Displaying all 16 publications

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  1. Ogawa S, Ramadasan PN, Goschorska M, Anantharajah A, Ng KW, Parhar IS
    J. Comp. Neurol., 2012 Sep 1;520(13):2991-3012.
    PMID: 22430310 DOI: 10.1002/cne.23103
    The tachykinins are a family of neuropeptides, including substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), and neurokinin B (NKB), that are encoded by the tac1 (SP and NKA) or tac2/3 (NKB) genes. Tachykinins are widely distributed in the central nervous system and have roles as neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators. Recent studies in mammals have demonstrated the coexpression of NKB and kisspeptin and their comodulatory roles over the control of reproduction. We have recently identified two kisspeptin-encoding genes, kiss1 and kiss2, in teleosts. However, such relationship between tachykinins and kisspeptins has not been demonstrated in non-mammalian species. To determine the involvement of tachykinins in the reproduction in teleosts, we identified tac1 and two tac2 (tac2a and tac2b) sequences in the zebrafish genome using in silico data mining. Zebrafish tac1 encodes SP and NKA, whereas the tac2 sequences encode NKB and an additional peptide homologous to NKB (NKB-related peptide). Digoxigenin in situ hybridization in the brain of zebrafish showed tac1 mRNA-containing cells in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, preoptic region, hypothalamus, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon. The zebrafish tac2a mRNA-containing cells were observed in the preoptic region, habenula, and hypothalamus, whereas the tac2b mRNA-containing cells were predominantly observed in the dorsal telencephalic area. Furthermore, we examined the coexpression of tachykinins and two kisspeptin genes in the brain of zebrafish. Dual fluorescent in situ hybridization showed no coexpression of tachykinins mRNA with kisspeptins mRNA in hypothalamic nuclei or the habenula. These results suggest the presence of independent pathways for kisspeptins and NKB neurons in the brain of zebrafish.
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
  2. Lee BKB, Gan CP, Chang JK, Tan JL, Fadlullah MZ, Abdul Rahman ZA, et al.
    J. Dent. Res., 2018 07;97(8):909-916.
    PMID: 29512401 DOI: 10.1177/0022034518759038
    Head and neck cancer (HNC)-derived cell lines represent fundamental models for studying the biological mechanisms underlying cancer development and precision therapies. However, mining the genomic information of HNC cells from available databases requires knowledge on bioinformatics and computational skill sets. Here, we developed a user-friendly web resource for exploring, visualizing, and analyzing genomics information of commonly used HNC cell lines. We populated the current version of GENIPAC with 44 HNC cell lines from 3 studies: ORL Series, OPC-22, and H Series. Specifically, the mRNA expressions for all the 3 studies were derived with RNA-seq. The copy number alterations analysis of ORL Series was performed on the Genome Wide Human Cytoscan HD array, while copy number alterations for OPC-22 were derived from whole exome sequencing. Mutations from ORL Series and H Series were derived from RNA-seq information, while OPC-22 was based on whole exome sequencing. All genomic information was preprocessed with customized scripts and underwent data validation and correction through data set validator tools provided by cBioPortal. The clinical and genomic information of 44 HNC cell lines are easily assessable in GENIPAC. The functional utility of GENIPAC was demonstrated with some of the genomic alterations that are commonly reported in HNC, such as TP53, EGFR, CCND1, and PIK3CA. We showed that these genomic alterations as reported in The Cancer Genome Atlas database were recapitulated in the HNC cell lines in GENIPAC. Importantly, genomic alterations within pathways could be simultaneously visualized. We developed GENIPAC to create access to genomic information on HNC cell lines. This cancer omics initiative will help the research community to accelerate better understanding of HNC and the development of new precision therapeutic options for HNC treatment. GENIPAC is freely available at http://genipac.cancerresearch.my/ .
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
  3. Chinigarzadeh A, Kassim NM, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2014 Feb;69(2):111-9.
    PMID: 24519202 DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2014(02)07
    High genistein doses have been reported to induce fluid accumulation in the uteri of ovariectomised rats, although the mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. Because genistein binds to the oestrogen receptor and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator mediates uterine fluid secretion, we hypothesised that this genistein effect involves both the oestrogen receptor and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator.
