Aim: To explore training intervention methods that ensure wider coverage of awareness on office ergonomics, thereby promoting safer working and suggesting sustainable programs for behavior change and job enrichment.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted (2012 - 2017), encompassing corporate office employees of multinational corporations selected from India, Dubai (U.A.E), Nairobi (East Africa), Durban (South Africa), South East Asian countries (Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Sri Lanka).Participant employees (n= 3503) were divided into two groups to study the effect of interventions'; i.e., (a) deep training: 40 minute lecture by the investigator with a power point presentation (n= 1765) using a mock workstation and (b) quick training: live demonstrations of 10 minutes (n= 1738) using a live workstation.
Results: While deep training enhanced awareness in 95.51% and quick training in 96.59% globally, the latterwas much appreciated and educated maximum employees. From statistical analysis, quick training was found superior in providing comprehensive training and influencing behavior modification in India, but all over the world it was found highly superior in knowledge enlargement, skills enrichment in addition to providing comprehensive training (P< 0.05). In countries, located to West of India, it significantly influenced behavior modification.
Conclusion: As because few employees attend deep training lectures, the quick 10-minute program is highly promising as it is practical, replicable, yields increased awareness with wider employee coverage in a much shorter time, instilling a feeling of caring and confidence amongst them towards a robust office ergonomics program. This could lead to propose as a best practice for corporate offices globally.
Aim: The study was conducted to determine the awareness, knowledge, and attitude of patients toward dental implants as a treatment modality among the general population and to assess the influence of personality characteristics on accepting dental implants as a treatment modality in general and as well as treatment group.
Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire-based survey was conducted on 500 randomly selected participants attending the outpatient department. The study was conducted in 2 parts. In the first part of the study, level of awareness, knowledge, and attitude was assessed. In the second part of the study, interactive educational sessions using audiovisual aids were conducted following which a retest was conducted. The participants who agreed to undergo implant treatment were followed up to assess their change in attitude towards dental implants posttreatment. Thus pain, anxiety, functional, and esthetic benefits were measured using visual analog scale. They were further followed up for 1 year to reassess awareness, knowledge, and attitude towards dental implants.
Results: A total of 450 individuals completed the questionnaires. Only 106 individuals agreed to participate in the educational sessions and 83 individuals took the retest. Out of these, only 39 individuals chose implants as a treatment option. A significant improvement in the level of information, subjective and objective need for information, was noted after 1 year.
Conclusion: In this study, a severe deficit in level of information, subjective and objective need for information towards, dental implants as a treatment modality was noted. In the treatment group, a significant improvement in perception of dental implant as a treatment modality suggests that professionally imparted knowledge can bring about a change in the attitude.
Aims: The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence, mechanism, severity, with Type 2 diabetes.
Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Penang General Hospital.
Methods: A computerized system for DDI checking was used to assess the severity and mechanism of DDIs. Drug interaction probability scale was used to evaluate the likelihood of DDIs. Preventability of DDIs has been determined by the instrument of Hallas. The UCG prevalence related to DDIs was further assessed.
Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 21.00 was used in this study.
Results: From 425 outpatients with HbA1c% test, their mean age was 58.7 ± 12.8 years. Only 225 (52.9%) cases had controlled glycemia while 200 (47.1%) cases with UCG. They had multiple comorbidities, with a mean number of 3.8 ± 2.2/patient and often prescribed with multiple medications, with a mean number of 6.33 ± 4.67/patient. It has been detected that 86 DDIs causing UCG in 46 patients (23%) with range of (1 - 4) DDIs per patient. Drugs with DDI-induced UCG were as follows: diuretics (79%), salbutamol (9.2%), cortisones (5.8%), and others (6%). The majority of these DDIs were categorized as possible (77.9%) and preventable (37%).
Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of UCG was induced by DDIs; most of these DDIs are possible, and more than one-third are preventable. It was concluded that thiazide diuretics have the highest prevalence of DDI-related UCG.
Objective: To evaluate the quality of life patients on hemodialysis using kidney disease quality of life-short term 24 (KDQoL-SF24) Malaysian Version.
Materials and Methods: Cohort observational study was conducted in this study. The study included 78 hemodialysed patients in HD center Penang, Malaysia.
