Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

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  1. Liew SM, Tong SF, Lee VK, Ng CJ, Leong KC, Teng CL
    Br J Gen Pract, 2009 Dec;59(569):916-20.
    PMID: 19712544 DOI: 10.3399/bjgp09X472250
    Non-attendance results in administrative problems and disruption in patient care. Several interventions have been used to reduce non-attendance, with varying degree of success. A relatively new intervention, text messaging, has been shown to be as effective as telephone reminders in reducing non-attendance. However, no study has looked specifically at using text messaging reminders to reduce non-attendance in chronic disease care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  2. Wong CH, Sultan Shah ZU, Teng CL, Lin TQ, Majeed ZA, Chan CW
    Asian J Psychiatr, 2016 Dec;24:110-117.
    PMID: 27931891 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2016.08.020
    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are common mental health disorders with significant impact on the individual as well as burden on the country as a whole.
    METHODS: A systematic review of databases, reference lists, internet sources, and input from content experts revealed 42 studies that documented the prevalence of anxiety symptoms or disorders. 12 of these studies specifically evaluated anxiety disorders.
    RESULTS: 4 studies looked at the prevalence of anxiety disorders in the general population, whilst the remainder focused on selected population groups: university students (4 studies); substance abuse (3 studies); and victims of abuse (1 study). Studies in the general population showed that the prevalence of generalised anxiety disorder was 0.4-5.6%, mixed anxiety and depression were 3-5%, panic without agoraphobia 0.4%, phobia unspecified 0.5-%, and anxiety not-otherwise-specified 0.3-6.5%. We found significant variability in anxiety disorders in the studies in selected population groups. The variability could also have been affected by methodological factors within each study.
    CONCLUSION: This study provides a broad overview of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in Malaysia. More research is required to develop diagnostic instruments that are validated for local use and comparable with international standards. Reliable prevalence estimates are lacking within certain groups, e.g. those in rural, indigenous, migrant population groups and those exposed to natural disasters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  3. Lim MT, Lim YMF, Tong SF, Sivasampu S
    PLoS One, 2019;14(10):e0224260.
    PMID: 31634373 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224260
    INTRODUCTION: Understanding the potential determinants of community healthcare seeking behaviour helps in improving healthcare utilisation and health outcomes within different populations. This in turn will aid the development of healthcare policies and planning for prevention, early diagnosis and management of health conditions.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patients' perception of community healthcare seeking behaviour towards both acute and preventive physical and psychosocial health concerns by sex, age and type of primary care setting (as a proxy for affordability of healthcare).

    METHODS: A total of 3979 patients from 221 public and 239 private clinics in Malaysia were interviewed between June 2015 and February 2016 using a patient experience survey questionnaire from the Quality and Cost of Primary Care cross-sectional study. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for the complex survey design was used.

    RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates, more women than men perceived that most people would see their general practitioners for commonly consulted acute and preventive physical and some psychosocial health concerns such as stomach pain (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-2.21), sprained ankle (AOR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06-1.56), anxiety (AOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.12-1.55), domestic violence (AOR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.13-1.62) and relationship problems (AOR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.02-1.51). There were no significant differences in perceived healthcare seeking behaviour by age groups except for the removal of a wart (AOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.12-1.76). Patients who visited the public clinics had generally higher perception of community healthcare seeking behaviour for both acute and preventive physical and psychosocial health concerns compared to those who went to private clinics.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that sex and healthcare affordability differences were present in perceived community healthcare seeking behaviour towards primary care services. Also perceived healthcare seeking behaviour were consistently lower for psychosocial health concerns compared to physical health concerns.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  4. Khoo EM, Sararaks S, Lee WK, Liew SM, Cheong AT, Abdul Samad A, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Sep;27(6):670-7.
    PMID: 25563351 DOI: 10.1177/1010539514564007
    This study aimed to develop an intervention to reduce medical errors and to determine if the intervention can reduce medical errors in public funded primary care clinics. A controlled interventional trial was conducted in 12 conveniently selected primary care clinics. Random samples of outpatient medical records were selected and reviewed by family physicians for documentation, diagnostic, and management errors at baseline and 3 months post intervention. The intervention package comprised educational training, structured process change, review methods, and patient education. A significant reduction was found in overall documentation error rates between intervention (Pre 98.3% [CI 97.1-99.6]; Post 76.1% [CI 68.1-84.1]) and control groups (Pre 97.4% [CI 95.1-99.8]; Post 89.5% [85.3-93.6]). Within the intervention group, overall management errors reduced from 54.0% (CI 49.9-58.0) to 36.6% (CI 30.2-43.1) and medication error from 43.2% (CI 39.2-47.1) to 25.2% (CI 19.9-30.5). This low-cost intervention was useful to reduce medical errors in resource-constrained settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data
  5. Cheong AT, Tong SF, Sazlina SG, Azah AS, Salmiah MS
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP580-9.
    PMID: 23536235 DOI: 10.1177/1010539513480232
    Hypertension is a common comorbidity among diabetic patients. This study aimed to determine blood pressure (BP) control among hypertensive patients with and without diabetes. This was a cross-sectional study in 6 public primary care clinics in Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia. Hypertensive patients aged ≥18 years and attending the clinics were selected via systematic random sampling. The BP control target was defined as <130/80 mm Hg for diabetic patients and <140/90 mm Hg for nondiabetic patients. A total of 1107 hypertensive patients participated in this study and 540 (48.7%) had diabetes. About one fourth (24.3%) of the hypertensive patients with diabetes achieved BP control target, compared with 60.1% patients without diabetes (P < .001). Being diabetic and on ≥2 antihypertensive treatments were associated with poor BP control. Attention needs to be given to these groups of patients when managing patients with hypertension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  6. Zaharan NL, Williams D, Bennett K
    Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2013 Apr;75(4):1118-24.
    PMID: 22845189 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04403.x
    (i) To examine the incidence of new onset treated diabetes in patients treated with different types of statins and (ii) the relationship between the duration and dose of statins and the subsequent development of new onset treated diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  7. Dhabali AA, Awang R, Zyoud SH
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2012 Aug;37(4):426-30.
    PMID: 22081958 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2011.01314.x
    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide and may lead to hospital admission. Sophisticated computerized drug information and monitoring systems, more recently established in many of the emerging economies, including Malaysia, are capturing useful information on prescribing. Our aim is to report on an investigation of potentially serious DDIs, using a university primary care-based system capturing prescription records from its primary care services.
    METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from two academic years over 20 months from computerized databases at the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) from users of the USM primary care services.
    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Three hundred and eighty-six DDI events were observed in a cohort of 208 exposed patients from a total of 23,733 patients, representing a 2-year period prevalence of 876·4 per 100,000 patients. Of the 208 exposed patients, 138 (66·3%) were exposed to one DDI event, 29 (13·9%) to two DDI events, 15 (7·2%) to three DDI events, 6 (2·9%) to four DDI events and 20 (9·6%) to more than five DDI events. Overall, an increasing mean number of episodes of DDIs was noted among exposed patients within the age category ≥70 years (P=0·01), an increasing trend in the number of medications prescribed (P<0·001) and an increasing trend in the number of long-term therapeutic groups (P<0·001).
    WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: We describe the prevalence of clinically important DDIs in an emerging economy setting and identify the more common potentially serious DDIs. In line with the observations in developed economies, a higher number of episodes of DDIs were seen in patients aged ≥70 years and with more medications prescribed. The easiest method to reduce the frequency of DDIs is to reduce the number of medications prescribed. Therapeutic alternatives should be selected cautiously.

    Study site: e Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  8. Lim CM, Aryani Md Yusof F, Selvarajah S, Lim TO
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 2011 Oct;67(10):1035-44.
    PMID: 21499761 DOI: 10.1007/s00228-011-1025-4
    PURPOSE: We aimed to demonstrate the suitability of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) to describe duplicate drugs and duplicate drug classes in prescription data and describe the pattern of duplicates from public and private primary care clinics of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    METHODS: We analyzed prescription data year 2005 from all 14 public clinics in Kuala Lumpur with 12,157 prescriptions, and a sample of 188 private clinics with 25,612 prescriptions. As ATC Level 5 code represents the molecule and Level 4 represents the pharmacological subgroup, we used repetitions of codes in the same prescription to describe duplicate drugs or duplicate drug classes and compared them between the public and private clinics.

