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  1. Kadar M, Wan Yunus F, Tan E, Chai SC, Razaob Razab NA, Mohamat Kasim DH
    Aust Occup Ther J, 2020 02;67(1):3-12.
    PMID: 31799722 DOI: 10.1111/1440-1630.12626
    INTRODUCTION: Handwriting skills play a significant role in all stages of an individual's life. Writing interventions should be considered at a younger age to ensure proper development of writing skills. Hence, the aims of this study is to evaluate the current evidence of occupational therapy interventions in handwriting skills for 4-6 year old children.

    METHODS: Published literature was systematically searched according to PRISMA guidelines using specific key terms. Initial search identified 785 studies; however only seven met the inclusion criteria and were assessed for final review. Studies were methodologically appraised using the McMaster Critical Review Form-Quantitative Studies.

    RESULTS: The review found no randomised control trial study design pertaining to the reviewed area. However, it can be seen that occupational therapy interventions for writing skills in 4-6 year old children managed to increase the targeted skills. The results were similar across samples with or without disabilities. An effective integration of occupational therapy interventions into educational curriculum was found to save both time and cost.

    CONCLUSION: The long-term benefit from these interventions and the effects of these interventions on a broader spectrum of fine motor abilities need to be explored further with stronger research designs. However, the lack of studies adopting high level study designs, i.e., RCT designs means, results need to be approached with caution by occupational therapists when implementing handwriting skills intervention in practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy/methods*
  2. World Federation of Occupational Therapists, Mackenzie L, Coppola S, Alvarez L, Cibule L, Maltsev S, et al.
    OTJR (Thorofare N J), 2017 04;37(2):72-81.
    PMID: 28081694 DOI: 10.1177/1539449216687528
    Occupational therapy is a global profession represented by the World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT). International research priorities are needed for strategic guidance on global occupational therapy practice. The objective of this study was to develop international research priorities to reflect global occupational therapy practice. A Delphi study using three rounds of electronic surveys, distributed to WFOT member organizations and WFOT accredited universities, was conducted. Data were analyzed after each round, and priorities were presented for rating and ranking in order of importance. Forty-six (53%) out of 87 WFOT member countries participated in the Delphi process. Eight research priorities were confirmed by the final electronic survey round. Differences were observed in rankings given by member organizations and university respondents. Despite attrition at Round 3, the final research priorities will help to focus research efforts in occupational therapy globally. Follow-up research is needed to determine how the research priorities are being adopted internationally.
    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy*
  3. Kadar M, Ibrahim S, Razaob NA, Chai SC, Harun D
    Aust Occup Ther J, 2018 02;65(1):63-68.
    PMID: 29315609 DOI: 10.1111/1440-1630.12441
    BACKGROUND/AIM: The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale is a tool often used to assess independence among elderly at home. Its suitability to be used with the elderly population in Malaysia has not been validated. This current study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version to Malay speaking elderly in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This study was divided into three phases: (1) translation and linguistic validity involving both forward and backward translations; (2) establishment of face validity and content validity; and (3) establishment of reliability involving inter-rater, test-retest and internal consistency analyses. Data used for these analyses were obtained by interviewing 65 elderly respondents.

    RESULTS: Percentages of Content Validity Index for 4 criteria were from 88.89 to 100.0. The Cronbach α coefficient for internal consistency was 0.838. Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability was 0.957 and 0.950 respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The result shows that the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version has excellent reliability and validity for use with the Malay speaking elderly people in Malaysia. This scale could be used by professionals to assess functional ability of elderly who live independently in community.