Results: There were 9 components which had the lower of the mean and standard deviation (SD) than the standard form; work status (15.01 ± 35.57), cognitive function (75.66 ± 13.75), quality of life social interaction (76.32 ± 16.11), sleep (55.86 ± 15.30), social support (59.61 ± 22.08), patient satisfaction (43.24 ± 15.32), physical functioning (50.06 ± 42.81), general health (29.62 ± 25.56), and role emotional (54.27 ± 49.92). In this HD center, the group of patient's age who had the lower mean ± SD from the KDQoL-SF Manual Standard were the first and the sixth groups of patient's age (≤20 and 61-70).
Conclusion: The study conducted in HD center, Penang, Malaysia showed that the scoring of work status, cognitive function, quality of social interaction, sleep, social support, patient satisfaction, physical functioning, general health, and role emotional were low than standard form.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on the use of primaquine combination amongP. vivaxandP. ovaleinfected patients in Selangor, Malaysia within a 5-year period from 2011 to 2015 was obtained from the National Malaria Case Registry, Malaysia. Data collected were patient characteristics (age, gender, nationality, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pregnancy); disease characteristics (survival, past malaria infection, parasite type, presence of gametocyte, parasite count, week onset, severity, transmission type); and treatment characteristics (type of antimalarial, treatment completion). Outcome measures were length of stay and relapse during a 1-year follow-up.
Results: A total of 635 patients were included in the study. Based on a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the significant predictors for length of stay were gender (P= 0.009) and indigenous transmission (P< 0.001). Male patients had a shorter length of stay than females by 0.868 days (P= 0.009), and indigenous transmission took 1.82 days more compared to nonindigenous transmission (P< 0.001). Predictors for relapse were indigenous transmission of malaria (P= 0.019), which was 15.83 times more likely to relapse than nonindigenous transmission (P< 0.01).
Conclusions: This study reveals that the effectiveness of primaquine was clinically associated with gender and indigenous transmission. To that end, vigilant monitoring of primaquine use is required to reduce relapse and future transmission.
Setting and Design: The current research is a cross-sectional study conducted from January 2015 to July 2015. The study population comprised physicians rendering their services in different hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan, selected by the nonprobability convenience sampling technique. In this study, 500 questionnaires were distributed through email or direct correspondence.
Methods and Materials: Physicians' perception toward the impact of electronic and print media on the health status of patients was assessed with a 20-item questionnaire. Different demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, institution, position, and experience of respondents, were recorded. Quantitative data were analyzed with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 20.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). The association of the demographic characteristics of the responses of physicians was determined by one-way ANOVA using 0.05 level of significance.
Results: In this study, 254 physicians provided consent to show their responses for research purposes. A response rate of 50.8% was obtained. Nearly one-third of the respondents negated that patients get health benefit using electronic and print media. The majority did not consider electronic and print media as lifestyle-modifying factors. Physicians thought that patients particularly do not rely on mass media for acquiring health information and consider healthcare professionals as unswerving information resource.
Conclusions: Mass media can be productive resources to augment awareness among patients, although physicians seem unconvinced about the extended usage of print/electronic media.
Materials and Methods: The mice were divided into four different groups and received the test extracts and the standard drug (aspirin) for 14 days via force-feeding. On day 15, the mice were injected with 5% acetic acid, and the number of abdominal constriction and elongation of hind limb (writhes) were counted for 20 min.
Results: The numbers of writhes were counted starting after 5 min of the acetic acid injection. TheN. sativaextracts significantly reduced the number of writhes as compared to the control group. Both of the extracts revealed a comparable result as referred to the aspirin effects in the mice.
Conclusions: These findings indicate thatN. sativaandE. cottoniimay possess protective active constituent that is effective in reducing the sensation of pain in mice.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twelve adult patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status I and II undergoing middle ear surgery were selected. A standard anaesthetic procedure was followed for all cases, using thiopental sodium, succinylcholine, fentanyl, atracurium and 60% N2O in 40% oxygen supplemented with isoflurane. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was reduced to 60 +/- 5 mm Hg in all patients using a sodium nitroprusside infusion. The end tidal (ET) CO2, PaCO2, MAP, peak airway pressure, plateau pressure and expiratory minute volume were recorded during a period of normal arterial blood pressure (time 1) and during hypotension (time 2).
RESULTS: A significant decrease in PaCO2 (7%) and ETCO2 (17%) from time 1 to time 2 (p < 0.01) was noted, as was a significant increase in P(a-ET)CO2 (48%) and in the Vdphys/Vt ratio (41.17%) (p < 0.01) during the same period.
