Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 61 in total

  1. Ismail SN, Maulidiani M, Akhtar MT, Abas F, Ismail IS, Khatib A, et al.
    Molecules, 2017 Sep 25;22(10).
    PMID: 28946701 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22101612
    Gaharu (agarwood, Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.) is a valuable tropical rainforest product traded internationally for its distinctive fragrance. It is not only popular as incense and in perfumery, but also favored in traditional medicine due to its sedative, carminative, cardioprotective and analgesic effects. The current study addresses the chemical differences and similarities between gaharu samples of different grades, obtained commercially, using ¹H-NMR-based metabolomics. Two classification models: partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Random Forests were developed to classify the gaharu samples on the basis of their chemical constituents. The gaharu samples could be reclassified into a 'high grade' group (samples A, B and D), characterized by high contents of kusunol, jinkohol, and 10-epi-γ-eudesmol; an 'intermediate grade' group (samples C, F and G), dominated by fatty acid and vanillic acid; and a 'low grade' group (sample E and H), which had higher contents of aquilarone derivatives and phenylethyl chromones. The results showed that ¹H- NMR-based metabolomics can be a potential method to grade the quality of gaharu samples on the basis of their chemical constituents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods*
  2. Darfizzi Derawi, Jumat Salimon
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42:1121-1129.
    Sebatian poliol minyak sawit olein (di-hidroksi-POo) (70% hasil) disintesis melalui pembukaan gelang oksirana minyak sawit olein terepoksida (EPOo) secara hidrolisis selanjar dan berkelompok. Hasil optimum pembukaan gelang oksirana (97.2%) bagi kedua-dua tindak balas selama 90 min (tindak balas selanjar) dan 75 min (tindak balas berkelompok) dengan menggunakan mangkin asid perklorik 3% v/wt. Spektrum transformasi Fourier inframerah (FTIR) di-hidroksi-POo menunjukkan kehadiran puncak lebar getaran regangan kumpulan hidroksil pada nombor gelombang 3429 cm-1, menunjukkan sebatian poliol telah berjaya dihasilkan. Spektrum resonan magnetik nukleus-karbon (13C-NMR) di-hidroksi-POo telah menunjukkan kehadiran puncak karbon yang terikat dengan kumpulan hidroksil (74.5 ppm). Spektrum resonan magnetik nukleus-proton (1H-NMR) di-hidroksi-POo telah menunjukkan kehadiran puncak proton yang terikat pada karbon poliol (3.4 ppm) dan proton pada kumpulan hidroksil (4.6 ppm). Kelikatan kinematik produk poliol (nilai hidroksil sebanyak 110.7 mgKOH/g minyak) adalah 1435.2 cSt (40oC) dan 55.2 cSt (100oC) dengan indeks kelikatan 78.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  3. Athar Abbasi M, Raza H, Aziz-Ur-Rehman, Zahra Siddiqui S, Adnan Ali Shah S, Hassan M, et al.
    Bioorg. Chem., 2019 03;83:63-75.
    PMID: 30342387 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2018.10.018
    Present work aimed to synthesize some unique bi-heterocyclic benzamides as lead compounds for the in vitro inhibition of urease enzyme, followed by in silico studies. These targeted benzamides were synthesized in good yields through a multi-step protocol and their structures were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, EI-MS and elemental analysis. The in vitro screening results showed that most of the ligands exhibited good inhibitory potentials against the urease. Chemo-informatics analysis envisaged that all these compounds obeyed the Lipinski's rule. Molecular docking results showed that 7h exhibited good binding energy value (-8.40 kcal/mol) and was bound within the active region of urease enzyme. From the present investigation, it was inferred that some of these potent urease inhibitors might serve as novel templates in drug designing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  4. Hussain G, Abbasi MA, Rehman A, Siddiqui SZ, Shah SAA, Ahmad I, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2018 May;31(3):857-866.