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
  4. Latifah I, Teoh KY, Wan KL, Rahmah M, Normaznah Y, Rohani A
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Dec;27(2):83-9.
    PMID: 17191390
    Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhoea and malabsorption in children. The parasite also infects AIDS patients with a weak immune system. A study was carried out on six local isolates of Giardia duodenalis (110, 7304, 6304, M007, 2002 and 6307) from faeces of Orang Asli patients admitted to the Gombak Hospital. WB, a reference pathogenic strain from human and G. muris from a wild mouse, were commercially obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). All the isolates were cultured axenically in TYI-S-33 medium. Two sets of primers were used for the techniques: primers LP1 and RP1 and primers LP2 and RP2. The sets of primers amplified giardine gene of 171 bp and 218 bp in sizes respectively. The study showed that the two sets of primers could detect G. duodenalis to the genus and species level specifically.
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
  5. Bakri MM, Cannon RD, Holmes AR, Rich AM
    J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2014 Oct;43(9):704-10.
    PMID: 24931506 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12193
    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between expression of Candida albicans alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) genes in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from biopsies of leukoplakia.
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
  6. Karimi B, Hafidzi MN, Panandam JM, Fuzina NH
    J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents, 2013 Jul-Sep;27(3):869-74.
    PMID: 24152851
    It has long been known that spatial memory and the ability to navigate through space are sexually dimorphic traits among mammals, and numerous studies have shown that these traits can be altered by means of sex hormone manipulation. Hippocampus, the main organ involved in this kind of memory, has specific signature genes with high expression level compared to other regions of the brain. Based on their expression levels and the role that products of these genes can play in processes like signal transduction, mediation of hormone effects and long term potentiation, these genes can be considered as genes necessary for routine tasks of hippocampus. Male and female rat pups were injected with estradiol and testosterone respectively. at early stage of their lives to examine the effect of sex hormone manipulation on mRNA expression of Slc9a4, Nr3c2, Htr5b and Mas1 using comparative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that expressions of these genes are strongly influenced by sex hormones in both the frontal cortex and hippocampus, especially in male hippocampus, in which expression of all genes were up-regulated. Htr5b was the only gene that was affected only in the males. Expression of Mas1 was contrary to expectations, showed stronger changes in its expression in cortex than in hippocampus. Nr3c2 was down regulated in all samples but up regulated in male hippocampus, and Slc9a4 also showed a huge up-regulation in male hippocampus compared to other samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis*
  7. Aan GJ, Hairi HA, Makpol S, Rahman MA, Karsani SA
    Electrophoresis, 2013 Aug;34(15):2209-17.
    PMID: 23712505 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201300086
    Replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) cells are known to share certain traits. However, whether these cells are different at the protein level is unclear. Thus, this study has utilized proteomics to identify differences in the proteomes of replicative senescence and SIPS cells compared to normal cells. Replicative senescence was induced by serial passage of normal cells in culture. SIPS was established by exposure to H2 O2 at a subcytotoxic concentration of 20 μM for two weeks. Following 2DE, protein profiles were compared and protein spots that changed in abundance were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was then performed to evaluate the transcript expression of selected altered proteins. A total of 24 and 10 proteins were found to have changed in abundance in replicative senescence and SIPS cells, respectively, when compared to young cells. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that nine genes showed the same direction of change as observed in the proteomics analysis. Very little overlap was observed between proteins that changed in replicative senescence and SIPS cells, suggesting that although both SIPS and replicative senescence cells share hallmarks of cellular senescence, they were different in terms of proteins that changed in abundance.
