METHODS: We analysed plasma and urine samples of 50 stable CAD patients and 50 healthy controls using 1H NMR. Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) followed by multivariate logistic regression (MVLR) models were developed to indicate the discriminating metabotypes. Metabolic pathway analysis was performed to identify the implicated pathways.
RESULTS: Both plasma and urine OPLS-DA models had specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of 100%, 96% and 98%, respectively. Plasma MVLR model had specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and AUROC of 92%, 86%, 89% and 0.96, respectively. The MVLR model of urine had specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and AUROC of 90%, 80%, 85% and 0.92, respectively. 35 and 12 metabolites were identified in plasma and urine metabotypes, respectively. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed that urea cycle, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies pathways were significantly disturbed in plasma, while methylhistidine metabolism and galactose metabolism pathways were significantly disturbed in urine. The enrichment over representation analysis against SNPs-associated-metabolite sets library revealed that 85 SNPs were significantly enriched in plasma metabotype.
CONCLUSIONS: Cardiometabolic diseases, dysbiotic gut-microbiota and genetic variabilities are largely implicated in the pathogenesis of CAD.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight subjects (23 complicated mTBI [cmTBI] patients, 12 uncomplicated mTBI [umTBI] patients, and 13 controls) underwent magnetic resonance imaging scan with additional single voxel spectroscopy sequence. Magnetic resonance imaging scans for patients were done at an average of 10 hours (standard deviation 4.26) post injury. The single voxel spectroscopy adjacent to side of injury and noninjury regions were analysed to obtain absolute concentrations and ratio relative to creatine of the neurometabolites. One-way analysis of variance was performed to compare neurometabolite concentrations of the three groups, and a correlation study was done between the neurometabolite concentration and Glasgow Coma Scale.
RESULTS: Significant difference was found in ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr + PCr) (χ2(2) = 0.22, P