    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy/methods*; Occupational Therapy/standards
  4. Raja Azman Raja Awang, Noor Huda Ismail
    MyJurnal
    Pathologic tooth migration (PTM) is a common complication following moderate to severe chronic periodontitis, which lead to the undesirable consequences such as traumatic occlusion and impaired aesthetic appearance. Multidisciplinary approach had been successfully used in overcoming the problem. However, since periodontal tissue support is reduced in PTM, further migration of teeth may occur as they were always subjected to the external forces such as occlusion and soft tissue pressure during function. This case report described a 41 year-old male with a further migration of his upper right central incisor after periodontal therapy. After multidisciplinary approach was carried out to overcome the problem and the tooth was on stable condition, permanent splinting was placed to secure the tooth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy
  5. Asmuri SN, Brown T, Broom LJ
    Occup Ther Health Care, 2016 Jul;30(3):289-309.
    PMID: 27219119 DOI: 10.1080/07380577.2016.1183066
    Valid translations of time use scales are needed by occupational therapists for use in different cross-cultural contexts to gather relevant data to inform practice and research. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of translating, adapting, and validating the Time Use Diary from its current English language edition into a Malay language version. Five steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were completed: (i) translation from English into the Malay language by a qualified translator, (ii) synthesis of the translated Malay version, (iii) backtranslation from Malay to English by three bilingual speakers, (iv) expert committee review and discussion, and (v) pilot testing of the Malay language version with two participant groups. The translated version was found to be a reliable and valid tool identifying changes and potential challenges in the time use of older adults. This provides Malaysian occupational therapists with a useful tool for gathering time use data in practice settings and for research purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy/methods*
  6. Che Daud AZ, Yau MK, Barnett F, Judd J
    Scand J Occup Ther, 2016;23(1):57-66.
    PMID: 26153367 DOI: 10.3109/11038128.2015.1062047
    INTRODUCTION: In a previous study consensus was sought from Malaysian occupational therapists of occupation-based intervention (OBI) that was perceived as a means and an end. Occupation as a means refers to occupational and purposeful tasks as a therapeutic agent while occupation as an end refers to occupation as an outcome of intervention. The purpose of this follow-up study was to describe the occupational therapists' experiences of providing OBI in hand injury rehabilitation in Malaysia.
    METHODS: Sixteen occupational therapists with more than five years of experience in hand rehabilitation were individually interviewed on their experiences of using OBI in practice. Data were thematically analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.
    RESULTS: Definition of "Occupation as a means", and "Occupation as an end" was broadened after data analysis of interviews to include two new themes: "Rewarding yet challenging" and "Making OBI a reality". Occupational therapists had positive experiences with OBI and perceived that occupation as a means and an end can be merged into a single therapy session when the occupational therapists use an occupation that is therapeutic.
    CONCLUSION: Although occupation as a means and as an end have different purposes, when the ultimate goal is to enhance the clients' maximum level of functioning both can be used for successful rehabilitation of hand injuries.
    KEYWORDS: Activities of daily living; hand injuries; occupational therapy; occupations; qualitative research
    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy/methods*
  7. Razaob NA, Tham SY, Mohd Rasdi HF, Wan Yunus F, Kadar M
    Occup Ther Health Care, 2020 Jan;34(1):32-47.
    PMID: 31920126 DOI: 10.1080/07380577.2020.1712632
    The Community Integration Questionnaire-Revised (CIQ-R) is a self-report standardized instrument designed to assess an individual's degree of community integration. The aim of this study was to translate, validate and conduct a reliability test of the CIQ-R Malay version. The development involved the three phases of translation, content validation and cognitive interviewing, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the CIQ-R Malay version. The Content Validity Index (CVI) showed perfect agreement between the panel experts. The Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) demonstrated a moderate to excellent level of test-retest agreement (ICC 0.72 to 0.93). The Total CIQ-R Malay version and Home Integration subscale showed good internal consistency, with values of Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.81 to 0.90. The findings from the present study provided preliminary support for the psychometric properties of the CIQ-R Malay version as a valid and reliable instrument to be used in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy*
  8. Romli MH, Wan Yunus F, Mackenzie L
    Aust Occup Ther J, 2019 08;66(4):428-445.
    PMID: 30821362 DOI: 10.1111/1440-1630.12572
    INTRODUCTION: Using standardised instruments is one approach to support evidence-based practice. Referring to systematic reviews is an option to identify suitable instruments. However, with an abundance of systematic reviews available, therapists are challenged to identify an appropriate instrument to use. Therefore, this overview of reviews aimed to summarise relevant systematic review findings about standardised occupation-based instruments relevant for occupational therapy practice.