    PMID: 29716866
    In this work, a new series of 2-[4-(2-furoyl)-1-piperazinyl]-N-aryl/aralkyl acetamides has been synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial potential. The synthesis was initiated by the reaction of different aryl/aralkyl amines (1a-u) with 2-bromoacetylbromide (2) to obtain N-aryl/aralkyl-2-bromoacetamides (3a-u). Equimolar quantities of different N-aryl/aralkyl-2-bromoacetamides (3a-u) and 2-furoyl-1-piperazine (4) was allowed to react in acetonitrile and in the presence of K2CO3, to form 2-[4-(2-furoyl)-1-piperazinyl]-N-aryl/aralkyl acetamides (5a-u). The structural elucidation was done by EI-MS, IR and 1H-NMR techniques of all the synthesized compounds. All of the synthesized molecules were active against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. Among them 5o and 5c showed very excellent MIC values. The cytotoxicity of the molecules was also checked to find their utility as possible therapeutic agents, where 5c (0.51%) and 5g (1.32%) are found to be least toxic in the series.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  5. Asniza M, Issam A, Abdul Khalil H
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1123-1127.
    A new heterocyclic coupling agent has been produced from the reaction of maleic anhydride and p-aminophenol, namely N-(4-hydroxylpheneyl)maleimide. The coupling agent underwent azo coupling reaction with aromatic amine, which is p-aminophenol to produce a new heterocyclic azo pigment. The pigment was then subjected to solubility, hiding power and light fastness test. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Spectroscopy, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR) were used to obtain the characteristics and structural features of the pigment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  6. Then S, Gan SN, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1179-1186.
    A series of poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) microcapsules filled with dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) was successfully prepared by in situ polymerization. The effect of diverse process parameters and ingredients on the morphology of the microcapsules was observed by SEM, optical microscopy (OM) and digital microscopy. Different techniques for the characterization of the chemical structure and the core content were considered such as FT-IR and 1H-NMR as well as the characterization of thermal properties by DSC. High yields of free flowing powder of spherical microcapsules were produced. The synthesized microcapsules can be incorporated into another polymeric host material. In the event the host material cracks due to excessive stress or strong impact, the microcapsules would rupture to release the DCPD, which could polymerize to repair the crack.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  7. Azizan A, Ahamad Bustamam MS, Maulidiani M, Shaari K, Ismail IS, Nagao N, et al.
    Mar Drugs, 2018 May 07;16(5).
    PMID: 29735927 DOI: 10.3390/md16050154
    Microalgae are promising candidate resources from marine ecology for health-improving effects. Metabolite profiling of the microalgal diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans was conducted by using robust metabolomics tools, namely ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The unsupervised data analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), resolved the five types of extracts made by solvents ranging from polar to non-polar into five different clusters. Collectively, with various extraction solvents, 11 amino acids, cholesterol, 6 fatty acids, 2 sugars, 1 osmolyte, 6 carotenoids and 2 chlorophyll pigments were identified. The fatty acids and both carotenoid pigments as well as chlorophyll, were observed in the extracts made from medium polar (acetone, chloroform) and non-polar (hexane) solvents. It is suggested that the compounds were the characteristic markers that influenced the separation between the clusters. Based on partial least square (PLS) analysis, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and lutein displayed strong correlation to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity. This metabolomics study showed that solvent extractions are one of the main bottlenecks for the maximum recovery of bioactive microalgal compounds and could be a better source of natural antioxidants due to a high value of metabolites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods
  8. Ito T, Okada K, Leong KH, Hirai D, Hayashi Y, Kumada S, et al.
    Chem. Pharm. Bull., 2019;67(3):271-276.
