Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 181 in total

  1. Azmi S, Feisul MI, Abdat A, Goh A, Abdul Aziz SH
    Value Health, 2015 Nov;18(7):A600.
    PMID: 26533372 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2015.09.2060
    Conference abstract:
    Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the association of waist circumference with glycaemic control in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Methods: We utilised data of type 2 diabetes patients followed up in Malaysian public sector primary care clinics contained in the National Diabetes Registry in the year 2012. The variable of interest was poor glycaemic control, defined as HbA1c≥ 6.5%. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore the association between glycaemic control and waist circumference, which was adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, use of insulin and other medications.
    Results: A total of 98,825 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 59.9 years (SD: 10.9) and 38.9% were males. The mean duration of diabetes was 6.8 years (SD: 5.0) and 76.2% of patients had HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. The mean waist circumference was 94.0 cm (SD: 11.8) for male and 90.7 cm (SD: 11.8) for female; while 78.3% of the patients had waist circumference above the cut-off (≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women). Larger waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with HbA1c≥ 6.5% (adj. OR 1.009; p< 0.001; 95% CI: 1.007–1.011) after adjusting for confounding factors.
    Conclusions: Analysis showed that glycaemic control was poorer in patients with higher waist circumference than in patients with lower waist circumference.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference*
  2. Azmi S, Feisul MI, Abdat A, Goh A, Abdul Aziz SH
    Value Health, 2015 Nov;18(7):A597.
    PMID: 26533354 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2015.09.2042
    Conference abstract:
    Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the association of waist circumference with microvascular complications in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Methods: We utilised data of type 2 diabetes patients followed up in Malaysian public sector primary care clinics contained in the National Diabetes Registry in the year 2012. Variables of interest were the presence of microvascular complications, namely nephropathy and retinopathy. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore the association between presence of microvascular complications and waist circumference, which was adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, insulin use, total cholesterol and HbA1c.
    Results: A total of 114,719 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 59.8 years (SD: 11.2) with mean duration of diabetes of 6.8 years (SD: 5.1). Male
    patients comprised 39.9% of the sample population and 83.5% of the patients were overweight with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2. Nephropathy and retinopathy was present in 9.1% and 7.9% of patients respectively. The mean waist circumference was 94.1 cm (SD: 11.8) for males and 90.8 cm (SD: 11.8) for females; while 78.4% of the patients had waist circumference above the cut off (≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women). Larger waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with nephropathy (adj. OR 1.005; p-value< 0.001; 95% CI: 1.003–1.008) after adjusting for confounding factors. However, waist circumference was not significantly associated with retinopathy (adj. OR 0.998; p= 0.209; 95% CI: 0.996–1.001).
    Conclusions: Analysis showed that patients with higher waist circumference were more likely to have nephropathy than patients with lower waist circumference. The analysis also showed that waist circumference was not associated with retinopathy in the study population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference*
  3. Zalbahar N, Najman J, McIntrye HD, Mamun A
    Aust N Z J Public Health, 2016 Dec;40(6):572-578.
    PMID: 27624991 DOI: 10.1111/1753-6405.12574
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prospective association between parental pre-pregnancy BMI and adult male and female offspring BMI and waist circumference (WC).

    METHODS: Sub-sample of 2,229 parent-offspring pairs with parental pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring BMI and WC at 21 years were used from the MUSP (Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy cohort). Multivariable results were adjusted for maternal factors around pregnancy (e.g. gestational weight and smoking during pregnancy) and offspring factors in early life (e.g. birth weight) and at 14 years (e.g. sports participation and mealtime with family).

    RESULTS: After adjustments for confounders, each unit increase in paternal and maternal BMI, the BMI of young adult offspring increased by 0.33kg/m(2) and 0.35kg/m(2) , and the WC increased by 0.76 cm and 0.62 cm, respectively. In the combination of parents' weight status, offspring at 21 years were six times the risk being overweight/obese (OW/OB) when both parents were OW/OB, compared to offspring of healthy weight parents.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal parental BMI are independently related to adult offspring BMI and WC.

    IMPLICATIONS: Both prenatal paternal-maternal weight status are important determinants of offspring weight status in long-term. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms.

