Browse publications (publication year unrecorded)

  1. Madhwani KP, Nag PK
    PMID: 29540968 DOI: 10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_151_17
    Background: Use of laptops and hand-held devices increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). More time spent on this activity adopting faulty postures, higher the risk of developing such injuries. This study addresses training on office ergonomics with emphasis on sustainable behavior change among employees to work in safe postures, as this is a top priority in the corporate environment, today.

    Aim: To explore training intervention methods that ensure wider coverage of awareness on office ergonomics, thereby promoting safer working and suggesting sustainable programs for behavior change and job enrichment.

    Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted (2012 - 2017), encompassing corporate office employees of multinational corporations selected from India, Dubai (U.A.E), Nairobi (East Africa), Durban (South Africa), South East Asian countries (Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Sri Lanka).Participant employees (n= 3503) were divided into two groups to study the effect of interventions'; i.e., (a) deep training: 40 minute lecture by the investigator with a power point presentation (n= 1765) using a mock workstation and (b) quick training: live demonstrations of 10 minutes (n= 1738) using a live workstation.

    Results: While deep training enhanced awareness in 95.51% and quick training in 96.59% globally, the latterwas much appreciated and educated maximum employees. From statistical analysis, quick training was found superior in providing comprehensive training and influencing behavior modification in India, but all over the world it was found highly superior in knowledge enlargement, skills enrichment in addition to providing comprehensive training (P< 0.05). In countries, located to West of India, it significantly influenced behavior modification.

    Conclusion: As because few employees attend deep training lectures, the quick 10-minute program is highly promising as it is practical, replicable, yields increased awareness with wider employee coverage in a much shorter time, instilling a feeling of caring and confidence amongst them towards a robust office ergonomics program. This could lead to propose as a best practice for corporate offices globally.

  2. Zamiah SAKS, Draman CR, Seman MR, Safhan AF, Rozalina R, Nik Ruzni NI
    PMID: 29456216 DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.225185
    Cardiovascular (CV) event is the most common cause of death in dialysis patients. Both traditional and nontraditional CV risk factors related to malnutrition, inflammation, and anemia are commonly found in this population. This study was conducted to evaluate the burden factors of CV risk factors and its management in our regularly dialyzed patients. It was a single-center, cross-sectional analysis of prevalent intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients followed up in our hospital. Both the traditional and non-traditional CV risk factors were recorded and compared between the two groups. Eighty-eight patients were recruited. Forty-five were treated with CAPD and 43 patients were treated with IHD. The mean age was 49.5 ± 15.17 years old and 54.5% were females. Eighty percent were Malay followed by Chinese (14.7%) and Indian (5.7%). Thirty-eight percent were hypertensive and 17% were diabetic. The mean age of CAPD patients was 48.9 ± 16.9 compared to 50 ± 13.5 years old for IHD patients (P > 0.05). The body mass index (BMI) of CAPD patients was 23.9 kg/m2versus 21.7 kg/m2of the IHD (P = 0.04). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure of CAPD patients were 158 and 89 mm Hg in comparison to 141 and 72 mm Hg in IHD patients (P <0.001) and their total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level were 5.93 mmol/L and 3.84 mmol/L versus 4.79 mmol/L and 2.52 mmol/L, respectively (P≤0.001). The CAPD patients were hyperglycemic more than IHD patients, although it was not statistically significant. All the nontraditional CV risk factors except serum albumin were comparable between the two groups. Serum albumin in CAPD patients was 35.5 g/L compared to 40.8 g/L in the IHD patients (P <0.001). In our prevalent dialysis-dependent patients, both traditional and non-traditional CV risk factors are common. Due to the prolonged and continuous glucose exposure from the peritoneal dialysis fluid, the CAPD patients had highly atherogenic serum, higher BMI, and intensified inflammation which pre-disposed them to higher CV events.
  3. Fuah KW, Lim CTS, Pang DCL, Wong JS
    PMID: 29456232 DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.225177
    Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent commonly used to achieve hemostasis. However, there have been a few case reports suggesting that high-dose intravenous TXA has epileptogenic property. In patients with renal impairment, even administering the usual recommended dose of TXA can induce seizure episodes. We present here a patient on hemodialysis who developed seizures after receiving two doses of TXA over 5 h period.
  4. Shakeel S, Nesar S, Rahim N, Iffat W, Ahmed HF, Rizvi M, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, ;9(4):266-271.
    PMID: 29456378 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_327_16
    Aims: Despite an increased popularity of print and electronic media applications, there is a paucity of data reflecting doctors' opinions regarding efficient utilization of these resources for the betterment of public health. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the perception of physicians toward the effect of electronic and print media on the health status of patients.