    PMID: 30828004 DOI: 10.1248/cpb.c18-00888
    The different states of water incorporated in wet granules were studied by a low-field benchtop 1H-NMR time-domain NMR (TD-NMR) instrument. Wet granules consisting different fillers [cornstarch (CS), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and D-mannitol (MAN)] with different water contents were prepared using a high-speed granulator, and then their spin-spin relaxation time (T2) was measured using the NMR relaxation technique. The experimental T2 relaxation curves were analyzed by the two-component curve fitting, and then the individual T2 relaxation behaviors of solid and water in wet granules were identified. According to the observed T2 values, it was confirmed that the molecular mobility of water in CS and MCC granules was more restricted than that in the MAN granule. The state of water appeared to be associated with the drying efficiency and moisture absorption capacity of wet granules. Thus, it was confirmed that the state of water significantly affected the wet granulation process and the characteristics of the resultant granules. In the final phase of this study, the effects of binders on the molecular mobility of water in granulation fluids and wet granules were examined. The state of water in granulation fluids was substantially changed by changing the binders. The difference was still detected in wet granules prepared by addition of these fluids to the fillers. In conclusion, TD-NMR can offer valuable knowledge on wet granulation from the viewpoint of molecular mobility of water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods*
  9. Ahmed, Y., Rahman, S., Akhtar, P., Islam, F., Rahman, M., Yaakob, Z.
    General phytochemical screening of the leaves of Saurauia roxburghii (Actinidiaceae) revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, O-glycosides, terpenoids, carbohydrates, steroids, reducing sugar, tannins, phlobatannins and saponin are present in this plant whereas cardiac glycosides are absent. Two steroid compounds were isolated from the n-hexane extract of the leaves from S. roxburghii. Based on the spectral evidence IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR, structures were determined to be stigmasterol (1) and β-sitosterol (2) This is the first report so far of occurrence and details spectroscopic description of these compounds from S. roxburghii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  10. Maidur SR, Patil PS, Ekbote A, Chia TS, Quah CK
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2017 Sep 05;184:342-354.
    PMID: 28528255 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2017.05.015
    In the present work, the title chalcone, (2E)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(4-{[(1E)-(4-fluorophenyl) methylene]amino}phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (abbreviated as FAMFC), was synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound is crystallized in the monoclinic system with non-centrosymmetric space group P21 and hence it satisfies the essential condition for materials to exhibit second-order nonlinear optical properties. The molecular structure was further confirmed by using FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The title crystal is transparent in the Vis-NIR region and has a direct band gap. The third-order nonlinear optical properties were investigated in solution (0.01M) by Z-scan technique using a continuous wave (CW) DPSS laser at the wavelength of 532nm. The title chalcone exhibited significant two-photon absorption (β=35.8×10-5cmW-1), negative nonlinear refraction (n2=-0.18×10-8cm2W-1) and optical limiting (OL threshold=2.73kJcm-2) under the CW regime. In support of the experimental results, a comprehensive theoretical study was carried out on the molecule of FAMFC using density functional theory (DFT). The optimized geometries and frontier molecular orbitals were calculated by employing B3LYP/6-31+G level of theory. The optimized molecular structure was confirmed computationally by IR vibrational and 1H NMR spectral analysis. The experimental UV-Vis-NIR spectrum was interpreted using computational chemistry under time-dependent DFT. The static and dynamic NLO properties such as dipole moments (μ), polarizability (α), and first hyperpolarizabilities (β) were computed by using finite field method. The obtained dynamic first hyperpolarizability β(-2ω;ω,ω) at input frequency ω=0.04282a.u. is predicted to be 161 times higher than urea standard. The electronic excitation energies and HOMO-LUMO band gap for FAMFC were also evaluated by DFT. The experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement, and the NLO study suggests that FAMFC molecule can be a potential candidate in the nonlinear optical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  11. Rasti H, Parivar K, Baharara J, Iranshahi M, Namvar F
    Iran J Pharm Res, 2017;16(1):366-379.