    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference/physiology*
  4. Azlan Derwish, Nur Ikhwan Mohamad, Nor Fazila Abd Malek
    This research was undertaken to determine the physical characteristics among successful soldiers participating in the Basic Commando Course series 1/AK 2014 for 12 weeks, at Sungai Udang Camp, Malacca. A total of 37 male soldiers who had passed the commando practice test were selected to participate in this research, with special approval from the Malaysian Armed Forces Training Base. The anthropometric data of the body and fitness levels, were taken before, during and after the entire duration of the training. The successful commando candidates (commando trainees) aged 22.3±2.85 years, with a mean height of 1.71±0.03 m, mean weight of 60.76±5.18 kg, mean BMI of 22.02±1.38 kg/m2, and mean waist circumference of 68.92±2.48 cm. All physical fitness parameters showed a decrease in the level of physical fitness from the beginning to the end of the study period. In conclusion, the Malaysian commando selection training for twelve weeks produced a significant negative impact on the level of fitness of the military personnel involved. These study findings demonstrate the need for a specific recovery program after the commando’s training session, for the welfare of members and to ensure that the physical preparedness of the trainees has returned back to its pre-training maximum level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference
  5. Marhani Midin, Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar, Ruzanna Zam Zam, Che Khatijjah Bee Mohd Ali
    Objective: To describe the setting up of a pilot project on weight management programme for patients with severe mental illness (SMI) in a general hospital setting, the effectiveness of the programme on 5 patients and the feasibility of such programme to be developed in our local setting. Methods: Key staff members from relevant disciplines were involved through out the programme, which was based on dietary education, exercise and behavioural techniques. It was conducted weekly for physical exercise and biweekly for topic discussion with a total duration of 16 weeks. Results: Patients achieved means (SDs) weight loss of 1.78 (2.83) kg; BMI reduction of 0.92 (1.41) kg/m2; and reduction of waist circumference of 6.8 (4.97) cm. Factors associated with positive health outcome were high baseline BMI, high educational level and committed family members. Conclusion: The programme appears to be effective for patients and is feasible to be developed in Malaysian hospitals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference
  6. Sallehuddin SM, Ambak R, Othman F, Aziz NSA, Palaniveloo L, Nor NSM, et al.
    J Health Popul Nutr, 2021 05 31;40(Suppl 1):9.
    PMID: 34059153 DOI: 10.1186/s41043-021-00234-1
    BACKGROUND: Sodium intake is associated with anthropometric measurement including weight, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI). Higher intake of sodium is usually linked to higher risk of obesity among adults globally, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the probable relationship between sodium intake by 24-h urine excretion assessment and anthropometric measurement of adults in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2017 to March 2018 using a multi-stage stratified sampling method among Malaysian adults aged 18 years old and above. Sodium intake was determined by 24-h urinary sodium excretion, estimated from the respondents' 24-h urinary sample. Height was obtained based on standard protocol. Weight and WC were measured twice using validated anthropometric equipment and BMI was calculated according to World Health Organization (WHO) 1998 classification. Descriptive analysis was done to describe socio-demographic characteristics. A simple linear regression and multiple linear regression tests were done to assess the relationship of 24-h urinary excretion and anthropometric measurement. All statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 22.0.

    RESULTS: Of 1047 interviewed respondents, 798 respondents had done the 24-h urine collection (76.0% response rate). Majority was between 40 and 59 years old (43.5%) and married (77.7%). Simple linear regression showed a significant positive linear association between 24-h urinary excretion and household income, WC, and obese group. In the multivariate analysis, it was indicated that, an increase of 1 unit of BMI will significantly increase the sodium intake by 129.20 mg/dl and an increase of 1 cm of WC will significantly increase the sodium intake by 376.45 mg/dl.

