Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 51 in total

  1. Dong AN, Tan BH, Pan Y, Ong CE
    J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2021;24:94-112.
    PMID: 33626316 DOI: 10.18433/jpps31305
    Since the discovery of its role in vitamin D metabolism, significant progress has been made in the understanding of gene organisation, protein structure, catalytic function, and genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2R1 (CYP2R1). Located on chromosome 11p15.2, CYP2R1 possesses five exons, unlike most other CYP isoforms that carry nine exons. CYP2R1 crystal structure displays a fold pattern typical of a CYP protein, with 12 a-helices as its structural core, and b-sheets mostly arranged on one side, and the heme buried in the interior part of the protein. Overall, CYP2R1 structure adopts a closed conformation with the B' helix serving as a gate covering the substrate access channel, with the substrate vitamin D3 occupying a position with the side chain pointing toward the heme group. In liver, CYP2R1 25-hydroxylates vitamin D and serves as an important determinant of 25(OH)D level in the tissue and in circulation. While substrate profile has been well studied, inhibitor specificity for CYP2R1 requires further investigation. Both exonic and non-exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported in CYP2R1, including the CYP2R1*2 carrying Leu99Pro exchange, and a number of non-exonic SNPs with variable functional consequences in gene regulation. A non-exonic SNP, rs10741657, has its causal relationship with diseases established, including that of rickets, ovarian cancer, and multiple sclerosis. The role of other CYP2R1 SNPs in vitamin D deficiency and their causal link to other traits however remain uncertain currently and more studies are warranted to help identify possible physiological mechanisms underlying those complex traits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*
  2. Dhaliwal JS, Too CL, Lisut M, Lee YY, Murad S
    Tissue Antigens, 2003 Oct;62(4):330-2.
    PMID: 12974801
    The frequency of HLA-B27 and its subtypes was determined in 878 Malay subjects. Thirty-five of the subjects typed for HLA-A, -B and -DR were found to be positive for HLA-B27. The frequency of this allele in the Malay population was found to be 3.99%. The subtypes observed and their frequencies are: HLA-B*2704 (19.4%), HLA-B*2705 (5.6%), HLA-B*2706 (72.2%) and HLA-B*2707 (2.8%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*
  3. Langmia IM, Apalasamy YD, Omar SZ, Mohamed Z
    BMC Med. Genet., 2015;16:63.
    PMID: 26286601 DOI: 10.1186/s12881-015-0202-1
    Preterm birth (PTB) is the major cause of death in newborn and the second major cause of death in children less than 5 years old worldwide. Genetic polymorphism has been implicated as a factor for the occurrence of preterm birth. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether polymorphism in the progesterone receptor (PGR) is associated with susceptibility to preterm birth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*
  4. Romaino SM, Teh LK, Zilfalil BA, Thong CP, Ismail AA, Amir J, et al.
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2004 Feb;29(1):47-52.
    PMID: 14748897 DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2710.2003.00535.x
    Polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2 AR) gene is an important determinant of the function of this receptor. It affects receptor down-regulation and beta2-agonist responses. It has also been a focus of interest in attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of asthma, hypertension, obesity and cystic fibrosis. Several different techniques have been established to determine beta2 AR genotypes but none of these methods are simple enough to detect simultaneously all the five alleles of our research interest (Arg16/Gly16, -20T/C, Gln27/Glu27, -47T/C and Thr164/Ile164).
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
  5. Dorji PW, Tshering G, Na-Bangchang K
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2019 Aug;44(4):508-524.
    PMID: 30980418 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.12835
    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Genetic polymorphism is one of the most important factors responsible for interindividual and interethnic variability in drug response. Studies in major populations, ie, Caucasians, Asians, and Africans, have provided evidence of differences in the genotype frequencies of major drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP). This study aimed to review systematically, all relevant articles related to the genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 in South-East and East Asian (SEEA) populations.