    PMID: 28496490
    This study presents the first ever data of extracting chitin from the Chiton shell, which was then converted to the soluble chitosan by soaking in the 45% NaOH solution. The obtained chitin and chitosan were characterized by the seven different methods. Antioxidant activity of the extracted chitosan was also evaluated using the two methods. The shell content was divided into calcium carbonate (90.5 %), protein (5.2%), and chitin (4.3 %). Due to the results of element analysis and 1H NMR, the final degree of deacetylation of chitosan was 90%. Surprisingly, a significant amount of Fe was accidentally found in the shell after demineralization, and removed from the solution through the filtering. Nonetheless, remained Fe in the extracted chitin and chitosan was 20 times higher than those previously reported from the shell of shrimps and crabs. Presence of this amount of Fe could describe why the produced chitosan was darker compared to the commercial chitosan. Antioxidant activity tests showed that the IC50 of the extracted chitosan was higher than one estimated for the commercial chitosan. Antioxidant activity of the extracted chitosan is even better than the commercial version and may be used in pharmaceutical industry as a source of antioxidant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  12. Amin AM, Mostafa H, Arif NH, Abdul Kader MAS, Kah Hay Y
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 2019 Jun;493:112-122.
    PMID: 30826371 DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2019.02.030
    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) claims lives yearly. Nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) metabolomics analysis is efficient in identifying metabolic biomarkers which lend credence to diagnosis. We aimed to identify CAD metabotypes and its implicated pathways using 1H NMR analysis.

    METHODS: We analysed plasma and urine samples of 50 stable CAD patients and 50 healthy controls using 1H NMR. Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) followed by multivariate logistic regression (MVLR) models were developed to indicate the discriminating metabotypes. Metabolic pathway analysis was performed to identify the implicated pathways.

    RESULTS: Both plasma and urine OPLS-DA models had specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of 100%, 96% and 98%, respectively. Plasma MVLR model had specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and AUROC of 92%, 86%, 89% and 0.96, respectively. The MVLR model of urine had specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and AUROC of 90%, 80%, 85% and 0.92, respectively. 35 and 12 metabolites were identified in plasma and urine metabotypes, respectively. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed that urea cycle, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies pathways were significantly disturbed in plasma, while methylhistidine metabolism and galactose metabolism pathways were significantly disturbed in urine. The enrichment over representation analysis against SNPs-associated-metabolite sets library revealed that 85 SNPs were significantly enriched in plasma metabotype.

    CONCLUSIONS: Cardiometabolic diseases, dysbiotic gut-microbiota and genetic variabilities are largely implicated in the pathogenesis of CAD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  13. Mustahil NA, Baharuddin SH, Abdullah AA, Reddy AVB, Abdul Mutalib MI, Moniruzzaman M
    Chemosphere, 2019 May 04;229:349-357.
    PMID: 31078892 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.026
    Ionic liquids (ILs) based surfactants have been emerged as attractive alternatives to the conventional surfactants owing to their tailor-made and eco-friendly properties. Therefore, present study described the synthesis of nine new fatty amino acids based IL surfactants utilizing lauroyl sarcosinate anion and pyrrolidinium, imidazolium, pyridinium, piperidinium, morpholinium and cholinium cations for the first time. The synthesized surface active lauroyl sarcosinate ionic liquids (SALSILs) were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and TGA. Next, the surface tension and critical micellar concentrations were determined and compared with the surface properties of ILs based surfactants. Further, the toxicity and biodegradability of the synthesized SALSIILs were evaluated to confirm their safe and efficient process applications. The studies revealed that three out of nine synthesized SALSILs containing pyridinium cation have showed strong activity towards the tested microbial growth. The remaining six SALSILs met the biocompatible measures demonstrating moderate to low activity depends on the tested microbes. The alicyclic SALSILs containing morpholinium and piperidinium cations have demonstrated 100% biodegradation after 28 days of the test period. Overall, it is believed that the synthesized SALSILs could effectively replace the conventional surfactants in a wide variety of applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  14. Brown AAM, Hooper TJN, Veldhuis SA, Chin XY, Bruno A, Vashishtha P, et al.
    Nanoscale, 2019 Jul 07;11(25):12370-12380.