    RESULTS: At Level 4 ATC, prescriptions with duplicates drug classes were 1.46% of all prescriptions in private and 0.04% in public clinics. At Level 5 ATC, prescriptions with duplicate drugs were 1.81% for private and 0.95% for public clinics. In private clinics at Level 5, 73.3% of prescriptions with duplicates involved systemic combination drugs; at Level 4, 40.3% involved systemic combination drugs. In the public sector at Level 5, 95.7% of prescriptions with duplicates involved topical products.

    CONCLUSIONS: Repetitions of the same ATC codes were mostly useful to describe duplicate medications; however, we recommend avoid using ATC codes for tropical products for this purpose due to ambiguity. Combination products were often involved in duplicate prescribing; redesign of these products might improve prescribing quality. Duplicates occurred more often in private clinics than public clinics in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  9. Khoo EM, Lee WK, Sararaks S, Abdul Samad A, Liew SM, Cheong AT, et al.
    BMC Fam Pract, 2012;13:127.
    PMID: 23267547 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-13-127
    Patient safety is vital in patient care. There is a lack of studies on medical errors in primary care settings. The aim of the study is to determine the extent of diagnostic inaccuracies and management errors in public funded primary care clinics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  10. Lim YMF, Yusof M, Sivasampu S
    Int J Health Care Qual Assur, 2018 Apr 16;31(3):203-213.
    PMID: 29687760 DOI: 10.1108/IJHCQA-08-2016-0111
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess National Medical Care Survey data quality. Design/methodology/approach Data completeness and representativeness were computed for all observations while other data quality measures were assessed using a 10 per cent sample from the National Medical Care Survey database; i.e., 12,569 primary care records from 189 public and private practices were included in the analysis. Findings Data field completion ranged from 69 to 100 per cent. Error rates for data transfer from paper to web-based application varied between 0.5 and 6.1 per cent. Error rates arising from diagnosis and clinical process coding were higher than medication coding. Data fields that involved free text entry were more prone to errors than those involving selection from menus. The authors found that completeness, accuracy, coding reliability and representativeness were generally good, while data timeliness needs to be improved. Research limitations/implications Only data entered into a web-based application were examined. Data omissions and errors in the original questionnaires were not covered. Practical implications Results from this study provided informative and practicable approaches to improve primary health care data completeness and accuracy especially in developing nations where resources are limited. Originality/value Primary care data quality studies in developing nations are limited. Understanding errors and missing data enables researchers and health service administrators to prevent quality-related problems in primary care data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  11. Nasir NM, Ariffin F, Yasin SM
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 06;73(3):163-169.
    PMID: 29962500 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Medication adherence has been found to be an important determinant in achieving glycaemic control in Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) patients. In other patient populations, physician-patient interaction satisfaction was found to influence medication adherence. It is then important to identify if this is also a factor amongst T2DM patients on insulin as poor adherence was associated with increased all-cause mortality.

    METHODS: This was a cross sectional study involving 197 T2DM patients on insulin from two government primary health clinics in Gombak. Physician-patient interaction satisfaction was assessed using Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan (SKIP-11) consisting of 3 subdomains (Distress Relief, Rapport and Interaction Outcome). Medication adherence level was measured using a single item selfreport question. Data analysis for descriptive, inferential and multivariate analysis statistics were performed.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the study participants was 57.12 (SD: 9.27). Majority were Malay, female, unemployed with mean BMI of 27.5. Majority reported full adherence (62.9%). High scores in the Interaction Outcome subdomain was associated with better adherence. Factors associated with high scores in this subdomain included patient education level, number of oral hypoglycaemic agent and type of insulin regime taken. This study also found that high scores in the Interaction Outcome domain is associated with lower HbA1c (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Physician-patient interaction satisfaction is an important factor in achieving better medication adherence which also leads to better glycaemic control in this group of patients. There is a need to identify strategies to improve satisfaction in this domain to improve patient adherence.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data
  12. Ong SM, Lim YMF, Sivasampu S, Khoo EM
    BMC Geriatr, 2018 02 23;18(1):59.
    PMID: 29471806 DOI: 10.1186/s12877-018-0750-2
    BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is particularly important in older persons as they are more likely to experience adverse events compared to the rest of the population. Despite the relevance, there is a lack of studies on the possible association of patient, prescriber and practice characteristics with polypharmacy. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the rate of polypharmacy among older persons attending public and private primary care clinics, and its association with patient, prescriber and practice characteristics.