    Setting and Design: The current research is a cross-sectional study conducted from January 2015 to July 2015. The study population comprised physicians rendering their services in different hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan, selected by the nonprobability convenience sampling technique. In this study, 500 questionnaires were distributed through email or direct correspondence.

    Methods and Materials: Physicians' perception toward the impact of electronic and print media on the health status of patients was assessed with a 20-item questionnaire. Different demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, institution, position, and experience of respondents, were recorded. Quantitative data were analyzed with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 20.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). The association of the demographic characteristics of the responses of physicians was determined by one-way ANOVA using 0.05 level of significance.

    Results: In this study, 254 physicians provided consent to show their responses for research purposes. A response rate of 50.8% was obtained. Nearly one-third of the respondents negated that patients get health benefit using electronic and print media. The majority did not consider electronic and print media as lifestyle-modifying factors. Physicians thought that patients particularly do not rely on mass media for acquiring health information and consider healthcare professionals as unswerving information resource.

    Conclusions: Mass media can be productive resources to augment awareness among patients, although physicians seem unconvinced about the extended usage of print/electronic media.

  5. Siddiqui MJ, Kamarudin MFB, Mohammed Al-Shami AK, Mat So'ad SZ, Jamshed SQ
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, ;9(4):279-281.
    PMID: 29456380 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_24_17
    Hypertension is a pathological condition in which the blood pressure is higher than under normal physiological conditions, i.e., 140/90 mmHg or higher. Blood pressure is measured as the force exerted by the blood pumped by the heart against the walls of arteries (aorta) and distributed throughout the body. Use of complementary and alternative medicine as a cure for hypertension is a common phenomenon because of the high risk of cardiovascular complications and kidney diseases caused by conventional Western medicine. It is reported that high blood pressure causes ~49% of myocardial infarction and 62% of strokes. Effective treatment of hypertension is restricted by adverse effects and cost of the medication. Moxibustion is the application of heat by burning a small bundle of tightly bound moxa, to targeted acupoint, and sometimes it is used along with acupuncture. Encouraging results have been reported on randomized trials indicating the efficacy of moxibustion. But more controlled clinical trials are required to further establish the potential efficacy of moxibustion approach in hypertension.
  6. Ghani SA, Wan Ismail WF, Md Salleh MS, Yahaya S, Syahrul Fitri ZM
    Indian J Orthop, ;52(1):31-34.
    PMID: 29416167 DOI: 10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_153_17
    Background: Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a benign locally aggressive primary bone tumor which is risky for local recurrences and pulmonary metastasis. Till date, there are still many uncertainties in predicting the aggressiveness of GCT. We aim to investigate whether receptor activator nuclear kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expression may determine the prognosis of the lesion.

    Materials and Methods: We examined RANKL expression in 39 patients (21 males, 18 females) by immunohistochemistry. Four patients (10%) were presented with tumor recurrence, eight patients (20%) were complicated with lung metastasis, and two patients (5%) were presented with both recurrence and lung metastasis. Positive RANKL expression was assessed according to a scoring system evaluating the percentage of the immunostained epithelial area and the staining intensity. The cumulative score was calculated to determine the final score value. Data were analyzed using PASW version 18.0 and independent t-test between nonrecurrence/recurrence groups, and nonlung metastasis/lung metastasis groups. Significance was set at P < 0.05.

    Results: Thirty-two patients (82%) scored 3 in RANKL-staining percentage from whole stromal cell population (>75%), 6 patients scored 2, and 1 patient scored 1. Nine patients (23%) scored 3 in RANKL-staining intensity (most intense), 19 patients (48%) scored 2, and 11 patients (29%) scored 1. Twenty six patients (67%) had strong RANKL expression (total score of 5-6), 12 patients (31%) showed moderate score (3-4) whereas only 1 patient (2%) showed weak RANKL expression. Together, the mean value of RANKL-staining percentage was 2.79, intensity 1.95 and the total score 4.77. The mean RANKL-staining percentage between recurrence and nonrecurrence groups was statistically significant (P = 0.009). There was no significant difference in the mean staining intensity and total score between nonrecurrence and recurrence groups, and staining percentage staining intensity and a total cumulative score of RANKL expression between lung metastasis and nonlung metastasis groups.