    PMID: 31215940 DOI: 10.1039/c9nr02566a
    We report the self-assembly of an extensive inter-ligand hydrogen-bonding network of octylphosphonates on the surface of cesium lead bromide nanocrystals (CsPbBr3 NCs). The post-synthetic addition of octylphosphonic acid to oleic acid/oleylamine-capped CsPbBr3 NCs promoted the attachment of octylphosphonate to the NC surface, while the remaining oleylammonium ligands maintained the high dispersability of the NCs in non-polar solvent. Through powerful 2D solid-state 31P-1H NMR, we demonstrated that an ethyl acetate/acetonitrile purification regime was crucial for initiating the self-assembly of extensive octylphosphonate chains. Octylphosphonate ligands were found to preferentially bind in a monodentate mode through P-O-, leaving polar P[double bond, length as m-dash]O and P-OH groups free to form inter-ligand hydrogen bonds. The octylphosphonate ligand network strongly passivated the nanocrystal surface, yielding a fully-purified CsPbBr3 NC ink with PLQY of 62%, over 3 times higher than untreated NCs. We translated this to LED devices, achieving maximum external quantum efficiency and luminance of 7.74% and 1022 cd m-2 with OPA treatment, as opposed to 3.59% and 229 cd m-2 for untreated CsPbBr3 NCs. This represents one of the highest efficiency LEDs obtained for all-inorganic CsPbBr3 NCs, accomplished through simple, effective passivation and purification processes. The robust binding of octylphosphonates to the perovskite lattice, and specifically their ability to interlink through hydrogen bonding, offers a promising passivation approach which could potentially be beneficial across a breadth of halide perovskite optoelectronic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  15. Taha M, Sultan S, Imran S, Rahim F, Zaman K, Wadood A, et al.
    Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2019 Sep 15;27(18):4081-4088.
    PMID: 31378594 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2019.07.035
    In searchof the potenttherapeutic agent as an α-glucosidase inhibitor, we have synthesized twenty-five analogs (1-25) of quinoline-based Schiff bases as an inhibitoragainst α-glucosidase enzyme under positive control acarbose (IC50 = 38.45 ± 0.80 µM). From the activity profile it was foundthat analogs 1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12 and 20with IC50values 12.40 ± 0.40, 9.40 ± 0.30, 14.10 ± 0.40, 6.20 ± 0.30, 14.40 ± 0.40, 7.40 ± 0.20 and 13.20 ± 0.40 µMrespectively showed most potent inhibition among the series even than standard drug acarbose (IC50 = 38.45 ± 0.80 µM). Here in the present study analog 4 (IC50 = 6.20 ± 0.30 µM) was found with many folds better α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the reference drug. Eight analogs like 5, 7, 8, 16, 17, 22, 24 and 25 among the whole series displayed less than 50% inhibition. The substituents effects on phenyl ring thereby superficially established through SAR study. Binding interactions of analogs and the active site of ligands proteins were confirmed through molecular docking study. Spectroscopic techniques like 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ESIMS were used for characterization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  16. Alomari M, Taha M, Imran S, Jamil W, Selvaraj M, Uddin N, et al.
    Bioorg. Chem., 2019 Nov;92:103235.
    PMID: 31494327 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103235
    Hybrid bis-coumarin derivatives 1-18 were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro urease inhibitory potential. All compounds showed outstanding urease inhibitory potential with IC50 value (The half maximal inhibitory concentration) ranging in between 0.12 SD 0.01 and 38.04 SD 0.63 µM (SD standard deviation). When compared with the standard thiourea (IC50 = 21.40 ± 0.21 µM). Among these derivatives, compounds 7 (IC50 = 0.29 ± 0.01), 9 (IC50 = 2.4 ± 0.05), 10 (IC50 = 2.25 ± 0.05) and 16 (IC50 = 0.12 ± 0.01) are better inhibitors of the urease compared with thiourea (IC50 = 21.40 ± 0.21 µM). To find structure-activity relationship molecular docking as well as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies were also performed. Various spectroscopic techniques like 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and EI-MS were used for characterization of all synthesized analogs. All compounds were tested for cytotoxicity and found non-toxic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  17. Athar Abbasi M, Yu SM, Aziz-Ur-Rehman, Siddiqui SZ, Kim SJ, Raza H, et al.
    Toxicol Rep, 2019;6:897-903.