    METHODS: An overview of reviews was conducted. A systematic search was performed on four databases up to March 2018. Included systematic reviews were analysed for quality using A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews (AMSTAR).

    RESULTS: A total of 2187 articles were identified after removing duplicates. Ultimately, 58 systematic reviews were identified that yielded 641 instruments. From those, 45 instruments were selected for appraisal as they met the inclusion criteria of being developed mainly by occupational therapists and were recommended in the summarised findings from the systematic reviews. The instruments were classified according to the following occupation domains: (i) multidimensional, (ii) activities of daily living, (iii) productivity, (iv) social, (v) sleep/rest, (vi) sexuality and (vii) spirituality. No systematic review was identified that specifically focussed on occupations related to school/education, leisure and play.

    DISCUSSION: Certain occupation domains such as activities of daily living, social and sleep/rest received high attention amongst researchers. There is a need for systematic reviews of instruments to measure education/school, play and leisure. Limited numbers of instruments were developed by occupational therapists outside the occupation domain of activities of daily living, and in areas of practice other than children and older people. Nevertheless, this overview can give some guidance for occupational therapists in selecting a suitable occupational therapy instrument for practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy/methods*
  9. Jalaludin MY, Fuziah MZ, Hong JYH, Mohamad Adam B, Jamaiyah H
    Malays Fam Physician, 2012;7(2-3):10-20.
    PMID: 25606251 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Self-care plays an important role in diabetes management. One of the instruments used to evaluate self-care in patients with diabetes is the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) questionnaire. A validated instrument in the Malay language is used to assess self-care practice among children and adolescents with diabetes in Malaysia.
    OBJECTIVE: To translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of the revised version of the SDSCA questionnaire in the Malay language.
    METHODS:Forward and backward translations were performed. An expert panel reviewed all versions for conceptual and content equivalence. The final version was administered to paediatric patients with diabetes between August 2006 and September 2007. Reliability was analysed using Cronbach's alpha and validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis.
    RESULTS: A total of 117 patients aged 10-18 years were enrolled from nine hospitals. The reliability of overall core items was 0.735 (with item 4) while the reliabilities of the four domains were in the range of 0.539-0.838. As core item number 4 was found to be problematic and it was subtituted by item 5a (from the expanded SDSCA) to suit local dietary education and practice; and the reliabilities of the overall core item (0.782) and the four domains (0.620 - 0.838) improved. Factor loadings of all the items were greater than 0.4, loaded into the original domains, and accounted for 73% of the total variance.
    CONCLUSION: The Malay translation of the revised English SDSCA is reliable and valid as a guide for Malaysian children and adolescents suffering from diabetes.
    KEYWORDS: Adolescents Diabetes self-care; Children; Malay-translated version of SDSCA
    Study site: Pediatric Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy
  10. Amy Chen Ern Ming, Hanif Farhan Mohd Rasdi, Nor Farah Mohamad Fauzi, Nur Zakiah Mohd Saat
    MyJurnal
    The paediatric rehabilitation service in Malaysia is shifting from the traditional child-focused approach to a family-centred
    approach. At present, there is a lack of an evaluation tool to assess to the quality of paediatric rehabilitation services, and
    whether the services are in line with the principles of the family-centred service. This study was undertaken to assess validity
    and reliability of the Malay version of the Measure of Processes of Care 20-item (MPOC-20) questionnaire in evaluating
    family-centered approach in children rehabilitation services in Kuala Lumpur. The original English version of the MPOC-
    20 was translated into Malay language, before it was administered to 102 parents of children receiving rehabilitation
    service at the Occupational Therapy Unit, UKM Medical Centre. The component structure of the MPOC-20 Malay version
    was examined using principal component analysis with Varimax rotation to explore the factor structures after translation.
    Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to determine the internal consistency reliability of the factors identified in the MPOC-20
    Malay version. The resultant four-factor model explained 64 % of the variance in the Malay MPOC-20 responses. All four
    factors were similar to the five factors described in the original MPOC-20. All the 20 items were retained, with relocation of
    some items into a new factor. The Malay version of the MPOC-20 showed good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha
    values ranging from 0.75 to 0.90. This study demonstrates that the Malay version of the MPOC-20 is valid and reliable,
    and is suitable for evaluation of the quality of child rehabilitation services in the Malaysian context.
    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy
  11. Veeramuthu, Vigneswaran, Pancharatnam, Devaraj, Poovindran, Anada Raj, Nur Atikah Mustapha, Wong, Kum Thong, Mazlina Mazlan, et al.
    Neurology Asia, 2014;19(1):69-77.
    MyJurnal
    The complex pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury, its cascading effects and a varied outcome suggest that factors such as genetics may permeate and modulate the neurocognitive outcomes in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). This study was conducted to determine the relationship between genetic polymorphism of apolipoprotein E, and neurocognitive and functional outcomes in mTBI. Twenty-one patients with mTBI were recruited prospectively. The severity of the injury was established with the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS). Other assessments included the CT Scan of the head on admission, Disability Rating Scale, Chessington Occupational Therapy Neurological Assessment (COTNAB) and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). The Spearmen correlation analysis of ApoE allele status and the cognitive and functional assessments saw some association with the Sensory Motor Ability - Coordination (-0.526, p
    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy
  12. Bukhsh A, Tan XY, Chan KG, Lee LH, Goh BH, Khan TM
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2018;12:2457-2474.
    PMID: 30538430 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S180256
    Background: Effectiveness of pharmacist-led educational interventions on self-care activities and glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients is vague. The purpose of this review is to appraise the effect of pharmacist-led educational interventions on self-care activities and levels of glycated hemoglobin of T2DM patients.