    Conclusion: RANKL expression is generally high in Stage III GCT and is a reliable prognostic marker in predicting the risk of local recurrence however not in lung metastasis.

  7. Singh VA, Heng CW, Yasin NF
    Indian J Orthop, ;52(1):65-72.
    PMID: 29416172 DOI: 10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_188_17
    Background: Limb salvage surgery with endoprosthesis for bone tumor around the knee is reported to have good functional and oncological outcomes. However, the functional assessment using musculoskeletal tumor society (MSTS) and Toronto extremity scoring system remains subjective. We performed gait analysis as an objective assessment of their functional outcome.

    Materials and Methods: Gait analysis was performed in 20 patients with endoprosthesis replacement around the knee. The temporal parameters assessed during gait analysis were walking velocity, stride length, duration of stance, and goniometry of the knee. These parameters were compared with the functional outcome score of the MSTS.

    Results: The mean free-paced walking velocity was 0.91 m/s (normal is 1.33 m/s), which was 68% lower than normal gait. The stride length and stance phase were shorter for the affected limb compared to normal (P < 0.05). However, the gait was symmetrical with no difference in stride length (P = 0.148), velocity (P = 0.918), knee flexion (P = 0.465), and knee extension (P = 0.321) between the affected and unaffected limbs. Sixteen patients demonstrated stiff knee gait, two had a flexed knee gait, and only two patients had normal gait during the stance phase. The mean MSTS score was 21. There was significant correlation between overall MSTS scores (P = 0.023), function (P = 0.039), and walking scores (P = 0.007).

    Conclusion: Limb salvage surgery with endoprosthesis reconstruction around the knee gives good functional outcome, both objectively and subjectively, as evidenced by the symmetrical gait pattern and significant correlation with MSTS score. Despite decreased walking velocity, stride length, and stance phase of the operated limb, the patient still has a symmetrical gait.

  8. Sivaratnam D, Subrayan V, Ali NA
    Jpn. J. Ophthalmol., ;52(5):416-417.
    PMID: 18991049 DOI: 10.1007/s10384-008-0569-z
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Animals; Antibodies, Helminth/blood; Cryosurgery; Drug Therapy, Combination; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Granuloma/diagnosis; Granuloma/parasitology*; Granuloma/therapy; Humans; Male; Prednisolone/therapeutic use; Recurrence; Retinal Diseases/diagnosis; Retinal Diseases/parasitology*; Retinal Diseases/therapy; Toxocariasis/diagnosis; Toxocariasis/parasitology*; Toxocariasis/therapy; Vitreous Body/parasitology*; Vitreous Body/pathology; Albendazole/therapeutic use; Eye Infections, Parasitic/diagnosis; Eye Infections, Parasitic/parasitology*; Eye Infections, Parasitic/therapy; Choroid Diseases/diagnosis; Choroid Diseases/parasitology*; Choroid Diseases/therapy; Toxocara canis/immunology; Toxocara canis/isolation & purification*
  9. Kaewput C, Suppiah S, Vinjamuri S
    World J Nucl Med, ;17(1):34-40.
    PMID: 29398963 DOI: 10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_16_17
    The aim of our study was to correlate tumor uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-NOC positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with the pathological grade of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). 68Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT examinations in 41 patients with histopathologically proven NETs were included in the study. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and averaged SUV SUVmean of "main tumor lesions" were calculated for quantitative analyses after background subtraction. Uptake on main tumor lesions was compared and correlated with the tumor histological grade based on Ki-67 index and pathological differentiation. Classification was performed into three grades according to Ki-67 levels; low grade: Ki-67 <2, intermediate grade: Ki-67 3-20, and high grade: Ki-67 >20. Pathological differentiation was graded into well- and poorly differentiated groups. The values were compared and evaluated for correlation and agreement between the two parameters was performed. Our study revealed negatively fair agreement between SUVmax of tumor and Ki-67 index (r = -0.241) and negatively poor agreement between SUVmean of tumor and Ki-67 index (r = -0.094). SUVmax of low-grade, intermediate-grade, and high-grade Ki-67 index is 26.18 ± 14.56, 30.71 ± 24.44, and 6.60 ± 4.59, respectively. Meanwhile, SUVmean of low-grade, intermediate-grade, and high-grade Ki-67 is 8.92 ± 7.15, 9.09 ± 5.18, and 3.00 ± 1.38, respectively. As expected, there was statistically significant decreased SUVmax and SUVmean in high-grade tumors (poorly differentiated NETs) as compared with low- and intermediate-grade tumors (well-differentiated NETs). SUV of 68Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT is not correlated with histological grade of NETs. However, there was statistically significant decreased tumor uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-NOC in poorly differentiated NETs as compared with the well-differentiated group. As a result of this pilot study, we confirm that the lower tumor uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-NOC may be associated with aggressive behavior and may, therefore, result in poor prognosis.
  10. Ramesh M, Narasimhan M, Krishnan R, Aruna RM, Kuruvilla S
    J Oral Maxillofac Pathol, ;21(3):345-350.
    PMID: 29391706 DOI: 10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_247_16
    Background: Fluoride is needed for the normal development of bone and teeth; in high levels, it affects developing teeth and bone. Dental fluorosis (DF) is caused by ingestion of excess fluoride mainly through drinking water.