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
  8. Yaacob NS, Kaderi MA, Norazmi MN
    J. Clin. Immunol., 2004 Mar;24(2):177-84.
    PMID: 15024185
    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results from the destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta islet cells, probably via the influence of cytokines. However, direct correlation between the expression of selected cytokines by various immune cells at different time points during the progression of the disease has not yet been clearly demonstrated. In this study, we showed that the mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and GM-CSF, were increased while the anti-inflammatory cytokine, TGF-beta, decreased in the peritoneal macrophages of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. IL-6 expression however decreased when the mice became diabetic. Surprisingly the expression of IFN-gamma and IL-2 by splenic CD4+ cells were lower in 5-week-old NOD mice as compared to the nonobese diabetic resistant (NOR) control mice, but their expression was higher in older NOD mice. The expression of IL-4 and IL-10 decreased in splenic CD4-positive lymphocytes. Splenic CD8-positive lymphocytes expressed increased levels of IFN-gamma and IL-10 but the latter decreased sharply when diabetes occurred. The relevance of these findings to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
  9. Bong PN, Zakaria Z, Muhammad R, Abdullah N, Ibrahim N, Emran NA, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2010 Dec;32(2):117-22.
    PMID: 21329183 MyJurnal
    The GATA3 gene is a potential tumour marker and putative tumour suppressor gene in breast cancer. Its expression is associated with better prognosis and disease free survival in breast cancer patients. We aimed to evaluate GATA3 transcriptome expression and mutation in breast carcinomas and correlate its expression with oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), lymph node (LN) status, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression. Twenty-two breast infiltrating ductal carcinomas and paired normal tissues were used in Branch DNA assay to detect GATA3 mRNA expression. Normalized data for GATA3 mRNA expression were grouped according to the ER, PR and LN status, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression of the tumours. Statistical significance was tested using t-test and ANOVA at 95% confidence interval level. Mutational analysis of GATA3 was performed by direct sequencing of the coding regions of GATA3 mRNA. Our findings showed that GATA3 gene were over-expressed and under-expressed by > 2 fold change in 12 and 4 tested samples, respectively. Eighty per cent of ER positive breast carcinomas were GATA3 positive. There was a statistically significant correlation between GATA3 expression and ER at 95% confidence interval level between the study groups. On the contrary, GATA3 expression was not statistically significant with PR, LN, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression in our study. In addition, we observed that there was no mutation in mRNA coding region in 16 breast carcinomas that showed GATA3 differential gene expression. Our preliminary results suggested that GATA3 is linked to the ER. This scenario suggests that GATA3 may play a crucial role in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients. Whether GATA3 expression is involved in regulating tumour cell growth in oestrogen responsive breast cancer is a key question that remains to be answered.
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
  10. Abdulamir AS, Hafidh RR, Mahdi LK, Al-jeboori T, Abubaker F
    BMC Cancer, 2009;9:403.
    PMID: 19925668 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-403
    The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies of Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus, CIP 105428, was evaluated to investigate the controversial association of S. gallolyticus with colorectal carcinoma and adenoma in attempt to investigate the nature of such association if any, by exploring the mRNA expression of NF-kappaB and IL-8. Moreover, the serological behavior of S. gallolyticus IgG antibodies was compared to that of an indicator bacterium of bowel, Bacteroides fragilis.
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
  11. Yeang HY, Hamilton RG, Bernstein DI, Arif SA, Chow KS, Loke YH, et al.
    Clin. Exp. Allergy, 2006 Aug;36(8):1078-86.
    PMID: 16911364 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02531.x
    BACKGROUND:
    Hevea brasiliensis latex serum is commonly used as the in vivo and in vitro reference antigen for latex allergy diagnosis as it contains the full complement of latex allergens.

    OBJECTIVE:
    This study quantifies the concentrations of the significant allergens in latex serum and examines its suitability as an antigen source in latex allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy.

    METHODS:
    The serum phase was extracted from centrifuged latex that was repeatedly freeze-thawed or glycerinated. Quantitation of latex allergens was performed by two-site immunoenzymetric assays. The abundance of RNA transcripts of the latex allergens was estimated from the number of their clones in an Expressed Sequence Tags library.

    RESULTS:
    The latex allergens, Hev b 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 13, were detected in freeze-thawed and glycerinated latex serum at levels ranging from 75 (Hev b 6) to 0.06 nmol/mg total proteins (Hev b 4). Hev b 6 content in the latex was up to a thousand times higher than the other seven latex allergens, depending on source and/or preparation procedure. Allergen concentration was reflected in the abundance of mRNA transcripts. When used as the antigen, latex serum may bias the outcome of latex allergy diagnostic tests towards sensitization to Hev b 6. Tests that make use of latex serum may fail to detect latex-specific IgE reactivity in subjects who are sensitized only to allergens that are present at low concentrations.

