Engineered biochar is increasingly regarded as a cost-effective and eco-friendly peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activator. Herein, biochar doped with nitrogen and sulfur moieties was prepared by pyrolysis of wood shavings and doping precursor. The doping precursor consists of either urea, thiourea or 1:1 w/w mixture of urea and thiourea (denoted as NSB-U, NSB-T and NSB-UT, respectively). The physicochemical properties of the NSBs were extensively characterized, revealing that they are of noncrystalline carbon with porous structure. The NSBs were employed as PMS activator to degrade organic pollutants particularly methylene blue (MB). It was found that NSB-UT exhibited higher MB removal rate with kapp = 0.202 min-1 due to its relatively high surface area and favorable intrinsic surface moieties (combination of graphitic N and thiophenic S). The effects of catalyst loading, PMS dosage and initial pH were evaluated. Positive enhancement of the MB removal rate can be obtained by carefully increasing the catalyst loading or PMS dosage. Meanwhile, the MB removal rate is greatly influenced by pH due to electrostatic interactions and pH dependent reactions. The NSB-UT can be reused for several cycles to some extent and its catalytic activity can be restored by thermal treatment. Based on the radical scavenger study and XPS analysis, the nonradical pathway facilitated by the graphitic N and thiophenic S active sites are revealed to be the dominant reaction pathway. Overall, the results of this study show that engineered biochar derived from locally available biowaste can be transformed into PMS activator for environmental applications.
Ostrich oil has been used extensively in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, rancidity causes undesirable chemical changes in flavour, colour, odour and nutritional value. Bleaching is an important process in refining ostrich oil. Bleaching refers to the removal of certain minor constituents (colour pigments, free fatty acid, peroxides, odour and non-fatty materials) from crude fats and oils to yield purified glycerides. There is a need to optimize the bleaching process of crude ostrich oil prior to its use for therapeutic purposes. The objective of our study was to establish an effective method to bleach ostrich oil using peroxide value as an indicator of refinement. In our study, we showed that natural earth clay was better than bentonite and acid-activated clay to bleach ostrich oil. It was also found that 1 hour incubation at a 150 °C was suitable to lower peroxide value by 90%. In addition, the nitrogen trap technique in the bleaching process was as effective as the continuous nitrogen flow technique and as such would be the recommended technique due to its cost effectiveness.
Herein, five N, S-co-doped carbocatalysts were prepared from different carbonaceous precursors, namely sawdust (SD), biochar (BC), carbon-nanotubes (CNTs), graphite (GP), and graphene oxide (GO) and compared. Generally, as the graphitization degree increased, the extent of N and S doping decreased, graphitic N configuration is preferred, and S configuration is unaltered. As peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activator for ciprofloxacin (CIP) removal, the catalytic performance was in order: NS-CNTs (0.037 min-1) > NS-BC (0.032 min-1) > NS-rGO (0.024 min-1) > NS-SD (0.010 min-1) > NS-GP (0.006 min-1), with the carbonaceous properties, rather than the heteroatoms content and textural properties, being the major factor affecting the catalytic performance. NS-CNTs was found to have the supreme catalytic activity due to its remarkable conductivity (3.38 S m-1) and defective sites (ID/IG = 1.28) with high anti-interference effect against organic and inorganic matter and varying water matrixes. The PMS activation pathway was dominated by singlet oxygen (1O2) generation and electron transfer regime between CIP and PMS activated complexes. The CIP degradation intermediates were identified, and a degradation pathway is proposed. Overall, this study provides a better understanding of the importance of selecting a suitable carbonaceous platform for heteroatoms doping to produce superior PMS activator for antibiotics decontamination.