    Aim: The present study aims to observe and understand the histological changes of fluorosed teeth under light microscope (LM).

    Materials and Methods: Teeth which were indicated for extractions for orthodontic or periodontal problems were selected. Thirty extracted teeth were selected with varying degrees of DF based on modified Dean's fluorosis index. Ground sections of these teeth were prepared and the sections were studied under binocular LM. Photomicrographs were taken under high power objective using 15 megapixels Nikon camera.

    Results and Conclusion: Qualitative histologic changes in different grades of fluorosed teeth were evaluated in enamel, dentin, cementum and between their junctions. Fluoride interacts with enamel in both mineral phases and organic macromolecules by strong ionic and hydrogen bonds resulting in incomplete crystal growth at prism peripheries. This presents as hypomineralization of enamel and dentin, increased interglobular dentin, increased secondary curvatures and changes in cementum such as diffuse cementodentinal junction and increased thickness of Tomes' granular layer. Changes in the structure of the teeth with Dean's index below 2 and teeth with Dean's index of 2 and above were compared using Chi-square test. P value was found to be highly significant being 0.00047. Many of the features of dental fluorosis seen in the present study under light microscope are comparable to those results studied under specialized microscopes.

  11. Alavi M, Mehrinezhad SA, Amini M, Parthaman Singh MKA
    Health Psychol Open, ;4(2):2055102917748461.
    PMID: 29379632 DOI: 10.1177/2055102917748461
    This study explored the relationship between family functioning and trait emotional intelligence among 547 respondents, between the age of 16 and 24 years from Malaysia, Iran, China, Sudan, Somalia, Morocco, the United Kingdom, Germany and the Netherlands. The questionnaires were Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between family functioning and trait emotional intelligence. The higher the family functioning, the higher the trait emotional intelligence among youths. The findings provide a deeper understanding in the field of family functioning and trait emotional intelligence and have implications for parents, administrators and child relationships dealing with trait emotional intelligence.
  12. Singh S, Agarwal R, Razak ZA, Ngu R, Nyein LL, Vasudevan S, et al.
    J Ocul Pharmacol Ther, ;34(1-2):214-223.
    PMID: 29341837 DOI: 10.1089/jop.2017.0098
    PURPOSE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common causative organism for contact lens-associated corneal ulcer and is commonly treated with fluoroquinolones. With the emergence of resistant strains, it is important to investigate alternative therapies. Despite well-established efficacy of tazocin against systemic Pseudomonas infections, its topical use for the treatment of Pseudomonas keratitis has not been described, hence this study was aimed to find the ocular permeation of Tazocin and its efficacy in treating keratitis in rabbit eyes.

    METHODS: We investigated the ocular permeation of topical tazocin after single drop application in normal rabbit eyes by estimating piperacillin and tazobactam concentrations in cornea, aqueous, and vitreous using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Furthermore, we determined the efficacy of repeated dose administration of tazocin against experimentally induced P. aeruginosa keratitis in rabbits in comparison to moxifloxacin. To determine the efficacy, clinical examination, histopathological examination, and estimation of bacterial load and inflammatory cytokines in cornea were done.