    METHODS: We used data from The National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a national cross-sectional survey of patients' visits to primary care clinics in Malaysia. A weighted total of 22,832 encounters of patients aged ≥65 years were analysed. Polypharmacy was defined as concomitant use of five medications and above. Multilevel logistic regression was performed to examine the association of polypharmacy with patient, prescriber and practice characteristics.

    RESULTS: A total of 20.3% of the older primary care attenders experienced polypharmacy (26.7%% in public and 11.0% in private practice). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of polypharmacy were 6.37 times greater in public practices. Polypharmacy was associated with patients of female gender (OR 1.49), primary education level (OR 1.61) and multimorbidity (OR 14.21). The variation in rate of polypharmacy was mainly found at prescriber level.

    CONCLUSION: Polypharmacy is common among older persons visiting primary care practices. Given the possible adverse outcomes, interventions to reduce the burden of polypharmacy are best to be directed at individual prescribers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data
  13. Salim H, Lee PY, Sazlina SG, Ching SM, Mawardi M, Shamsuddin NH, et al.
    PLoS One, 2019;14(11):e0224649.
    PMID: 31693677 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224649
    INTRODUCTION: Self-care has been shown to improve clinical outcome of hypertension. Gauging the level of self-care among patients with hypertension enables the design of their personalized care plans. This study aimed to determine the self-care profiles and its determinants among patients with hypertension in the Malaysian primary care setting.

    METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted between 1 October 2016-30 April 2017 in three primary care clinics in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. All adults aged 18 years and above with hypertension for at least 6 months were recruited with a systematic random sampling of 1:2 ratio. The participants were assisted in the administration of the structured questionnaire, which included socio-demographic information, medical information and the Hypertension Self-Care Profile (HTN SCP) tool. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. Multiple linear regression was performed to determine the determinants for self-care.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 59.5 (SD10.2) years old. There were more women (52.5%) and most were Malays (44.0%) follow by Chinese (34%) and Indians (21%). Majority (84.2%) had secondary or primary school level of education. A third (30.7%) had a family history of hypertension. The mean total HTN-SCP score was 124.2 (SD 22.8) out of 180. The significant determinants that influenced the HTN-SCP scores included being men (B-4.5, P-value0.008), Chinese ethnicity (B-14.7, P-value<0.001), primary level education/no formal school education level (B-15.7, P-value<0.001), secondary level education (B-9.2, P-value<0.001) and family history of hypertension (B 4.4, P-value 0.014).

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall hypertension self-care profile among patients in this multi-ethnic country was moderate. Being men, Chinese, lower education level and without family history of hypertension were associated with lower hypertension self-care profile score. Healthcare intervention programmes to address self-care should target this group of patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  14. Tay CL, Myint PK, Mohazmi M, Soiza RL, Tan MP
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 04;74(2):121-127.
    PMID: 31079122
    INTRODUCTION: Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality and has major clinical implications. However, few studies of hyponatraemia in the primary care setting has been published to date.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, potential causes and management of hyponatraemia and to identify factors associated with severity of hyponatraemia among older persons in a primary care setting.

    METHODS: Electronic records were searched to identify all cases aged ≥60 years with a serum sodium <135mmol/l, attending outpatient clinic in 2014. Patients' medical records with the available blood test results of glucose, potassium, urea and creatinine were reviewed.

    RESULTS: Of the 21,544 elderly, 5873 patients (27.3%) had electrolyte profile tests. 403 (6.9%) had hyponatraemia in at least one blood test. Medical records were available for 253, mean age 72.9±7.3 years, 178 (70.4%) had mild hyponatraemia, 75 (29.6%) had moderate to severe hyponatraemia. Potential causes were documented in 101 (40%). Patients with moderate to severe hyponatraemia were five times more likely to have a cause of hyponatraemia documented (p<0.01). Medications were the commonest documented cause of hyponatraemia (31.7%). Hydrochlorothiazide use was attributed in 25 (78.1%) of 32 with medication-associated hyponatraemia. Repeat renal profile (89%) was the commonest management of hypotonic hyponatraemia.