    CONCLUSION: Our study showed a positive significant relationship between sodium intake estimated by 24-h urinary sodium excretion and BMI of Malaysian adults. More research is suggested on how sodium control can potentially contribute to obesity prevention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference
  7. Heng WK, Choo JY, Ng YP, Loh KS, Chua YH
    Nutr Health, 2022 Dec;28(4):489-493.
    PMID: 35404174 DOI: 10.1177/02601060221089105
    Background: Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease that is strongly associated with multiple comorbidities and mortality. Weight reduction in overweight and obese patients was highly desired to minimize future complications. Meal replacement is emerging as one of the effective tools to promote weight loss. Isoflavones and soy protein present in soybean are able to promote weight loss and alleviate obesity. Aim: Our systematic review aims to investigate the weight loss effect of soy-based meal replacement among the overweight and obese population. Methods: We will conduct a systematic review of RCTs that evaluated the effect of a soy-based meal replacement on weight loss in overweight and obese patients. The primary outcome of this review is weight loss. Besides that, we will assess BMI, body fat, waist circumference and hip circumference as the secondary outcome. We will search PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, review full texts, extract information and assess the risk of bias of individual studies. We will conduct meta-analyses using a random-effect model if sufficient data are available. If meta-analysis is not performed, we will present a systematic qualitative synthesis. Summary: This systematic review will identify the weight loss effect of soy-based meal replacement among the overweight and obese adult population. We expect the result may strengthen the evidence on the role of soy-based meal replacement in optimal body weight management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference
  8. Low NY, Chan CY, Subramaniam S, Chin KY, Ima Nirwana S, Muhammad N, et al.
    Ann Hum Biol, 2022 Dec;49(7-8):299-304.
    PMID: 36373795 DOI: 10.1080/03014460.2022.2147585
    BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used surrogate tool to screen for obesity/adiposity, but it cannot differentiate between lean and fat mass. Thus, alternative tools to detect excess adiposity should be identified.

    AIM: This study aimed to compare the performance of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) in predicting Malaysians with excess body fat defined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 399 men and women aged ≥40 years were recruited from Klang Valley, Malaysia. The body composition of the subjects, including body fat percentage, was measured by DXA. The weight, height, WC and WHtR of the subjects were also determined.

    RESULTS: BMI [sensitivity = 55.7%, specificity = 86.1%, area under curve (AUC) = 0.709] and WC (sensitivity = 62.7%, specificity = 90.3%, AUC = 0.765) performed moderately in predicting excess adiposity. Their performance and sensitivity improved with lower cut-off values. The performance of WHtR (sensitivity = 96.6%, specificity = 36.1, AUC = 0.664) was optimal at the standard cut-off value and no modification was required.