    PMID: 31516842 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2019.08.016
    In the study presented here, a novel chlorobenzylated bi-heterocyclic hybrid molecule (7) was synthesized and its structural confirmation was carried out by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and CHN analysis data. This compound 7 was subjected to biological study with B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The anti-proliferative results showed that 7 showed no significant toxicity at concentrations ranging of 0-44 μM. The treatment of B16F10 cells with 7 at aforementioned concentration range indicated that migration of cells was significantly lower than that of the control cells in a dose dependent manner. The possible migration inhibitory effect of these melanoma cells was further evaluated through gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 secreted from B16F10 cells. It was inferred from our results that 7 was not affecting the expression and activity of these enzymes. Some other zinc-dependent matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were involved in the inhibitory progression. Taken together, compound 7 inhibited migrations of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Therefore, it may deserve consideration as a potential agent for the treatment of cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  18. Hani AF, Kumar D, Malik AS, Walter N, Razak R, Kiflie A
    Acad Radiol, 2015 Jan;22(1):93-104.
    PMID: 25481518 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2014.08.008
    Quantitative assessment of knee articular cartilage (AC) morphology using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging requires an accurate segmentation and 3D reconstruction. However, automatic AC segmentation and 3D reconstruction from hydrogen-based MR images alone is challenging because of inhomogeneous intensities, shape irregularity, and low contrast existing in the cartilage region. Thus, the objective of this research was to provide an insight into morphologic assessment of AC using multilevel data processing of multinuclear ((23)Na and (1)H) MR knee images.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods*
  19. Salih AM, Ahmad MB, Ibrahim NA, Dahlan KZ, Tajau R, Mahmood MH, et al.
    Molecules, 2015;20(8):14191-211.
    PMID: 26248072 DOI: 10.3390/molecules200814191
    Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing demand for bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications, due to their potential lower cost and environmental impact compared with petroleum-based counterparts. The present research concerns the synthesis of epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) from an epoxidized palm oil product (EPOP) as environmentally friendly material. EPOP was acrylated by acrylic acid via a ring opening reaction. The kinetics of the acrylation reaction were monitored throughout the reaction course and the acid value of the reaction mixture reached 10 mg KOH/g after 16 h, indicating the consumption of the acrylic acid. The obtained epoxy acrylate was investigated intensively by means of FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and the results revealed that the ring opening reaction was completed successfully with an acrylation yield about 82%. The UV free radical polymerization of EPOLA was carried out using two types of photoinitiators. The radiation curing behavior was determined by following the conversion of the acrylate groups. The cross-linking density and the hardness of the cured EPOLA films were measured to evaluate the effect of the photoinitiator on the solid film characteristics, besides, the thermal and mechanical properties were also evaluated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*
  20. Veeramuthu V, Seow P, Narayanan V, Wong JHD, Tan LK, Hernowo AT, et al.
    Acad Radiol, 2018 09;25(9):1167-1177.
    PMID: 29449141 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2018.01.005
    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a noninvasive imaging technique that allows for reliable assessment of microscopic changes in brain cytoarchitecture, neuronal injuries, and neurochemical changes resultant from traumatic insults. We aimed to evaluate the acute alteration of neurometabolites in complicated and uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients in comparison to control subjects using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy).

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight subjects (23 complicated mTBI [cmTBI] patients, 12 uncomplicated mTBI [umTBI] patients, and 13 controls) underwent magnetic resonance imaging scan with additional single voxel spectroscopy sequence. Magnetic resonance imaging scans for patients were done at an average of 10 hours (standard deviation 4.26) post injury. The single voxel spectroscopy adjacent to side of injury and noninjury regions were analysed to obtain absolute concentrations and ratio relative to creatine of the neurometabolites. One-way analysis of variance was performed to compare neurometabolite concentrations of the three groups, and a correlation study was done between the neurometabolite concentration and Glasgow Coma Scale.

    RESULTS: Significant difference was found in ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr + PCr) (χ2(2) = 0.22, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*
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