    Methods: Five electronic databases were searched from date of database inception to September 2017. Randomized clinical trials examining the effectiveness of pharmacist-led educational interventions, directed at T2DM patients only, were included for systematic review and meta-analysis. The protocol is available with PROSPERO (CRD42017078854).

    Results: Eleven studies, involving n=1,544 T2DM patients, were included in this systematic review. Meta-analysis demonstrated that pharmacist-led interventions had a significant effect on lowering of the levels of glycated hemoglobin (-0.66; 95% CI [-0.83, -0.50]; I2=58.3%; P=0.008), in comparison to usual care. Self-care activities were assessed by using Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities tool in eight studies. Overall meta-analysis of self-care activities for included studies demonstrated a significant effect of pharmacist-led interventions on improvement of self-monitoring of blood glucose (1.62; 95% CI [0.92, 2.32]; I2=70.5%; P=0.005), foot care (1.20; 95% CI [0.49, 1.90]; I2=95.0%; P<0.001), and overall diet (1.16; 95% CI [0.38, 1.93]; I2=64.2%; P=0.094).

    Conclusion: The findings of this review demonstrate a significantly positive effect of pharmacist-led educational interventions on HbA1c levels and self-care practices among T2DM patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy
  13. Ooi HK, Chai SC, Kadar M
    Clin Rehabil, 2020 Apr;34(4):515-523.
    PMID: 32037862 DOI: 10.1177/0269215520905050
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of pressure (Lycra) garment on the spasticity and function of the arm in the early stages after stroke.

    DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.

    SETTING: Occupational therapy unit of a public hospital.

    SUBJECTS: A total of 46 adults with stroke.

    INTERVENTION: After random assignment, for six weeks, both intervention group and control group received a 2 hour/week conventional occupational therapy program, with the intervention group receiving an extra 6 hour/day pressure garment application (long glove).

    MAIN MEASURES: Modified Modified Ashworth Scale, Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome Measure, and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test. Eligibility measures: Mini Mental State Examination and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale. Assessments were performed at baseline and six weeks postintervention.

    RESULTS: There were 21 participants with the mean age of 51.19 (8.28) years in the intervention group and 22 participants with the mean (SD) age of 52.82 (8.71) years in the control group. The intervention group had median (interquartile range (IQR)) post-stroke duration of 1 (1) month, while for the control group, they were 2 (2) months. There was no difference in spasticity, and both perceived and actual arm functions between the groups at six weeks after baseline.