    RESULTS: Significant corneal concentration of piperacillin and tazobactam was detected in normal rabbit corneas after single dose treatment with tazocin. In rabbits with Pseudomonas-induced keratitis, topical tazocin caused significant clinical and histopathological improvement. This improvement was associated with reduction in corneal bacterial load and inflammatory cytokines. Compared to moxifloxacin 0.5%, tazocin treated group showed greater clinical response which was associated with higher interleukin (IL)-1β, lower tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a comparable level of IL-8, greater reduction in corneal bacterial load, and lesser inflammatory cell infiltration.

    CONCLUSION: Tazocin showed good ocular penetration and was effective in treatment of Pseudomonas induced keratitis in rabbits.

  13. Ramachandra SS, Gupta VV, Mehta DS, Gundavarapu KC, Luigi N
    Contemp Clin Dent, ;8(4):594-603.
    PMID: 29326511 DOI: 10.4103/ccd.ccd_623_17
    Background: Differentiating between chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the variations in diagnosis between CP versus AgP and the staging of AgP based on the disease-staging index for AgP among periodontists, specialists in oral medicine, and general dental practitioners (GDPs).

    Materials and Methods: Fifteen cases diagnosed as either CP or AgP were included in a "case document" and sent electronically to 75 respondents. Case document included a detailed history with periodontal charting, clinical features, images, and radiographs for all the cases. Diagnosis and staging for the case (if diagnosed as AgP) were requested. A reordered case document (cases in a different sequence) was again sent to respondents after a gap of 1 month.

    Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics including frequency and percentage were calculated. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to analyze the data collected.

    Results: For the "case document," 10.17% of the responses were different from those of the authors for diagnosis, whereas 4.48% of the responses were different from those of the authors for the staging of AgP. The agreement in the overall responses was in the range of 0.69-0.84, which was considered good. Comparison of the responses for diagnosis showed statistically significant (P = 0.009) difference between specialists in oral medicine and GDPs.

    Conclusions: Variations exist among respondents regarding the diagnosis of CP versus AgP. Staging of AgP based on the listed criteria showed low variations.

    MeSH terms: Dentists; Aggressive Periodontitis; Surveys and Questionnaires; Specialization; Chi-Square Distribution; Oral Medicine; Chronic Periodontitis
  14. Rai N, Naik R, Gupta R, Shetty S, Singh A
    Contemp Clin Dent, ;8(4):604-612.
    PMID: 29326512 DOI: 10.4103/ccd.ccd_631_17
    Aim of the Study: This study aims to evaluate the effects three different conditioning agents on the shear bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomers to human dentin.

    Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty recently extracted, caries-free premolars and molars will be cleaned of debris and disinfected in a 0.5% solution of sodium hypochlorite and sterile water for 30 min. The occlusal surface of each tooth will be reduced using conventional model trimmer with water to produce the dentin surface. Then, three different resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GICs) were triturated and mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions, 10 specimens will be made of each group. The excess restorative material will be removed from matrix band dentin interface with a sharp number 25 bard parker blade. Samples were shear tested with Instron universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. A shearing bar beveled to a 1 mm thick contact surface area will be placed at the junction of dentin and plastic band matrix. The load required for the failure will be recorded in pounds and converted to megapascals.

    Results: Statistical analysis was done with analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Ketac primer as conditioning agent along with Fuji II LC as restorative material had the highest shear bond value whereas intact smear layer which was unmodified dentin had the least value.

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that surface conditioning of dentin resulted significantly higher bond strength than unconditioned dentin surfaces.

    Clinical Significance: Resin-modified glass ionomers have several advantages compared to chemically cured GICs. The advantages include command cure, ease of handling, improved physical properties, and esthetics. Resin.modified glass ionomers have been marketed as direct restorative materials for Class V lesions as well as liners, bases, and luting agents. Several conditioning agents have been evaluated to condition dentin before the application of conventional glass ionomers and resin-modified glass ionomers. These have mainly included polyacrylic acid, citric acid, phosphoric acid, and ethylenediamine tetra.acetic acid. Of late, manufactures have recommended other conditioners to replace polyacrylic acid which includes Ketac primer as one of the conditioning agents.

