Nine naturally occurring xanthones were investigated for their platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor binding inhibitory effects using rabbit platelets. 2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-1,3,5-trihydoxyxanthone, macluraxanthone, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-6,6'-dimethylpyrano(2',3':6,7)-4-(1,1-dimethylprop-2-enyl)xanthone, 6-deoxyjacareubin and 2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-1,3,5,6-terahydroxyxanthone showed strong inhibition with IC50 values of 4.8, 11.0, 21.0, 29.0 and 44.0 microM, respectively. The prenyl group at C-2, the dimethylprop-2-enyl group at C-4 and the hydroxyl group at C-5 are all beneficial to the binding of xanthones to the PAF receptor. The results revealed that xanthones can represent a new class of natural PAF receptor antagonists.
Enicosanthellum pulchrum (King) Heusden (Annonaceae) is a coniferous tree that is confined to mountain forests. The chemical constituents of this species have been studied previously; however, its biological activity has never been investigated before and is reported here for the first time.
Nine essential oils, hydrodistilled from different parts of five Goniothalamus species (G. velutinus Airy-Shaw, G. woodii Merr., G. clemensii Ban, G. tapis Miq. and G. tapisoides Mat Salleh) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit platelet aggregation in human whole blood using an electrical impedance method and their inhibitory effects on platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor binding with rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The bark oil of G. velutinus was the most effective sample as it inhibited both arachidonic acid (AA) and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 93.6 and 87.7 microg/mL, respectively. Among the studied oils, the bark oils of G. clemensii, G. woodii, G. velutinus and the root oil of G. tapis showed significant inhibitory effects on PAF receptor binding, with IC(50 )values ranging from 3.5 to 10.5 microg/mL. The strong PAF antagonistic activity of the active oils is related to their high contents of sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenoids, and the individual components in the oils could possibly produce a synergistic effect in the overall antiplatelet activity of the oils.
The leaf, stem and root extracts of Chromolaena odorata were evaluated for their effect on platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor binding on rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. The leaf extract demonstrated high PAF receptor binding inhibitory activity of 79.2+/-2.1% at 18.2 microg/ml. A total of eleven flavonoids were subsequently isolated from the active leaf extract and evaluated for their effects on PAF receptor binding. Eight of the flavonoids exhibited >50% inhibition on the binding activity at 18.2 microg/ml. These flavonoids were identified as eriodictyol 7,4'-dimethyl ether, quercetin 7,4'-methyl ether, naringenin 4'-methyl ether, kaempferol 4'-methyl ether, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, taxifolin 4'-methyl ether, taxifolin 7-methyl ether and quercetin 4'-methyl ether. Their IC50 values ranged from 19.5 to 62.1 microM.
Rubraxanthone and isocowanol isolated from Garcinia parvifolia Miq. were investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) binding to rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Rubraxanthone showed a strong inhibition with IC 50 value of 18.2 microM. The IC 50 values of macluraxanthone, 6-deoxyjacareubin, 2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-1,3,5-trihydroxyxanthone, 2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone and 1,3,5-trihydroxy-6,6'-dimethylpyrano(2',3':6,7)-4-(1,1-dimethylprop-2-enyl)-xanthone were also determined for comparison. In the course of our study on structure-activity relationship of xanthones, the results revealed that a geranyl group substituted at C-8 was beneficial to the binding while a hydroxylated prenyl group at C-4 resulted in a significant loss in binding to the PAF receptor.
Acetylmelodorinol, chrysin and polycarpol, together with benzoic acid, benzoquinone and stigmasterol were isolated from the leaves of Mitrella kentii (Bl.) Miq. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) and thromboxane B₂ (TXB₂) production in human whole blood using a radioimmunoassay technique. Their inhibitory effect on platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor binding to rabbit platelet was determined using ³H-PAF as a ligand. Among the compounds tested, chrysin showed a strong dose-dependent inhibitory activity on PGE(2) production (IC₅₀ value of 25.5 µM), which might be due to direct inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymatic activity. Polycarpol, acetylmelodorinol and stigmasterol exhibited significant and concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on TXB₂ production with IC₅₀ values of 15.6, 19.1 and 19.4 µM, respectively, suggesting that they strongly inhibited COX-1 activity. Polycarpol and acetylmelodorinol showed strong dose-dependent inhibitory effects on PAF receptor binding with IC₅₀ values of 24.3 and 24.5 µM, respectively.
The methanol extract of the leaves of Garcinia nervosa var. pubescens King, which showed strong inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor binding, was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation to obtain a new biflavonoid, II-3,I-5, II-5,II-7,I-4',II-4'-hexahydroxy-(I-3,II-8)-flavonylflavanonol together with two known flavonoids, 6-methyl-4'-methoxyflavone and acacetin. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit PAF receptor binding to rabbit platelets using ³H-PAF as a ligand. The biflavonoid and acacetin showed strong inhibition with IC₅₀ values of 28.0 and 20.4 µM, respectively. The results suggest that these compounds could be responsible for the strong PAF antagonistic activity of the plant.
Phytochemical investigation on the bark of Goniothalamus tapis Miq. and G. uvaroides King has resulted in the isolation of eight styryl-lactones, (-)-cryptomeridiol, liriodenine, 3-methyl-1H-benz[f]indole-4,9-dione, (-)-stigmasterol and dimethyl terephthalate. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. The compounds were evaluated for their effect on platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor binding on rabbit platelets using (3) H-PAF as a ligand. Among the compounds tested, (-)-cryptomeridiol, (+)-goniothalamin and (+)-isoaltholactone exhibited a significant and concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on PAF receptor binding, with inhibitory concentration (IC)(50) values of 17.5, 19.7 and 46.5 µm, respectively. The inhibitory effects of the first two compounds were comparable to that obtained from the positive control, cedrol. The results indicated that these compounds were strong PAF receptor binding inhibitors.