    CONCLUSION: The performance of WC in identifying excess adiposity was greater than BMI and WHtR based on AUC values. Modification of cut-off values for BMI and WC could improve their performance and should be considered by healthcare providers in screening individuals with excess adiposity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference
  9. Hanifah RA, Majid HA, Jalaludin MY, Al-Sadat N, Murray LJ, Cantwell M, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 3:S5.
    PMID: 25436933 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S3-S5
    The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference*
  10. Kee CC, Jamaiyah H, Geeta A, Ali ZA, Safiza MN, Suzana S, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Dec;66(5):462-7.
    PMID: 22390102 MyJurnal
    Generalised obesity and central obesity are risk factors for Type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Waist circumference (WC) has been suggested as a single screening tool for identification of overweight or obese subjects in lieu of the body mass index (BMI) for weight management in public health program. Currently, the recommended waist circumference cut-off points of > or = 94cm for men and > or =80cm for women (waist action level 1) and > or = 102cm for men and > or = 88cm for women (waist action level 2) used for identification of overweight and obesity are based on studies in Caucasian populations. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the recommended waist action levels, and to determine optimal WC cut-off points for identification of overweight or obesity with central fat distribution based on BMI for Malaysian adults. Data from 32,773 subjects (14,982 men and 17,791 women) aged 18 and above who participated in the Third National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 were analysed. Sensitivity and specificity of WC at waist action level 1 were 48.3% and 97.5% for men; and 84.2% and 80.6% for women when compared to the cut-off points based on BMI > or = 25kg/m2. At waist action level 2, sensitivity and specificity were 52.4% and 98.0% for men, and 79.2% and 85.4% for women when compared with the cut-off points based on BMI (> or = 30 kg/m2). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the appropriatescreening cut-off points for WC to identify subjects with overweight (> or = 25kg/m2) was 86.0cm (sensitivity=83.6%, specificity=82.5%) for men, and 79.1cm (sensitivity=85.0%, specificity=79.5%) for women. Waist circumference cut-off points to identify obese subjects (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) was 93.2cm (sensitivity=86.5%, specificity=85.7%) for men and 85.2cm (sensitivity=77.9%, specificity=78.0%) for women. Our findings demonstrated that the current recommended waist circumference cut-off points have low sensitivity for identification of overweight and obesity in men. We suggest that these newly identified cut-off points be considered.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2006)
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference*
  11. Christakoudi S, Tsilidis KK, Muller DC, Freisling H, Weiderpass E, Overvad K, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 09 03;10(1):14541.
    PMID: 32883969 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-71302-5
    Abdominal and general adiposity are independently associated with mortality, but there is no consensus on how best to assess abdominal adiposity. We compared the ability of alternative waist indices to complement body mass index (BMI) when assessing all-cause mortality. We used data from 352,985 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for other risk factors. During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, 38,178 participants died. Combining in one model BMI and a strongly correlated waist index altered the association patterns with mortality, to a predominantly negative association for BMI and a stronger positive association for the waist index, while combining BMI with the uncorrelated A Body Shape Index (ABSI) preserved the association patterns. Sex-specific cohort-wide quartiles of waist indices correlated with BMI could not separate high-risk from low-risk individuals within underweight (BMI waist index independent of BMI by design, such as ABSI, complements BMI and enables efficient risk stratification, which could facilitate personalisation of screening, treatment and monitoring.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference/physiology
  12. Tan WP, Fong ZV, Tong SF, Low WY, Tan HM
    Journal of Men's Health, 2011;8:S81-S83.
    DOI: 10.1016/S1875-6867(11)60029-8
    Background: Men's major concern (MMC) is a common quality of life issue affecting the aging male population. This paper examines the association between MMC and cardiometabolic diseases in Malaysian men in an urban setting.
    Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in an urban area involving 1046 men, aged over 40 years and above, who were randomly selected using the electoral roll in Selangor Malaysia. Participants were assessed by trained doctors using structured questionnaire which included medical history, IIEF-5 to assess men's erectile dysfunction and IPSS score to assess prostatic symptoms. Clinical assessments including blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference were performed. In addition, biochemical assessments for fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were done.
    Results: The response rate was 62.8%. The mean age of the participants was 55.8±8.4 (range: 41-93) years. Around two fifth of the participants (39.8%) had no MMC, 28.4% were diagnosed with 1 MMC, 9.9% with 2MMCs and 1.2% with 3MMCs. Increasing number of MMCs were significantly associated with increasing rate of cardiometabolic diseases (No MMC = 26.2%, 1 MMC = 43.4%, 2 MMCs = 63.5% and 3 MMCs = 69.2%) (P < 0.01) and metabolic syndrome based on Asian criteria (No MMC = 21.5%, 1 MMC = 39.0%, 2 MMCs = 49.1%, 3 MMCs = 62.5%) (P < 0.01). Participants with one or more MMC significantly showed a higher proportion of undiagnosed diabetes as well as reported diabetes (No MMC = 1.7%, 1 or more MMCs = 3.6%) when compared to participants without MMC (P ≤ 0.01).
    Conclusions: Men's Major Concerns (e.g., ED, LUTS and TD) were associated with cardiometabolic diseases and collectively, they could be used as an important portal to men's health. © 2011 WPMH GmbH.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference
  13. Teng NIMF, Juliana N, Izlin NL, Semaon NZ
    Nutrients, 2020 Nov 25;12(12).
    PMID: 33255585 DOI: 10.3390/nu12123617
    This study aims to examine the level of knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of adolescents towards sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), together with the associated factors that determine their KAP. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires that consisted of sociodemographic, the KAP for the SSB questionnaire, and the Beverage Intake Questionnaire (BEVQ). The respondents' heights, weights, waist circumferences and body fat percentages were measured. This study involved 439 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old, in public secondary schools in Selangor, Malaysia. The results reveal that 35% of the adolescents were overweight, 26% had a high waist circumference, and 45% had a high body fat percentage. Caffeinated drinks and full cream milk were the most frequently consumed SSBs. The KAP score revealed a good attitude (88.4%), a moderate knowledge (51.8%) and a poor practice (40.5%). Those with a higher body fat percentage showed significantly good attitude scores (p < 0.05). Low household income groups, females, adolescents aged 16-17 years old and being from an urban area demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05) positive determinant towards the KAP score. In conclusion, high awareness of negative health outcomes associated with SSBs among adolescents was not in accordance with the level of their lifestyle choices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference
  14. Rosli H, Kee Y, Shahar S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 Nov;26(6):67-76.
    PMID: 31908588 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.6.7
    Background: Researches on polyphenols have been the interest of few parties due to its possible roles in the prevention of obesity. However, studies regarding this topic are still limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between the intake of polyphenols with adiposity indices among middle-aged adults.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 227 adults aged 40 to 59 years at low-cost housing flats in suburban area of Cheras, Kuala Lumpur. Data collection involved food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for polyphenols and international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). Subjects were measured for anthropometric parameters including height, weight, waist and neck circumferences (NC), and body fat percentage. The polyphenol intake from the diet was estimated using local polyphenol database built according to PHENOL-EXPLORER.