    CONCLUSION: Wearing a pressure garment on the arm for 6 hours daily had no effect in controlling spasticity or on improving arm function in the early stages after stroke.

    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy/instrumentation*
  14. Loh SY, Musa AN
    PMID: 25792854 DOI: 10.2147/BCTT.S47012
    CONTEXT: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer amongst women but it has the highest survival rates amongst all cancer. Rehabilitation therapy of post-treatment effects from cancer and its treatment is needed to improve functioning and quality of life. This review investigated the range of methods for improving physical, psychosocial, occupational, and social wellbeing in women with breast cancer after receiving breast cancer surgery.
    METHOD: A search for articles published in English between the years 2009 and 2014 was carried out using The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. Search terms included: 'breast cancer', 'breast carcinoma', 'surgery', 'mastectomy', 'lumpectomy', 'breast conservation', 'axillary lymph node dissection', 'rehabilitation', 'therapy', 'physiotherapy', 'occupational therapy', 'psychological', 'psychosocial', 'psychotherapy', 'exercise', 'physical activity', 'cognitive', 'occupational', 'alternative', 'complementary', and 'systematic review'.
    STUDY SELECTION: Systematic reviews on the effectiveness of rehabilitation methods in improving post-operative physical, and psychological outcomes for breast cancer were selected. Sixteen articles met all the eligibility criteria and were included in the review.
    DATA EXTRACTION: Included review year, study aim, total number of participants included, and results.
    DATA SYNTHESIS: Evidence for exercise rehabilitation is predominantly in the improvement of shoulder mobility and limb strength. Inconclusive results exist for a range of rehabilitation methods (physical, psycho-education, nutritional, alternative-complementary methods) for addressing the domains of psychosocial, cognitive, and occupational outcomes.
    CONCLUSION: There is good evidence for narrowly-focused exercise rehabilitation in improving physical outcome particularly for shoulder mobility and lymphedema. There were inconclusive results for methods to improve psychosocial, cognitive, and occupational outcomes. There were no reviews on broader performance areas and lifestyle factors to enable effective living after treatment. The review suggests that comprehensiveness and effectiveness of post-operative breast cancer rehabilitation should consider patients' self-management approaches towards lifestyle redesign, and incorporate health promotion aspects, in light of the fact that breast cancer is now taking the form of a chronic illness with longer survivorship years.
    KEYWORDS: breast cancer surgery; lifestyle redesign; quality of life; rehabilitation methods; self-management; symptom-management
    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy
  15. Shahrir M, Shahdan M, Shahid M, Sulaiman W, Mokhtar AM, Othman M, et al.
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2008;11(3):287-292.
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2008.00379.x
    Aim: This is a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) descriptive study, the first of its kind carried out in Malaysia.
    Methods: This descriptive study involved 1084 RA patients' epidemiological and clinical data taken from Selayang, Putrajaya, Taiping and Seremban hospitals from June 2004 to December 2005.
    Results: One thousand and eighty-four RA patients'data were analysed; 960 (88.6%) patients were female and 124 (11.4%) were male, approximately 8 : 1 M : F ratio. The majority of the patients were Indian (591; 54.5%), followed by the Malays (340; 31.4%), Chinese (126; 11.6%), indigenous (13; 1.2%) and others (14; 1.3%). Mean age was 49.6 ± 11.8 years with the youngest being 15 years and the oldest 88 years of age. Mean age for males was 52.0 ± 12.0 and females 49.3 ± 11.7 years (P =; 0.017). Most of these patients were housewives (565; 52.1%), followed by paid workers (266; 24.5%), retired patients (80; 7.4%), unemployed (76; 7.0%) and others (97; 8.9%). Mean duration of illness was 8.4 ± 6.7 years; 805 (74.3%) patients were relatively new patients (≤ 2 years illness duration) and 279 (25.7%) patients had illness duration > 2 years. Eight hundred and six (74.4%) were seropositive RA patients and 385 (35.5%) had presence of deformity. The majority of patients were treated with methotrexate (178; 16.4%), followed by combination of methotrexate, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine (143; 13.2%), leflunomide (140; 12.9%), sulfasalazine (133; 12.3%) and combination of methotrexate and sulfasalazine (108; 10%).
    Conclusion: In the above study, the majority of patients were female (960; 88.6%), Indian (591; 54.5%), had a mean age of 49.6 ± 11.8 years, most were housewives with a mean duration of illness of 8.4 ± 6.7 years and were treated with methotrexate (178; 16.4%). The results of the study may help Malaysian rheumaologists to understand their patients better and treat RA holistically.
    Comment in: Yeap SS. Comment on: Multicentre survey of rheumatoid arthritis patients from Ministry of Health rheumatology centres in Malaysia. Int J Rheum Dis. 2009 Jul;12(2):177-8; author reply 179. doi: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2009.01403.x. PubMed PMID: 20374340.
    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy
  16. Ismail FF, Mohamed Noor Z, Muda SM, Ab Rahman NS
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2020 Nov;12(Suppl 2):S681-S690.
    PMID: 33828361 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_383_19
    Context: The attitude of healthcare professionals and social supports give big influence toward self-esteem of physically disabled people.