    METHODS: Articles that report genetic polymorphisms, genotype frequencies and allele frequencies in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 were retrieved from the PubMed database.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: A total of 86 studies that fulfilled the eligibility criteria representing different ethnic populations of SEEA, ie, Burmese, Chinese, Japanese, Karen ethnic minority, Korean, Malaysian, Philippino, Singaporean, Taiwanese, Thai, Indonesian, and Vietnamese, were included in the analysis. In general, the genotype frequencies across SEEA populations are comparable. The CYP2C9*1/*1 (69.3%-99.1%), *1/*3 (2.3%-20.1%) and *3/*3 (0%-2.2%) genotypes are reported in most SEEA populations. Six major CYP2C19 genotypes, ie, *1/*1 (6.25%-88.07%), *1/*2 (21.5%-86.46%), *1/*3 (0.8%-15.8%), *2/*2 (3.4%-14.5%), *2/*3 (0%-7.3%) and *3/*3 (0%-10.2%), are reported in most SEEA populations. Major CYP2D6 genotypes include *10/*10 (0%-69.6%), *1/*1 (0%-61.21%) and *1/*10 (0%-62.0%). Major CYP3A5 genotypes are *3/*3 (2.0%-71.4%), *1/*3 (16.0%-57.1%) and *1/*1 (0%-82.0%). Genotyping of abnormal genotypes of CYP2C9 (*1/*3), CYP2C19 (*1/*2, *1/*3), CYP3A5 (*1/*3) and CYP2D6 (*5/*10) associated with IM (Intermediate metabolizer) status, may be clinically beneficial in SEEA populations. Similarly, with CYP2C19 (*2/*2, *2/*3), CYP2D6 (*5/*5 ) linked to PM (Poor metabolizer), CYP2D6 (*10/*10, *1/*5 and to lesser extent *1/*4, *2/*5, *10/*41, *10/*49, *10/*14) and CYP3A5 (*1/*1) associated with EM (extensive metabolizer).

    WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Sufficient number of studies has provided comparable results in general. This review suggests that comparable genotype frequencies of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 exist among the SEEA populations. It is noted that more research data are reported from East Asians compared with South-East Asians. Concerned efforts are required to establish partnerships among SEEA countries that will ensure sufficient data from South-East Asian countries which will assist in establishing the databases for SEEA populations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*
  6. Tan SY
    Kidney Blood Press Res, 2000;23(2):138-42.
    PMID: 10765117 DOI: 10.1159/000025967
    FcgammaRIIs are the most widely distributed of the Fcgamma receptor family and play an important role in the clearance of immune complexes. Evidence that the FcgammaRIIa-R131 allotype is less able to process and clear immune complexes effectively suggests that this may be a disease susceptibility factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Data from studies published thus far do not agree on the potential role of FcgammaRIIa polymorphism in the genetics of SLE. Most studies in fact show no evidence for any correlation between polymorphism of FcgammaRIIa and risk for SLE. However, it remains to be determined whether FcgammaRIIa polymorphism may play a critical role in certain groups of patients, especially in those of differing ethnic background. Polymorphism of FcgammaRIIa may also be important in determining disease phenotype, and identification of this influence may have important implications in patient care and in identifying patients for more aggressive therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*
  7. Nudin NF, S S
    Mol Biol Rep, 2012 Mar;39(3):2861-6.
    PMID: 21938434 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-011-1045-2
    The taxonomy of the causal pathogen of basal stem rot of oil palms, Ganoderma is somewhat problematic at present. In order to determine the genetic distance relationship between G. boninense isolates and non-boninense isolates, a random amplified microsatellites DNA (RAMS) technique was carried out. The result was then compared with interfertility data of G. boninense that had been determined in previous mating studies to confirm the species of G. boninense. Dendrogram from cluster analysis based on UPGMA of RAMS data showed that two major clusters, I and II which separated at a genetic distance of 0.7935 were generated. Cluster I consisted of all the biological species G. boninense isolates namely CNLB, GSDK 3, PER 71, WD 814, GBL 3, GBL 6, OC, GH 02, 170 SL and 348781 while all non-boninense isolates namely G. ASAM, WRR, TFRI 129, G. RES, GJ, and CNLM were grouped together in cluster II. Although the RAMS markers showed polymorphisms in all the isolates tested, the results obtained were in agreement with the interfertility data. Therefore, the RAMS data could support the interfertility data for the identification of Ganoderma isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*
  8. Haerian BS, Roslan H, Raymond AA, Tan CT, Lim KS, Zulkifli SZ, et al.
    Seizure, 2010 Jul;19(6):339-46.