In this study, a facile hydrothermal method was employed to prepare Me-doped Bi2Fe4O9 (Me = Zn, Cu, Co, and Mn) as peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activator for ciprofloxacin (CIP) degradation. The characteristics of the Me-doped bismuth ferrites were investigated using various characterization instruments including SEM, TEM, FTIR and porosimeter indicating that the Me-doped Bi2Fe4O9 with nanosheet-like square orthorhombic structure was successfully obtained. The catalytic activity of various Me-doped Bi2Fe4O9 was compared and the results indicated that the Cu-doped Bi2Fe4O9 at 0.08 wt.% (denoted as BFCuO-0.08) possessed the greatest catalytic activity (kapp = 0.085 min-1) over other Me-doped Bi2Fe4O9 under the same condition. The synergistic interaction between Cu, Fe and oxygen vacancies are the key factors which enhanced the performance of Me-doped Bi2Fe4O9. The effects of catalyst loading, PMS dosage, and pH on CIP degradation were also investigated indicating that the performance increased with increasing catalyst loading, PMS dosage, and pH. Meanwhile, the dominant reactive oxygen species was identified using the chemical scavengers with SO4•-, •OH, and 1O2 playing a major role in CIP degradation. The performance of BFCuO-0.08 deteriorated in real water matrix (tap water, river water and secondary effluent) due to the presence of various water matrix species. Nevertheless, the BFCuO-0.08 catalyst possessed remarkable stability and can be reused for at least four successive cycles with >70% of CIP degradation efficiency indicating that it is a promising catalyst for antibiotics removal.
In this study, biochar produced from sunflower seeds husk was activated through ZnCl2 to support the NiCo2O4 nanoparticles (NiCo2O4@ZSF) in catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) toward tetracycline (TC) removal from aqueous solution. The good dispersion of NiCo2O4 NPs on the ZSF surface provided sufficient active sites and abundant functional groups for the adsorption and catalytic reaction. The NiCo2O4@ZSF activating PMS showed high removal efficiency up to 99% after 30 min under optimal condition ([NiCo2O4@ZSF] = 25 mg L-1, [PMS] = 0.04 mM, [TC] = 0.02 mM and pH = 7). The catalyst also exhibited good adsorption performance with a maximum adsorption capacity of 322.58 mg g-1. Sulfate radicals (SO4•-), superoxide radical (O2•-), and singlet oxygen (1O2) played a decisive role in the NiCo2O4@ZSF/PMS system. In conclusion, our research elucidated the production of highly efficient carbon-based catalysts for environmental remediation, and also emphasized the potential application of NiCo2O4 doped biochar.
In this work, nano-bimetallic Co/Fe oxides with different stoichiometric Co/Fe ratios were prepared using a novel one-step solution combustion method. The nano-bimetallic Co/Fe oxides were used for sulfamethoxazole (SMX) degradation via peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation. The stoichiometric efficiencies of the as-prepared nano-bimetallic catalysts were calculated and compared for the first time. The radical generation was identified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as well as chemical quenching experiments, in which different scavengers were used and compared. The catalytic PMS activation mechanism in the presence of catalyst was examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that besides SO4•- and •OH, •OOH was also detected in the PMS/CoFeO2.5 system. Meanwhile, in addition to the previously proposed radical oxidation pathway, the results showed that SMX degradation also involved a non-radical oxidation, which could be verified by the degradation experiment without catalyst as well as the detection of 1O2. In the PMS activation process, cobalt functioned as the active site on CoFeO2.5 while Fe oxide functioned as the adsorption site. The electron transfer mechanism was proposed based on the XPS and metal leaching results. Additionally, via the detection of transformation products, different SMX transformation pathways involving nitration, hydroxylation and hydrolysis in the PMS/CoFeO2.5 system were proposed.
Antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) has been commonly found in various water matrices, therefore effective decontamination method is urgently needed. Metal-free pristine coconut-shell-derived biochar (CSBC), synthesized by thermochemical conversion at 700 °C, was used for activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS), an oxidant, to degrade SMX, a sulfonamide antibiotic, in water. SMX degradation, maximized at 0.05 mM concentration, was 85% in 30 min at pH 5.0 in the presence of 150 mg L-1 of CSBC. Remarkably, SMX removal reached 99% in a chloride-rich CSBC/PMS system. SMX degradation was mainly attributed to the role of CSBC in enhancing PMS activation to produce combined radical (SO4•-/HO•) and nonradical (1O2) reaction pathways. The most abundant genus in the CSBC/PMS system was Methylotenera, which belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum. Thus, from a perspective of biowaste-to-resource recycling and circular bioeconomy view point, CSBC is a potential catalytic activator of PMS for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous environments.
Catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and peroxydisulfate (PDS) (or collectively known as persulfate, PS) using carbocatalyst is increasingly gaining attention as a promising technology for sustainable recalcitrant pollutant removal in water. Single heteroatom doping using either N, S, B or P is widely used to enhance the performance of the carbocatalyst for PS activation. However, the performance enhancement from single heteroatom doping is limited by the type of heteroatom used. To further enhance the performance of the carbocatalyst beyond the limit of single heteroatom doping, multi-heteroatom doping can be conducted. This review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview on the development of multi-heteroatom-doped carbocatalyst for PS activation. The potential synergistic and antagonistic interactions of various heteroatoms including N and B, N and S, N and P, and N and halogen for PS activation are evaluated. Thereafter, the preparation strategies to develop multi-heteroatom-doped carbocatalyst including one-step and multi-step preparation approaches along with the characterization techniques are discussed. Evidence and summary of the performance of multi-heteroatom-doped carbocatalyst for various recalcitrant pollutants removal via PS activation are also provided. Finally, the prospects of employing multi-heteroatom-doped carbocatalyst including the need to study the correlation between different heteroatom combination, surface moiety type, and amount of dopant with the PS activation mechanism, identifying the best heteroatom combination, improving the durability of the carbocatalyst, evaluating the feasibility for full-scale application, developing low-cost multi-heteroatom-doped carbocatalyst, and assessing the environmental impact are also briefly discussed.
Propolis contains high concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, ascorbic acid, and reducing sugars and proteins. Malaysian Propolis (MP) has been reported to exhibit high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. Herein, we report the antioxidant properties and cardioprotective properties of MP in isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 32) were pretreated orally with an ethanol extract of MP (100 mg/kg/day) for 30 consecutive days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes and cardiac troponin I levels and altered serum lipid profiles. In addition significantly increased lipid peroxides and decreased activities of cellular antioxidant defense enzymes were observed in the myocardium. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with MP ameliorated the biochemical parameters, indicating the protective effect of MP against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings obtained for the myocardium further confirmed the biochemical findings. It is concluded that MP exhibits cardioprotective activity against ISO-induced oxidative stress through its direct cytotoxic radical-scavenging activities. It is also plausible that MP contributed to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
Numerous studies have revealed the presence of oxidative stress in parasitic infections. However, such studies were lacking in the Malaysian population. Previously, we have provided evidence that oxidative stress is elevated in Malaysians infected with intestinal parasites. Stool examinations revealed that about 47.5% of them were infected with the polymorphic protozoa, Blastocystis hominis. However, they were found to have mixed infection with other intestinal parasites.
The oxidative and thermal stability of low diglycerides palm oil produced via silica treatment (sPO) and enzymatic treatment (ePO) compared with standard quality palm oil (SQ) and premium quality palm oil (PQ) was investigated. Both of the oils displayed better oxidative stability compared with SQ as well as significantly higher (P < 0.05) thermal resistance and oxidative strength than SQ and PQ due to lower amounts of partial glycerides. Although the initial induction periods (IPs) of sPO and ePO were significantly lower compared with SQ and PQ, both the oils showed slower drops in their IP values. The darkening effect after frying was significantly (P < 0.05) slower in sPO compared with SQ, PQ, and ePO. Besides, there is no difference p > 0.05 in the rate of FFA formation between sPO and PQ. The anisidine value and peroxide values were lowest in sPO, followed by ePO, PQ, and SQ.