    CONCLUSION: Whilst hyponatraemia was common in the clinic setting, many cases were not acknowledged and had no clear management strategies. In view of mild hyponatraemia has deleterious consequences, future studies should determine whether appropriate management of mild hyponatraemia will lead to clinical improvement.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  15. Sazlina SG, Lee PY, Chan YM, A Hamid MS, Tan NC
    PLoS One, 2020;15(5):e0233299.
    PMID: 32433712 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0233299
    Sarcopenia is a recognised geriatric syndrome but few studies address its associated factors among elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in South East Asia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and its associated factors among the elderly with T2DM in public primary care clinics in Malaysia. This study utilised data from a longitudinal study of 506 adults with T2DM aged ≥60 years. Data on socio-demography, clinical and functional status, diet and levels of physical activity (PA) were collected. Sarcopenia was defined using Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria and its associated factors were analysed using multiple logistic regression. The proportion of elderly with T2DM with sarcopenia was 28.5%. Those aged ≥70 years (β = 0.73;OR = 2.07; 95%CI = 1.24, 3.48; p = 0.006), men (β = 0.61; OR = 1.84; 95%CI = 1.12, 3.02; p = 0.017), with ≥10 years duration of diabetes (β = 0.62; OR = 1.85; 95%CI = 1.11, 3.09; p = 0.018), not using insulin sensitizers (β = -1.44; OR = 0.24; 95%CI = 0.08, 0.71; p = 0.010), using less than 5 medications (β = 0.68; OR = 1.98; 95%CI = 1.17, 3.36; p = 0.011), low body mass index (BMI) (β = -2.43; OR = 0.09; 95%CI = 0.05, 0.17; p<0.001), and engaging in low (β = 0.77; OR = 2.15; 95%CI = 1.07, 4.35; p = 0.032) and moderate physical activities (β = 0.80; OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.07, 4.66; p = 0.033) were associated with sarcopenia. Factors that predicts sarcopenia such as level of physical activity and body mass index were among the modifiable factors that could be used in developing future strategies to prevent or delay the progression of sarcopenia among elderly with T2DM to improve their health status.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  16. Jaffar A, Mohd-Sidik S, Nien FC, Fu GQ, Talib NH
    PLoS One, 2020;15(7):e0236140.
    PMID: 32667936 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0236140
    BACKGROUND: Urinary Incontinence (UI) is when a person is unable to hold his/her urine effectively. This is a common problem which can develop and worsen during pregnancy. An effective way to manage UI is to educate patients on the Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercise (PFME) regularly. The present study aimed to ascertain the pregnant women's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to PFME.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study done in a one primary care clinic located in a semi-urban area in Selangor, Malaysia. Simple random sampling was conducted among pregnant women aged 18 years old and above at any gestation. The validated study instruments used consisted of questions on socio-demography, KAP on UI, and also the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form to determine UI among the respondents.

    RESULTS: The response rate for this study was 72.1%, where 440 pregnant women consented to take part in the study. The median age of study respondents was 30 years old and majority of the study respondents was from the Malay ethnicity (80.9%). The prevalence of UI was 40.9%. The proportion of pregnant women with good knowledge, attitude and practice scores were 58.0%, 46.6% and 45.2% respectively. There was a significant association between UI and age (p = .03), body mass index (p = .03), ethnicity (p = .04), gravida. (p = .001), knowledge on PFME (p = .007) and attitude towards PFME (p = .006).

    CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study fill a gap in the prevalence and KAP concerning PFME at the primary care level. The foundation areas for future education and health promotion on UI should address the importance of correct PFME. This education can be delivered through a pragmatic way to ensure its effectiveness and sustainability of the health promotion program.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  17. Teh XR, Lim MT, Tong SF, Husin M, Khamis N, Sivasampu S
    PLoS One, 2020;15(8):e0237083.
    PMID: 32780769 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0237083
    INTRODUCTION: Adequate control of hypertension is a global challenge and is the key to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study evaluates management of hypertensive patients in primary care clinics in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 13 784 medical records from 20 selected public primary care clinics in Malaysia was performed for patients aged ≥30 years old who were diagnosed with hypertension and had at least one visit between 1st November 2016 and 30th June 2019. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for complex survey design was used to determine the association between process of care and blood pressure (BP) control among the hypertensive patients.