    MeSH terms: Acrylic Resins; Analysis of Variance; Bicuspid; Dental Cements; Dentin; Esthetics; Ethylenediamines; Glass Ionomer Cements; Humans; Matrix Bands; Molar; Phosphoric Acids; Plastics; Resins, Synthetic; Silicon Dioxide; Sodium Hypochlorite; Water; Smear Layer; Acetic Acid; Citric Acid
  15. Tan CS, Hassali MA, Neoh CF, Saleem F
    Pharm Pract (Granada), ;15(4):1074.
    PMID: 29317924 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2017.04.1074
    Objective: This study aimed to explore hypertensive patients' perspectives on quality use of medication and issues related to hypertension management at the community level in Malaysia.

    Methods: Focus groups discussion was employed in this qualitative study. A total of 17 hypertensive patients were purposively recruited. Three focus group discussions with semi-structured interview were carried out at Flat Desa Wawasan, Penang. All the conversations were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed.

    Results: Three major themes were developed, including medication adherence among hypertensive patients, self-management of hypertension and patients' knowledge towards hypertension. Poor medication adherence was found and different strategies were taken to overcome the barriers towards adherence. Use of herbal and traditional therapies was perceived as alternative method in controlling blood pressure instead of taking antihypertensive medication. The participants were found to have poor knowledge on side effect and mechanism of action of hypertensive medication.

    Conclusions: The misconception about the side effect of antihypertensive medication has led to poor adherence among the participants. Lack of knowledge on targeted blood pressure level has led to poor blood pressure monitoring among the participants. Health awareness program and counselling from health care professional should be advocated among the hypertensive patients in addressing the above gaps.

  16. Kadir R, Jantan MD
    An. Acad. Bras. Cienc., ;88(4):2081-2092.
    PMID: 27991952 DOI: 10.1590/0001-3765201620150650
    The effects of four different types of bleaching agents (hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, sodium chlorite and oxalic acid) mixed together with 2% boron-based preservative (Celbor SP) were studied on green sawn rubberwood. Two concentration levels (1% and 2%) of were used. Whitish values (W) and colour changes (ΔE) of sawn rubberwood were assessed before and after chemical treatment using a colour meter. Preliminary observation indicated that timber treated with 1% and 2% hydrogen peroxide produced better and more homogeneous colour properties. Hydrogen peroxide treated timber gave higher whitish values (6.23 and 9.91 for 1% and 2% solution, respectively) and lower colour changes (8.49 and 5.51 for 1% and 2% solution, respectively) when compared to the other three chemicals. Evaluation on the effects of bleaching (hydrogen peroxide with a higher level of concentration) on physical, mechanical and biological properties of rubberwood also have been determined in this study.
  17. Gundamaraju R, Vemuri R
    PMID: 29264319 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1096
    Greedy colon which is a synonym of constipation is a serious condition in the human body which may lead to complications, like damage of the rectal tissue, cellular dehydration and colorectal cancer. Diabetes mellitus, although a systemic disease with diverse clinical symptoms, is also related with cellular dehydration. Understanding the pathophysiological aspects of diabetes mellitus and greedy colon may shed light in the management of either of these conditions. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate an association of tissue dehydration during diabetes mellitus and constipation. The adverse side effects of atropine will be discussed due to its M3 blockage effect and reduction in peristalsis keeping in mind the importance of these facts in the context of public health importance, especially in geriatric health. How to cite this article: Gundamaraju R, Vemuri R. Pathophysiology of Greedy Colon and Diabetes: Role of Atropine in worsening of Diabetes. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):51-54.
  18. Yew PN, Lee WL, Lim YY
    Pharmacognosy Res, ;9(4):366-371.
    PMID: 29263630 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_145_16
    Background: Porcupine dates are phytobezoar stones that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatments against cancer, postsurgical recovery, dengue fever, etc. The medicinal values have not been scientifically investigated due to the availability and high pricing of the dates.

    Objectives: This paper represents the first report on the phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging properties of the extracts of three porcupine dates: grassy date (GD), black date (BD), and powdery date (PD).

    Materials and Methods: Dried samples were extracted with methanol and lyophilized. Samples were screened for phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant assays based on total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging, and ferric reducing power (FRP) as well as intracellular ROS and RNS scavenging properties.

    Results: Phytochemical screening and total tannins assay revealed that tannins, cardiac glycosides, and terpenoids were found in all porcupine dates with tannins forming the major portion of the TPC. In comparison to GD, BD and PD were found to contain significantly high TPC, radical scavenging activity, and FRP. At 200 μg/ml, BD and PD remarkably scavenged 2, 2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced ROS in RAW264.7 cells and significantly reduced nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells.