    PMID: 20605481 DOI: 10.1016/j.seizure.2010.05.004
    The C3435T, a major allelic variant of the ABCB1 gene, is proposed to play a crucial role in drug-resistance in epilepsy. The C/C genotype carriers reportedly are at higher risk of pharmacoresistance to AEDs, but only in some studies. The hypothesis of the C-variant associated risk and resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been hampered by conflicting results from inadequate power in case-control studies. To assess the role of C3435T polymorphism in drug-resistance in epilepsy, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
  9. Hayati AR, Zainal AI, Tan GC, Ong LC, Khoo TB
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Dec;63(5):379-83.
    PMID: 19803295 MyJurnal
    Major congenital malformations occur in about 3% of newborn. Several studies have suggested that homozygosity for the C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) variant is a potential risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). It has been hypothesized that the maternal folic acid supplementation prevents NTDs by partially correcting reduced MTHFR activity associated with the variant form of the enzyme. This association has not been found in some ethnic groups. In this study, we attempted to assess the association between NTDs and MTHFR C677T in Malaysian Malay population. Results show that MTHFR 677TT genotype was absent in both patient and control groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*
  10. Mohamed Saini S, Nik Jaafar NR, Sidi H, Midin M, Mohd Radzi A, Abdul Rahman AH
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S76-81.
    PMID: 23410635 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.12.005
    The risk variants have been shown to vary substantially across populations and a genetic study in a heterogeneous population might shed a new light in the disease mechanism. This preliminary study aims to determine the frequency of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia and its association with bipolar disorder.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*
  11. Ishak R, Khim LC
    PMID: 9280004
    A study was initiated to amplify by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a short factor VIII gene fragment containing the Bcl I restriction site from hemophilia patients using published primer sequences. Preliminary findings indicated that the resulting fragment is 142 bp long. This fragment, when digested with Bcl I restriction enzyme produced two fragments, 99 bp and 43 bp in length. Polymorphism in the Bcl I region can be used to detect carrier state in the family members of the hemophiliacs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*
  12. Chong LK, Tan SG, Yusoff K, Siraj SS
    Biochem Genet, 2000 Apr;38(3-4):63-76.
    PMID: 11100266
    This work represents the first application of the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique in the study of genetic variation within and among five geographical populations of M. nemurus. Four AFLP primer combinations and nine RAPD primers detected a total of 158 and 42 polymorphic markers, respectively. The results of AFLP and RAPD analysis provide similar conclusions as far as the population clustering analysis is concerned. The Sarawak population, which is located on Borneo Island, clustered by itself and was thus isolated from the rest of the populations located in Peninsular Malaysia. Both marker systems revealed high genetic variability within the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) and Sarawak populations. Three subgroups each from the Kedah, Perak, and Sarawak populations were detected by AFLP but not by RAPD. Unique AFLP fingerprints were also observed in some unusual genotypes sampled in Sarawak. This indicates that AFLP may be a more efficient marker system than RAPD for identifying genotypes within populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*
  13. Chong KT, Ho WF, Koo SH, Thompson P, Lee EJ
    Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2007 Mar;63(3):328-32.
    PMID: 16981896
    To determine and compare the distribution of the FcgammaRIIIa 176 F/V polymorphism across three ethnically distinct populations (Chinese, Asian Indians and Malays) in Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*
  14. Zainuddin Z, Teh LK, Suhaimi AW, Salleh MZ, Ismail R
    Clin Chim Acta, 2003 Oct;336(1-2):97-102.
    PMID: 14500040 DOI: 10.1016/s0009-8981(03)00319-x
    BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P4502C9 (CYP2C9), a principle drug-metabolizing enzyme is polymorphic in humans and is responsible for important pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variations of CYP2C9 substrates. We developed an allele-specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the detection of common CYP2C9 alleles.
    METHOD: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood obtained from 40 unrelated healthy Malaysian Indian volunteers. The DNA was subjected to a first PCR that was used to amplify both exons 3 and 7 simultaneously in one reaction tube and a second PCR that was used to detect the polymorphic sites of CYP2C9 alleles using allele-specific primers. Sequencing was performed to validate the test results.
    RESULTS: We were successful in amplifying the fragments of interest from the DNA samples. The method was also reproducible and specific. The amplified sequences showed 100% homology to CYP2C9 sequence.
    CONCLUSION: This is the first nested allele-specific multiplex PCR method reported to allow for the simultaneously detection of five CYP2C9 alleles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
  15. Vaithilingam RD, Safii SH, Baharuddin NA, Ng CC, Cheong SC, Bartold PM, et al.
    J Periodontal Res, 2014 Dec;49(6):683-95.
