysis suggested that EEG signal for healthy subjects is less random compared to the EEG signal in schizophrenic individuals. In addition, the employed methodology in this research can be further investigated in order to classify the brain activity in terms of other brain disorders, where one can explore how the complex structure of the EEG signal alters between them.
BACKGROUND: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a method of functional neuroimaging. The concomitant use of MEG and electrocorticography has been found to be useful in elucidating neural oscillation and network, and to localize epileptogenic zone and functional cortex. We describe our early experience using MEG in neurosurgical patients, emphasizing on its impact on patient management as well as the enrichment of our knowledge in neurosciences.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 10 subjects were included; five patients had intraaxial tumors, one with an extraaxial tumor and brain compression, two with arteriovenous malformations, one with cerebral peduncle hemorrhage and one with sensorimotor cortical dysplasia. All patients underwent evoked and spontaneous MEG recordings. MEG data was processed at band-pass filtering frequency of between 0.1 and 300 Hz with a sampling rate of 1 kHz. MEG source localization was performed using either overdetermined equivalent current dipoles or underdetermined inversed solution. Neuromag collection of events software was used to study brain network and epileptogenic zone. The studied data were analyzed for neural oscillation in three patients; brain network and clinical manifestation in five patients; and for the location of epileptogenic zone and eloquent cortex in two patients.
RESULTS: We elucidated neural oscillation in three patients. One demonstrated oscillatory phenomenon on stimulation of the motor-cortex during awake surgery, and two had improvement in neural oscillatory parameters after surgery. Brain networks corresponding to clinico-anatomical relationships were depicted in five patients, and two networks were illustrated here. Finally, we demonstrated epilepsy cases in which MEG data was found to be useful in localizing the epileptogenic zones and functional cortices.
CONCLUSION: The application of MEG while enhancing our knowledge in neurosciences also has a useful role in epilepsy and awake surgery.
KEYWORDS: Awake craniotomy; brain network; epilepsy; magnetoencephalography; neural oscillation
The existence of numerous World Wide Web (WWW) sites devoted to dental education is proof that dental educators have been utilizing the pedagogical potential of information technology. Despite the availability of an immense quantity of information on the Internet, performing a search is often a complex, uncoordinated and time-consuming procedure, thus the usefulness of a guide on a topic of interest. Forty WWW sites devoted to dental education have been located using search engines. They were evaluated and classified as follows: guides, electronic publications, databases, patient education and undergraduate education; and according to subjects such as oral biology, morphology, histology, microbiology oral pathology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, radiology, periodontology, dental materials, orthodontics and neuroscience. The extensiveness and quality of some of these sites make them useful resources and knowledge banks for the teacher and the student.
Depression is usually discussed as an adult problem; however there is a need to recognize it being a significant problem for children. Rarely is depression focused on how it affects parenting and child outcomes, particularly for young children.Often women are victims of violence, and the devastating effects of depression are significant in such households. However one must not ignore, the effect depression has on parenting, where in these contexts, women themselves, become the perpetrators of violence. When mothers are not well-2 central parental functions are threatened: the ability to foster healthy relationships and to carry out the practical functions of parenting2.When this is not carried out, one sees obvious reductions in young children’s behavioral, cognitive, and social and emotional functioning. Neuroscience is clearly evident that the primary ingredient for healthy early brain development is the quality of the earliest relationships from a baby’s primary caregiver.