    Results: The average intake of polyphenol of subjects was 1815 (672) mg/day. The main food sources of polyphenol were coffee with milk, followed by chocolate milk and red beans. A higher polyphenol intake according to quartile was significantly associated with a lower neck circumference (χ2 = 8.30, P = 0.040), waist circumference (χ2 = 8.45, P = 0.038) and body fat percentage (χ2 = 8.06, P = 0.045). Binomial logistic regression analysis showed that the association remained significant for the neck circumference (P = 0.032), after controlling for age, household income, energy intake and physical activity level. More subjects with normal NC had higher intake of polyphenols (50th percentile and above). In contrast, subjects with high NC showed lower percentiles of polyphenols intake (50th percentile and below).

    Conclusion: The result showed that polyphenol intake was associated with neck circumference and thus it can be suggested that polyphenol intake is associated with obesity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference
  15. Siti Zuhaidah Shahadan, Muhammad Lokman Md. Isa, Azlina Daud, Ali Aminuddin Mohd Rasani, Muhammad Ibrahim, Samsul Deraman
    Introduction: Abdominal obesity and inflammation are two independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the inter-relationship between these two factors among Malay population is fragmented. The purpose of this study is to determine the association between waist circumference as a measure of abdominal obesity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as an indicator of inflammation status among Malay obese adults in Kuantan, Pahang. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three apparently healthy obese adults (BMI between 27.5 and 39.9 kg/m2 ) aged between 20 to 62 years old were recruited in this study (68% men and 32% women). Circumference tape was used to measure the waist circumference and fasting venous blood was obtained to determine the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. Results: On average, the waist circumference of obese men and women was 103 cm (SD = 8.7) and 94 cm (SD = 7.0), respectively. The median (IQR) of the hs-CRP level of the study participant was 3.80 mg/L (1.5, 10.1). The Kendall’s Tau correlation reveals that there is a significant positive linear correlation between waist circumference and hs -CRP level in obese men (r (30) = 0.355, p = 0.006) and women (r (63) = 0.177, p = 0.043). Conclusion: There is a significant inter-relationship between waist circumference and hs-CRP level among apparently healthy obese adults in Kuantan, Pahang. This study suggests that assessment of hs-CRP level is beneficial to predict the risk for future cardiovascular disease event and facilitate the management of obesity in this population. A prospective clinical study is recommended to confirm the findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference
  16. Lim LL, Tse G, Choi KC, Zhang J, Luk AOY, Chow E, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 04 10;9(1):5881.
    PMID: 30971731 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-42346-z
    We examined the temporal changes in obesity and sleep habits and their relationship in a prospective cohort of healthy Chinese adolescents. We collected data on anthropometric and questionnaire-measured sleep parameters in 2007-2008. 516 participants returned for examinations in 2013-2015. General obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥age- and sex-specific 95th percentile or ≥25 kg/m2 for participants aged <18 or ≥18 years, respectively. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference (WC) ≥ age- and sex-specific 90th percentile or using adult cut-offs. After a mean follow-up of 6.2 ± 0.5 years, the mean BMI increased from 18.5 ± 3.1 to 20.9 ± 3.4 kg/m2. The corresponding WC were 63.7 ± 8.9 and 69.8 ± 9.7 cm. General obesity rate increased from 8.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1-11.1) to 11.3% (8.7-14.4; p = 0.034). Central obesity rate decreased from 16.9% (13.7-20.4) to 13.5% (10.6-16.8; p = 0.034). During follow-up, more participants reported short sleep (<7 hours/day during weekday: 20.5% [17.1-24.2] vs. 15.3% [12.3-18.8]; p = 0.033) and bedtime after midnight (60.5% [56.2-64.8] vs. 16.2% [13.1-19.7]; p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference
  17. Kok, J.L., Asma’, A., Khairil-Shazmin, K., Hayati, M.Y.
    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pedometer-based intervention and the relationship between daily walking steps and nutritional status among overweight/obese university students in Kuala Terengganu. Materials and methods: The study was an 8-week intervention study that included 23 overweight/obese university students. After 7 days of baseline activity, anthropometric data such as weight, height and waist circumference and a one-day dietary record were taken. The participants were divided into a control and case group. The control group (n=15) was instructed to continue with their normal activities and habits throughout the 8 weeks. The case group (n=8) was instructed to walk based on the targeted number of steps. Data such as body weight, waist circumference and a one-day dietary record were taken after the intervention. Results: Both case and control group show significant differences in body mass index (BMI) with p=0.017 and p=0.047 respectively. However, there is a large and significant difference between walking steps and BMI before and after intervention for the case group. There were no differences in any other study parameters during the 8-week study. Conclusion: In conclusion, short-term intervention with a pedometer increased physical activity and positively affected the BMI of overweight/obese participants. The use of a pedometer was efficient in measuring daily physical activity (r= 0.756, p< 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference
  18. Yong Kang Cheah, Mohd Azahadi, Noor Safiza Mohamad Nor, Siew Nooi Phang, Noor Hazilah Abd Manaf
    Introduction: This study examined how waist circumference (WC) varied across sociodemographic characteristics of Malaysian adults using a nationally representative data. Methods: Data from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2014 (n = 2696) was used. In the sample, 46.55% were males and 53.45% were females. The outcome variable was WC. Waist circumference was categorised into four ordinal outcomes: very low, low, high and very high. The ex- planatory variables were age, monthly individual income, education, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status and household location. Ordered probit models were utilised. Results: The majority of males had a low WC (54.66%), and only a small proportion had a very high WC (0.96%). Similarly, a high proportion of females had a low WC (55.59%), and only 1.94% had a very high WC. Younger males were more likely to have a high WC than their older counterparts. Males who had monthly income of RM2000-2999 or RM3000-3999 were more likely to have a high WC compared with those who had monthly income of RM999. Chinese and Indian males were more likely to have a high WC than Bumiputera males. For females, those who were married, widowed/divorced and Bu- miputera were likely to have a high WC. Conclusion: WC was associated with various sociodemographic profiles of males and females. In particular, there were positive associations between the likelihoods of having a high WC and younger age group, higher income, Chinese, Indian, and being married. Our findings provided policy makers with better information on formulating intervention measures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference
  19. Shahril MR, Amirfaiz S, Lua PL, Nurnazahiah A, Zakarai NS, Kow VL, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2021 01 28;21(1):238.
    PMID: 33509143 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-10288-9
    BACKGROUND: To date, limited data are available on metabolic syndrome prevalence among breast cancer survivors in Malaysia. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and abnormal metabolic syndrome components among breast cancer survivors in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 95 breast cancer survivors (age 53.7 ± 7.6 years) who have completed main cancer treatments for ≥6 months. Cancer survivors were recruited from two main government hospitals in Kelantan and Terengganu using a purposive sampling method.