    PMID: 24528298 DOI: 10.1111/jre.12167
    Studies to elucidate the role of genetics as a risk factor for periodontal disease have gone through various phases. In the majority of cases, the initial 'hypothesis-dependent' candidate-gene polymorphism studies did not report valid genetic risk loci. Following a large-scale replication study, these initially positive results are believed to be caused by type 1 errors. However, susceptibility genes, such as CDKN2BAS (Cyclin Dependend KiNase 2B AntiSense RNA; alias ANRIL [ANtisense Rna In the Ink locus]), glycosyltransferase 6 domain containing 1 (GLT6D1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), have been reported as conclusive risk loci of periodontitis. The search for genetic risk factors accelerated with the advent of 'hypothesis-free' genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, despite many different GWAS being performed for almost all human diseases, only three GWAS on periodontitis have been published - one reported genome-wide association of GLT6D1 with aggressive periodontitis (a severe phenotype of periodontitis), whereas the remaining two, which were performed on patients with chronic periodontitis, were not able to find significant associations. This review discusses the problems faced and the lessons learned from the search for genetic risk variants of periodontitis. Current and future strategies for identifying genetic variance in periodontitis, and the importance of planning a well-designed genetic study with large and sufficiently powered case-control samples of severe phenotypes, are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
  16. De Luca C, Thai JC, Raskovic D, Cesareo E, Caccamo D, Trukhanov A, et al.
    Mediators Inflamm, 2014;2014:924184.
    PMID: 24812443 DOI: 10.1155/2014/924184
    Growing numbers of "electromagnetic hypersensitive" (EHS) people worldwide self-report severely disabling, multiorgan, non-specific symptoms when exposed to low-dose electromagnetic radiations, often associated with symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and/or other environmental "sensitivity-related illnesses" (SRI). This cluster of chronic inflammatory disorders still lacks validated pathogenetic mechanism, diagnostic biomarkers, and management guidelines. We hypothesized that SRI, not being merely psychogenic, may share organic determinants of impaired detoxification of common physic-chemical stressors. Based on our previous MCS studies, we tested a panel of 12 metabolic blood redox-related parameters and of selected drug-metabolizing-enzyme gene polymorphisms, on 153 EHS, 147 MCS, and 132 control Italians, confirming MCS altered (P < 0.05-0.0001) glutathione-(GSH), GSH-peroxidase/S-transferase, and catalase erythrocyte activities. We first described comparable-though milder-metabolic pro-oxidant/proinflammatory alterations in EHS with distinctively increased plasma coenzyme-Q10 oxidation ratio. Severe depletion of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids with increased ω 6/ ω 3 ratio was confirmed in MCS, but not in EHS. We also identified significantly (P = 0.003) altered distribution-versus-control of the CYP2C19∗1/∗2 SNP variants in EHS, and a 9.7-fold increased risk (OR: 95% C.I. = 1.3-74.5) of developing EHS for the haplotype (null)GSTT1 + (null)GSTM1 variants. Altogether, results on MCS and EHS strengthen our proposal to adopt this blood metabolic/genetic biomarkers' panel as suitable diagnostic tool for SRI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
  17. Visuvanathan S, Chong PP, Yap YY, Lim CC, Tan MK, Lye MS
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(6):2747-51.
    PMID: 24761895
    BACKGROUND: DNA repair pathways play a crucial role in maintaining the human genome. Previous studies associated DNA repair gene polymorphisms (XPD Lys751Gln, XRCC1 Arg280His and XRCC1 Arg399Gln) with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. These non-synonymous polymorphisms may alter DNA repair capacity and thus increase or decrease susceptibility. The present study aimed to determine the genotype distribution of XPD codon 751, XRCC1 codon 280 and codon 399 polymorphisms and haplotype associations among NPC cases and controls in the Malaysian population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected 157 NPC cases and 136 controls from two hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia for this study. The polymorphisms studied were genotyped by PCR-RFLP assay and allele and genotype frequencies, haplotype and linkage disequilibrium were determined using SNPstat software.