    RESULTS: Approximately 50% of hypertensive patients were obese, 38.4% of age ≥65 years old, 71.2% had at least one comorbidity and approximately one-third were on antihypertensive monotherapy. Approximately two-third of the hypertensive patients with diabetic proteinuria were prescribed with the appropriate choice of antihypertensive agents. Approximately half of the patients received at least 70% of the target indicated care and 42.8% had adequately controlled BP. After adjusting for covariates, patients who received counseling on exercise were positively associated with adequate BP control. Conversely, patients who were prescribed with two or more antihypertensive agents were negatively associated with good BP control.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that BP control was suboptimal and deficient in the process of care with consequent gaps in guidelines and actual clinical practices. This warrants a re-evaluation of the current strategies and approaches to improve the quality of hypertension management and ultimately to improve outcome.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data
  18. Ab Rahman N, Sivasampu S, Mohamad Noh K, Khoo EM
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2016 06 14;16:197.
    PMID: 27301972 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-016-1444-0
    BACKGROUND: The world population has become more globalised with increasing number of people residing in another country for work or other reasons. Little is known about the health profiles of foreign population in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Data were derived from the 2012 National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a cross sectional survey of primary care encounters from public and private primary care clinics sampled from five regions in Malaysia. Patients with foreign nationality were identified and analysed for demographic profiles, reasons for encounter (RFEs), diagnosis, and provision of care.

    RESULTS: Foreigners accounted for 7.7 % (10,830) of all patient encounters from NMCS. Most encounters were from private clinics (90.2 %). Median age was 28 years (IQR: 24.0, 34.8) and 69.9 % were male. Most visits to the primary care clinics were for symptom-based complaints (69.5 %), followed by procedures (23.0 %) and follow-up visit (7.4 %). The commonest diagnosis in public clinics was antenatal care (21.8 %), followed by high risk pregnancies (7.5 %) and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (6.8 %). Private clinics had more cases for general medical examination (13.5 %), URTI (13.1 %) and fever (3.9 %). Medications were prescribed to 76.5 % of these encounters.

    CONCLUSIONS: More foreigners were seeking primary medical care from private clinics and the encounters were for general medical examinations and acute minor ailments. Those who sought care from public clinics were for obstetric problems and chronic diseases. Medications were prescribed to two-thirds of the encounters while other interventions: laboratory investigations, medical procedures and follow-up appointment had lower rates in private clinics. Foreigners are generally of young working group and are expected to have mandatory medical checks. The preponderance of obstetrics seen in public clinics suggests a need for improved access to maternal care and pregnancy related care. This has implication on policy and health care provision and access for foreigners and future studies are needed to look into strategies to solve these problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  19. Muthupalaniappen L, Azimah MN, Kharuddin NF, Tzar MN
    PMID: 24050080
    Onychomycosis increases the risk of developing secondary bacterial infection and cellulitis if left untreated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of onychomycosis among diabetics and its associated factors. A cross sectional study using universal sampling of all type 1 and 2 diabetic patients attending a primary care facility of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) from January to March 2011 was conducted. Samples were taken from clinically abnormal nails and from the first right toenail in the absence of nail abnormalities and cultured for fungal elements. A total of 151 diabetics participated in the study. The mean patient age was 60.7 +/- 9.1 years. A total of 123 nail samples (81.5%) were culture positive for fungal elements. A positive correlation was found between onychomycosis and increasing age (p = 0.011) and clinically abnormal nails (p < 0.05). There were no significant correlations with gender, ethnic group, duration of diabetes, types of diabetes or glycemic control. The prevalence of onychomycosis among diabetics in our study was high.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  20. Kamarudin MF, Mohamad Noh K, Jaafar S
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Aug;67(4):363-8.
    PMID: 23082442 MyJurnal
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
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