    Aims: To explore how impairments could affect the self-esteem of physically disabled people and how healthcare professionals and social support boost their self-esteem.

    Materials and Methods: This study was conducted qualitatively whereby face-to-face interviews were conducted among 10 participants with physical disabilities. Participants were recruited from two rehabilitation centres in Kuantan, namely Community-based rehabilitation and rehabilitation, occupational therapy, and physiotherapy of public hospital in Kuantan. Interviews were conducted using the developed interview guide that explored on the disabled peoples' self-esteem and motivation, feelings toward attitude of the healthcare professionals, and satisfaction toward the physical, services, and social support from the healthcare professionals. Thematic analysis was done to identify the themes emerged from the interview transcripts.

    Results: Five males and five females with age ranging from 31 to 58 years were interviewed. Five are still working or studying post impairments. Participants claimed being low self-esteem resulted from negative perception from the society, issue of rejection, being discriminated, and difficulty in getting support from the society. Most of the participants asserted that they gained their motivation and self-esteem due to the continuous support from various groups, such as their spouses, family members, colleagues, employers, and healthcare professionals.

    Conclusions: Despite heavy workload and stressful working environment, positive attitude showed by the healthcare professionals is highly praised. Hence, this will indirectly improve the self-esteem, motivation, and rehabilitation progress of physically disabled people.

    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy
  17. Swarna Nantha Y, Chelliah AAP, Haque S, Md Zain AZ
    PLoS One, 2021;16(4):e0249620.
    PMID: 33848301 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0249620
    BACKGROUND: A paradigm shift in the disease management of type 2 diabetes is urgently needed to stem the escalating trends seen worldwide. A "glucocentric" approach to diabetes management is no longer considered a viable option. Qualitative strategies have the potential to unearth the internal psychological attributes seen in people living with diabetes that are crucial to the sustenance of self-management behaviour. This study aims to identify and categorize the innate psychological dispositions seen in people with type 2 diabetes in relation to self-management behaviour.

    METHODS: We adopted a grounded theory approach to guide in-depth interviews of individuals with type 2 diabetes and healthcare professionals (HCP) at a regional primary care clinic in Malaysia. Twenty-four people with type 2 diabetes and 10 HCPs were recruited into the study to examine the inner narratives about disease management. Two focus group discussions (FGD) were also conducted for data triangulation.

    RESULTS: Participants' internal dialogue about the management of their disease is characterized by 2 major processes- 1) positive disposition and 2) negative disposition. Optimism, insight, and awareness are important positive values that influence T2D self-care practices. On the other hand, constructs such as stigma, worries, reservations, and pessimism connote negative dispositions that undermine the motivation to follow through disease management in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    CONCLUSIONS: We identified a contrasting spectrum of both constructive and undesirable behavioural factors that influence the 'internal environment' of people with type 2 diabetes. These results coincide with the constructs presented in other well-established health belief theories that could lead to novel behavioural change interventions. Furthermore, these findings allow the implementation of psychosocial changes that are in line with cultural sensitivities and societal norms seen in a specific community.

    Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Therapy
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