    RESULTS: For the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism, the frequency of the Lys allele was higher in cases than in controls (94.5% versus 85.0%). For the XRCC1 Arg280His polymorphism, the frequency of Arg allele was 90.0% and 89.0% in cases and controls, respectively and for XRCC1 Arg399Gln the frequency of the Arg allele was 72.0% and 72.8% in cases and controls respectively. All three polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium. The odds ratio from haplotype analysis for these three polymorphisms and their association with NPC was 1.93 (95%CI: 0.90-4.16) for haplotype CGC vs AGC allele combinations. The global haplotype association with NPC gave a p-value of 0.054.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides an estimate of allele and genotype frequencies of XRCC1Arg280His, XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms in the Malaysian population and showed no association with nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*
  18. Hasan MS, Basri HB, Hin LP, Stanslas J
    Int J Neurosci, 2013 Mar;123(3):143-54.
    PMID: 23110469 DOI: 10.3109/00207454.2012.744308
    Ischemic heart disease and stroke are the two leading causes of death worldwide. Antiplatelet therapy plays the most significant role in the management of these cardiovascular and cerebrovascular occlusive events to prevent recurrent ischemic attack. Clopidogrel, an antiplatelet drug, is widely prescribed either alone or in combination with aspirin as dual antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of vascular occlusive events. The antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely. Hyporesponders and nonresponders are likely to have adverse cardiovascular events during follow-up. Some drugs, such as proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole), calcium channel blockers, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (nefazadone), coumarin derivatives (phenprocoumon), benzodiazepines, sulfonylurea, erythromycin, and itraconazole, decrease the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel when administered concomitantly. Decreased response to clopidogrel is common among Asians due to genetic polymorphisms associated with clopidogrel resistance, and it is nearly 70% in some of the Asian communities. It is necessary to study Asian populations, because there are a large number of Asians throughout the world due to increased migration. Current guidelines do not make genetic testing or platelet response testing mandatory prior to clopidogrel prescription. Therefore, it is important for clinicians treating Asian patients to keep in mind the interindividual variability in response to clopidogrel when prescribing the drug.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*
  19. Wan CL, Zainal NZ, Lian LH, Mohamed Z
    Psychiatry Res, 2011 Aug 30;189(1):67-71.
    PMID: 21414668 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2011.02.008
    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is a candidate gene for schizophrenia as its encoded enzyme is involved in the metabolic inactivation of dopamine and noradrenaline. Several molecular genetic studies thus far have demonstrated that the COMT functional polymorphism of Val158Met is susceptible with schizophrenia. Hence, the present study aims to determine this genetic association of this SNP in the three major ethnic groups of the Malaysian population. A total of 317 patients (79 Malays, 154 Chinese and 84 Indians) meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and 417 healthy subjects (160 Malays, 164 Chinese and 93 Indians) were recruited. A PCR-RFLP method was used to determine the genotypes and alleles present. We found a significant association of genotypes within the total pooled samples, as well as in the female subgroup, with a higher frequency of heterozygotes in schizophrenia subjects. However, there were no significant differences in allele and genotype frequency between the schizophrenic patients and normal controls in all three ethnic groups. Our current findings suggest that the Val158Met polymorphism has a weak association with schizophrenia in the Malaysian population and does not play a major role in conferring susceptibility to the schizophrenia in any of the three major local ethnicities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*
  20. Latif MA, Rafii Yusop M, Motiur Rahman M, Bashar Talukdar MR
    C. R. Biol., 2011 Apr;334(4):282-9.
    PMID: 21513897 DOI: 10.1016/j.crvi.2011.02.003
    A total of 78 alleles and 29 loci were detected from nine microsatellite and three minisatellite markers, respectively across 26 blast and ufra disease resistant genotypes. For blast resistant genotypes, the Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0.280 to 0.726 and RM21 was considered as the best marker. PIC values ranged from 0.5953 to 0.8296 for ufra resistant genotypes and RM23 was the best marker for characterization of ufra resistant genotypes. The genetic similarity analysis using UPGMA clustering generated nine clusters with coefficient of 0.66 for blast resistant genotypes while five genetic clusters with similarity coefficient of 0.42 for ufra resistant genotypes. In order to develop resistant varieties of two major diseases of rice, hybridisation should be made using the parents, BR29 and NJ70507, BR36 and NJ70507 for blast, while BR11 and Aokazi, BR3 and Aokazi, Rayda and BR3 and Rayda and BR11 for ufra.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
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