    Conclusion: Overall, BD and PD exhibited promising in vitro antioxidant as well as intracellular ROS/RNS scavenging properties.

    SUMMARY: Tannins, cardiac glycoside, and terpenoids were found in all three types of porcupine dates with tannins being the major compoundsAntioxidant contents and properties of three dates were in the order black date (BD) > powdery date (PD) > grassy dateBD and PD extracts showed significant intracellular reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species scavenging properties. Abbreviations Used: TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine, BD: Black date, GD: Grassy date, PD: Powdery date, TPC: Total phenolic content, FRS: Free radical scavenging, FRP: Ferric reducing power, NO: Nitric oxide, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, RNS: Reactive nitrogen species, GAE: Gallic acid equivalent, AAE: Ascorbic acid equivalent, PVPP: Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, DCFH-DA: Dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate, AAPH: 2, 2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, LPS: Lipopolysaccharide.

  19. Yap CV, Subramaniam KS, Khor SW, Chung I
    Pharmacognosy Res, ;9(4):378-383.
    PMID: 29263632 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_19_17
    Background: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Annonacin, a natural pure compound extracted from the seeds of Annona muricata, is a potential alternative therapeutic agent to treat EC.

    Objective: To study the antitumor activity of annonacin and its mechanism of action in EC cells (ECCs).

    Materials and Methods: Viability of ECCs treated with annonacin for 72 h was determined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death was evaluated using propidium iodide and annexin V-PE/7-AAD assay, respectively. DNA strand breaks were visualized using transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, and the effects of annonacin on survival signaling were determined using western blotting.

    Results: Annonacin exhibited antiproliferative effects on EC cell lines (ECC-1 and HEC-1A) and primary cells (EC6-ept and EC14-ept) with EC50values ranging from 4.62 to 4.92 μg/ml. EC cells were shown arrested at G2/M phase after treated with 4 μg/ml of annonacin for 72 h. This led to a significant increase in apoptotic cell death (65.7%) in these cells when compared to vehicle-treated cells (P < 0.005). We further showed that annonacin-mediated apoptotic cell death was associated with an increase in caspase-3 cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Cell apoptosis was accompanied with downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase survival protein expression and induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    Conclusion: Annonacin may be a potential novel therapeutic agent for EC patients.

    SUMMARY: We aimed to study the antitumor activity of annonacin and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer cells. Annonacin exerted antiproliferation effects on both endometrial cancer cell lines and primary cells via induction of apoptosis and inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Our data represented that annonacin could be an alternative therapeutic treatment to combat endometrial cancer. Abbreviations Used: 7-AAD: 7-Amino-Actinomycin, ATP: Adenosine diphosphate, BSA: Bovine serum albumin, DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, EC: Endometrial cancer, ECC-1: Endometrial cancer cell-1, EC50: Half maximal effective concentration, Ept: Epithelial, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, HEC-1A: Human endometrial carcinoma-1A, MTT: Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium, NaCl: Sodium chloride, NADH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, RPMI 1640: Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium, SDS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate.

  20. Khairani AZ, Ahmad NS, Khairani MZ
    J Appl Meas, ;18(4):449-458.
    PMID: 29252212
    Adolescences is an important transitional phase in human development where they experience physiological as well as psychological changes. Nevertheless, these changes are often understood by teachers, parents, and even the adolescents themselves. Thus, conflicts exist and adolescents are affected from the conflict physically and emotionally. An important state of emotions that result from this conflict is anger. This article describes the development and validation of the 34-item Adolescent Anger Inventory (AAI) to measure types of anger among Malaysian adolescents. A sample of 2,834 adolescents in secondary school who provide responses that were analyzed using Rasch model measurement framework. The 4 response category worked satisfactorily for the scale developed. A total of 11 items did not fit to the model's expectations, and thus dropped from the final scale. The scale also demonstrated satisfactory reliability and separation evidence. Also, items in the AAI depicted no evidence of DIF between 14- and 16-year-old adolescents. Nevertheless, the AAI did not have sufficient items to target adolescents with a high level of physical aggressive anger.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Algorithms; Anger*; Computer Simulation; Data Interpretation, Statistical*; Educational Measurement/methods*; Humans; Malaysia/epidemiology; Male; Psychometrics/methods*; Surveys and Questionnaires*; Reproducibility of Results; Models, Statistical*; Prevalence
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