Ten percent carbamide peroxide is an effective, safe home bleaching agent. Higher concentrations
are more effective, but there are mixed reports on their hardness and surface roughness effects on resin composites. To evaluate the effect of home bleaching agents; Opalescence Now 10% carbamide peroxide (Ultradent Products, USA) and Perfect Bleach 17% carbamide peroxide (Voco,
Germany) on the surface hardness of microhybrid resin composites; Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE, USA) and Point 4 (Kerr, USA) and their surface roughness of selected treatment. Thirty specimens were prepared using acrylic moulds (4mm diameter x2mm thick). N=5 controls placed in distilled water for 14 days.N=5 treated with Opalescence, and n=5 treated with Perfect Bleach for 2 hours every day for 14 days. Surface hardness was tested using Vickers hardness tester FV-7 (Future Tech Corp, Japan). Data analyzed with Mann-Whitney test with (P
This article reports on the changes of oxidation indices and minor components of low free fatty acid (FFA) and freshly extracted crude palm oils after storage at ambient (28 ± 1 C) and 60 C for 77 days. The changes in peroxide value (PV), FFA, extinction coefficient at 233 and 269 nm (K233 and K269), bleachability index (DOBI), carotene and vitamin E contents were monitored. PV, FFA, K233 and K269 of both oil samples increased as storage progressed while the values of carotene and vitamin E contents decreased. At the end of storage period at 60 °C, the carotene content of low FFA crude palm oil was 4.24 ppm. The storage conditions used led to the loss of entire vitamin E fractions of both oil samples as well as a reduction in DOBI values except for freshly extracted crude palm oil stored at ambient temperature.
Peroxide pre-vulcanized natural rubber latex prepared by using gamma irradiation technique is an alternative over the conventionally prepared peroxide pre-vulcanized that used activator to promote the peroxide decomposition in natural rubber latex. Through this technique the problems aroused by some activators such as tends to darken the natural rubber latex film during the drying process can also be overcome. For this preliminary study, data obtained from crosslink density and mechanical measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in the vulcanization process. Increasing the quantity of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHPO) from 0.1 pphr to 0.3 pphr while the irradiation dose maintain at 12 kGy has successfully delivered peroxide vulcanized natural rubber latex films with average tensile strength, modulus @ 500% and modulus @ 700% around 15.33, 1.01 and 3.42 MPa, respectively. The effective pre-vulcanization irradiation dose with respect to maximum crosslinking density (85.8 %) was observed on film prepared at 0.1 pphr t-BHPO.
Radiation pre-vulcanised natural rubber latex (RVNRL) prepared by using gamma irradiation technique has many advantages over the conventionally prepared sulphur pre-vulcanised natural rubber latex (SPVL). Despite the fact that many potential latex dipped products can be made from RVNRL, little effort was made to fully commercialise the products because of the inferior strength of RVNRL products compared to SPVL products. An attempt was made to improve the tensile strength of RVNRL by combining both radiation and peroxide vulcanisation in order to ensure that the products will not tear or fail, and has sufficient stretch. Hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) plays the main role as sensitizer during radiation vulcanisation and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHPO) as the co-sensitizer in peroxide vulcanisation. Pre-vulcanised natural rubber latex dipped films via hybrid radiation and peroxidation vulcanisations obtained showed tensile strength of 26.7 MPa, an increment of more than 15% compared to controlled film (22.5 MPa). Besides, the crosslink percentage of the rubber films also showed around 5% increment from 90.7% to 95.6%.