    RESULTS: According to the Harmonized criteria, the metabolic syndrome prevalence was 50.5%. Among those with metabolic syndrome, the most prevalent abnormal metabolic components were triglycerides (91.2%), fasting blood glucose (79.6%) and HDL-c level (78.4%). Except for total cholesterol and LDL-c, all other metabolic syndrome components were significantly different (p waist circumference, body fat percentage and cancer stages (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference
  20. Siti Affira, K., Mohd Nasir, M.T., Hazizi, A.S., Kandiah, M.
    Malays J Nutr, 2011;17(3):315-324.
    Introduction: This study was conducted on 215 working women from four private corporate companies in a suburb in Malaysia to determine the factors related to their physical activity levels. Methods: Data were collected using a questionnaire which included socio-demographic characteristics, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), perceived barriers and benefits to physical activity, self-efficacy to physical activity and an 8-item questionnaire on current
    behavioral stage of physical activity. Results: The majority of the respondents were Malay (81.9%) with 10.2% being Chinese and 7.9% Indian. Most of the respondents were executives (64.2%), while the rest were non-executives (24.7%) and managers (11.2%). The mean weight, height, BMI and waist circumference were 59.4±13.1 kg, 1.6±0.6 m, 23.7±4.8 kg/m² and 77.0±12.1cm respectively. In this sample, 24.7% and 7.9% were overweight and obese respectively, while 34%
    were at risk of abdominal obesity. A total of 28.8% of the respondents had low physical activity level, while 48.8% and 22.3% were in the moderate and high physical activity categories respectively. An association was found between monthly income (χ2=110.17; p
    Matched MeSH terms: Waist Circumference
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