    CONCLUSION:
    Latex allergy diagnostics and immunotherapy that use whole latex serum as the antigen source may not be optimal because of the marked imbalance of its constituent allergens.
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
  12. Karim N, Pallesen G
    Malays J Pathol, 2003 Jun;25(1):45-7.
    PMID: 16196377
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has consistently been detected in the tumour cells of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lymphoepithelial-like carcinoma of the salivary glands, and have occasionally been found in similar tumours at other sites. Moreover, recent studies from various parts of the world including the Orient have shown about 10% of gastric carcinomas to be EBV-associated. We studied 50 gastric carcinomas from Malaysia to investigate its association with EBV in the Malaysian population. They comprised 37 intestinal and 13 diffuse type carcinomas from 32 male and 18 female patients, age range from 29 to 86 years with an ethnic distribution of Malay: Chinese: Indian with the ratio of 4: 27: 19. EBV gene and gene-expression were examined in sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using commercially available probes for detecting EBV encoded RNAs (EBERs) by in situ hybridization and monoclonal antibodies to EBV latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) by standard immunohistochemistry. Five of 50 gastric carcinomas showed EBER intranuclear positivity in all tumour cells but no cases expressed LMP-1. The EBV-associated cases were classified as intestinal type in 4 and diffuse type in one case and all were histologically unremarkable. EBV-positive tumours were found in 3 Chinese and 2 Indian patients with none in the small Malay group. Four EBV-positive tumours were in male patients, with age-range of 65 to 86 years. We conclude that our findings of about 10% of Malaysian gastric carcinomas being EBV-associated is in line with the results from other parts of the world and from other ethnic groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
  13. Loh SY, Giribabu N, Salleh N
    Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood), 2017 07;242(13):1376-1386.
    PMID: 28399644 DOI: 10.1177/1535370217703360
    We tested the hypothesis that testosterone-induced increase in blood pressure was due to changes in aquaporin (AQP) expression in kidneys. In this study, expression level of kidney AQPs was investigated under testosterone influence. Adult normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and hypertensive SHR male and female rats underwent gonadectomy. For female rats, testosterone was given for six weeks duration, two weeks following ovariectomy via subcutaneous silastic implant. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured in all the rats after eight weeks via carotid artery cannulation and the rats were then sacrificed and kidneys were harvested for analyses of AQP-1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 mRNA and protein expressions by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Distribution of AQP subunits' protein in kidneys was observed by immunofluorescence. In male WKY rats, MAP, AQP-1, 2, 4, and 7 protein; and mRNA expression decreased however AQP-3 protein and mRNA expression increased following orchidectomy. The vice versa effects were observed in testosterone-treated ovariectomized female WKY rats. However, no changes in AQP-6 expression were observed. Meanwhile, in adult male SHR rats, MAP and expression level of all AQP subunits decreased following orchidectomy. The opposite effects were seen in ovariectomized female SHR rats following testosterone treatment. Immunofluorescence study showed AQP-1 and AQP-7 were distributed in the proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) while AQP-2, AQP-4, and AQP-6 were distributed in the collecting ducts (CDs). AQP-3 was distributed in the PCT and CD. In conclusion, changes in AQP subunit expression in kidneys could explain changes in blood pressure under testosterone influence. Impact statement This study provides fundamental understanding on the mechanisms underlying testosterone-induced increase in blood pressure which involve regulation of aquaporin channel subunits in the kidneys. A better understanding of this issue can help to explain the reason for higher blood pressure in males as compared to females and may explain the reason for higher blood pressure in females after menopause than females before menopause, the former most probably related to the changes in female androgen.