CONCLUSION: The decrease in ETCO2 does not reflect the changes in PaCO2. The larger decrease in ETCO2 is mainly due to the increase in the Vdphys/Vt ratio. During anaesthesia, once normocapnia is achieved with normal arterial blood pressure, there is hardly any need to change the ventilation after initiation of controlled hypotension.
Materials and Methods: Thirty two patients with metastatic bone disease of the proximal femur undergoing LHR were recruited and randomized. Conventional technique was used in 16 cases and distal decompression of the medullary canal was carried out for the other 16 patients. The decompression was carried out through a trocar inserted into the distal medullary canal, connected to a vacuum suction. Quantity of emboli was detected through A4 chambers transesophageal echocardiography; the blood pressure and oxygen saturation readings were also recorded.
Results: The decompression group experienced significantly lower Grade 2 and Grade 3 embolic events compared to the conventional group (11 vs. 26), and the duration of the embolic phenomena was shorter. Insertion of the stem and relocating the hip gave the highest amount embolic events. There was a significant drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 12 out of 16 patients (75.0%) in the conventional group and 5 out of 16 patients in the decompression group (31.3%). This is statically significant (P = 0.0124). The average drop in SBP for the conventional group is 45.8 mmHg and the decompression group was 32.9 mmHg. Oxygen saturation remained at above 96% in the decompression group. However, in the conventional group, 25% of the patients had their oxygen saturation drop to below 96% during the insertion of stem and relocation of hip joint.
Conclusion: Distal femoral canal decompression is an effective method in reducing the risk of cardiopulmonary embolic events associated with LHR.
Materials and Methods: We examined RANKL expression in 39 patients (21 males, 18 females) by immunohistochemistry. Four patients (10%) were presented with tumor recurrence, eight patients (20%) were complicated with lung metastasis, and two patients (5%) were presented with both recurrence and lung metastasis. Positive RANKL expression was assessed according to a scoring system evaluating the percentage of the immunostained epithelial area and the staining intensity. The cumulative score was calculated to determine the final score value. Data were analyzed using PASW version 18.0 and independent t-test between nonrecurrence/recurrence groups, and nonlung metastasis/lung metastasis groups. Significance was set at P < 0.05.
Results: Thirty-two patients (82%) scored 3 in RANKL-staining percentage from whole stromal cell population (>75%), 6 patients scored 2, and 1 patient scored 1. Nine patients (23%) scored 3 in RANKL-staining intensity (most intense), 19 patients (48%) scored 2, and 11 patients (29%) scored 1. Twenty six patients (67%) had strong RANKL expression (total score of 5-6), 12 patients (31%) showed moderate score (3-4) whereas only 1 patient (2%) showed weak RANKL expression. Together, the mean value of RANKL-staining percentage was 2.79, intensity 1.95 and the total score 4.77. The mean RANKL-staining percentage between recurrence and nonrecurrence groups was statistically significant (P = 0.009). There was no significant difference in the mean staining intensity and total score between nonrecurrence and recurrence groups, and staining percentage staining intensity and a total cumulative score of RANKL expression between lung metastasis and nonlung metastasis groups.
Conclusion: RANKL expression is generally high in Stage III GCT and is a reliable prognostic marker in predicting the risk of local recurrence however not in lung metastasis.
Materials and Methods: Gait analysis was performed in 20 patients with endoprosthesis replacement around the knee. The temporal parameters assessed during gait analysis were walking velocity, stride length, duration of stance, and goniometry of the knee. These parameters were compared with the functional outcome score of the MSTS.
Results: The mean free-paced walking velocity was 0.91 m/s (normal is 1.33 m/s), which was 68% lower than normal gait. The stride length and stance phase were shorter for the affected limb compared to normal (P < 0.05). However, the gait was symmetrical with no difference in stride length (P = 0.148), velocity (P = 0.918), knee flexion (P = 0.465), and knee extension (P = 0.321) between the affected and unaffected limbs. Sixteen patients demonstrated stiff knee gait, two had a flexed knee gait, and only two patients had normal gait during the stance phase. The mean MSTS score was 21. There was significant correlation between overall MSTS scores (P = 0.023), function (P = 0.039), and walking scores (P = 0.007).
Conclusion: Limb salvage surgery with endoprosthesis reconstruction around the knee gives good functional outcome, both objectively and subjectively, as evidenced by the symmetrical gait pattern and significant correlation with MSTS score. Despite decreased walking velocity, stride length, and stance phase of the operated limb, the patient still has a symmetrical gait.