The efficacy of Virkon S, a commercial disinfectant as a virucidal spray against human enterovirus 71 (HEV71), the causative agent of the fatal form of hand, foot and mouth disease was examined. At least one log10 reduction of HEV71 titer was achieved when one spray of Virkon (1% or 2%) with ten minutes of contact time was applied. The infectivity was completely lost when four sprays of 1% or 2% Virkon were applied, suggesting that at least four sprays of 1% Virkon to the surface bound HEV71 was necessary to completely inactivate the virus. These findings suggest that Virkon S at the proper concentration is suitable to be used as an effective and easy to use disinfectant against HEV71.
The effect of frozen storage on the physiochemical, chemical and microbial characteristics of two types of fish sausages was studied. Fish sausages developed (DFS) with a spice-sugar formulation and commercial fish sausages (CFS) were stored at -20 °C for 3 months. Fresh DFS contained 12.22% lipids and had a 3.53 cfu/g total bacteria count (TBC) whereas, CFS contained 5.5% lipids and had a 4.81 cfu/g TBC. During storage, TBC decreased significantly (p 0.05) in CFS. A peroxide value (PV) was not detectable until week four and eight of storage in CFS and DFS, respectively. The salt-soluble proteins (SSP) level was stable in DFS but in CFS it declined significantly (p 0.05) in both sausage types. This study showed that the effect of storage at -20 °C on fish sausages characteristics varied between formulations and depended on the ingredients of fish sausages.
The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of oil from pre-dried roselle seeds using response surface methodology (RSM). We also determined the oxidative stability of oil extracted from oven and freeze-dried roselle seed in terms of iodine value (IV), free fatty acid (FFA) value, peroxide value (PV), P-anisidine and total oxidation values (TOTOX value). The RSM was designated based on the central composite design with the usage of three optimum parameters ranged from 8 to 16 g of sample weight, 250-350 mL of solvent volume, and 6-8 h of extraction time. The highest oil yielded from roselle seed using the optimization process was 22.11% with the parameters at sample weight of 14.4 g, solvent volume of 329.70 mL, and extraction time of 7.6 h. Besides, the oil extracted from the oven dried roselle seed had the values of 89.04, 2.11, 4.13, 3.76 and 12.03 for IV, FFA, PV, P-anisidine, and TOTOX values, respectively. While for the oil extracted from freeze-dried roselle seed showed IV of 90.31, FFA of 1.64, PV of 2.47, P-anisidine value of 3.48, and TOTOX value of 8.42. PV and TOTOX values showed significant differences whereas; IV, FFA, and P-anisidine values showed no significant differences between the oven and freeze-dried roselle seed oils.
Encapsulating fish oil by spray drying with an adequate wall material was investigated to determine if stable powders containing emulsified fish-oil-droplets can be formed. In particular, the dextrose equivalent (DE) of maltodextrin (MD) affects the powder structure, surface-oil ratio, and oxidative stability of fish oil. The carrier solution was prepared using MD with different DEs (DE = 11, 19, and 25) and sodium caseinate as the wall material and the emulsifier, respectively. The percentage of microcapsules having a vacuole was 73, 39, and 38% for MD with DE = 11, 19, and 25, respectively. Peroxide values (PVs) were measured for the microcapsules incubated at 60 °C. The microcapsules prepared with MD of DE = 25 and 19 had lower PVs than those prepared with MD of DE = 11. The difference in PV can be ascribed to the difference in the surface-oil ratio of the spray-dried microcapsules.
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important source of protein and lipid globally. The effect of superheated-steam roasting on quality of peanut oil was evaluated based on physicochemical quality parameters. Three roasting temperatures (150, 200, and 250 °C) were used for different periods of roasting time and the obtained results were compared with those of conventional roasting. At 250 °C, superheated-steam roasted peanuts yielded more oil (26.84%) than conventionally roasted peanuts (24.85%). Compared with conventional roasting, superheated-steam roasting resulted in lower oil color, peroxide, p-anisidine, free fatty acid, conjugated diene and triene, and acid values and higher viscosity and iodine values in the roasted peanut oil. These values were significantly different from each other (p