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
  14. Hidayat MFH, Milne T, Cullinan MP, Seymour GJ
    J. Periodont. Res., 2018 Jun;53(3):369-377.
    PMID: 29280135 DOI: 10.1111/jre.12522
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The salivary transcriptome may present as a readily available and non-invasive source of potential biomarkers. The development of chronic periodontitis is determined by individual patient susceptibility; hence, the aim of this study was to determine the potential of the salivary transcriptome as a biomarker of disease susceptibility using chronic periodontitis as an example.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using an Oragene® RNA kit, the total RNA was purified from the saliva of 10 patients with chronic periodontitis and 10 patients without chronic periodontitis. The quantity and quality of the total RNA was determined, and a measure of gene expression via cDNA was undertaken using the Affymetrix microarray system. The microarray profiling result was further validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    RESULTS: Spectrophotometric analysis showed the total RNA purified from each participant ranged from 0.92 μg/500 μL to 62.85 μg/500 μL. There was great variability in the quantity of total RNA obtained from the 2 groups in the study with a mean of 10.21 ± 12.71 μg/500 μL for the periodontitis group and 15.97 ± 23.47 μg/500 μL for the control group. Further the RNA purity (based on the A260 /A280 ratio) for the majority of participants (9 periodontitis and 6 controls) were within the acceptable limits for downstream analysis (2.0 ± 0.1). The study samples, showed 2 distinct bands at 23S (3800 bp) and 16S (1500 bp) characteristic of bacterial rRNA. Preliminary microarray analysis was performed for 4 samples (P2, P6, H5 and H9). The percentage of genes present in each of the 4 samples was not consistent with about 1.8%-18.7% of genes being detected. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the total RNA purified from each sample was mainly bacterial RNA (Uni 16S) with minimal human mRNA.

    CONCLUSION: This study showed that minimal amounts of human RNA were able to be isolated from the saliva of patients with periodontitis as well as controls. Further work is required to enhance the extraction process of human mRNA from saliva if the salivary transcriptome is to be used in determining individual patient susceptibility.

    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
  15. Wong KK, Ch'ng ES, Loo SK, Husin A, Muruzabal MA, Møller MB, et al.
    Exp. Mol. Pathol., 2015 Dec;99(3):537-45.
    PMID: 26341140 DOI: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2015.08.019
    Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (HIP1R) is an endocytic protein involved in receptor trafficking, including regulating cell surface expression of receptor tyrosine kinases. We have previously shown that low HIP1R protein expression was associated with poorer survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients from Denmark treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone). In this multicenter study, we extend these findings and validate the prognostic and subtyping utility of HIP1R expression at both transcript and protein level. Using data mining on three independent transcriptomic datasets of DLBCL, HIP1R transcript was preferentially expressed in germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like DLBCL subtype (P<0.01 in all three datasets), and lower expression was correlated with worse overall survival (OS; P<0.01) and progression-free survival (PFS; P<0.05) in a microarray-profiled DLBCL dataset. At the protein level examined by immunohistochemistry, HIP1R expression at 30% cut-off was associated with GCB-DLBCL molecular subtype (P=0.0004; n=42), and predictive of OS (P=0.0006) and PFS (P=0.0230) in de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (n=73). Cases with high FOXP1 and low HIP1R expression frequency (FOXP1(hi)/HIP1R(lo) phenotype) exhibited poorer OS (P=0.0038) and PFS (P=0.0134). Multivariate analysis showed that HIP1R<30% or FOXP1(hi)/HIP1R(lo) subgroup of patients exhibited inferior OS and PFS (P<0.05) independently of the International Prognostic Index. We conclude that HIP1R expression is strongly indicative of survival when utilized on its own or in combination with FOXP1, and the molecule is potentially applicable for subtyping of DLBCL cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
  16. Masir N, Campbell LJ, Jones M, Mason DY
    Pathology, 2010 Apr;42(3):212-6.
    PMID: 20350212 DOI: 10.3109/00313021003631296
    The t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation induces BCL2 protein expression in most follicular lymphomas. However, a small number of cases lack BCL2 expression despite carrying the t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation. This study aims to explore the mechanism accounting for the lack of BCL2 protein expression when the t(14;18) translocation is present.
    Matched MeSH terms: RNA, Messenger/analysis
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