Aim: To explore training intervention methods that ensure wider coverage of awareness on office ergonomics, thereby promoting safer working and suggesting sustainable programs for behavior change and job enrichment.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted (2012 - 2017), encompassing corporate office employees of multinational corporations selected from India, Dubai (U.A.E), Nairobi (East Africa), Durban (South Africa), South East Asian countries (Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Sri Lanka).Participant employees (n= 3503) were divided into two groups to study the effect of interventions'; i.e., (a) deep training: 40 minute lecture by the investigator with a power point presentation (n= 1765) using a mock workstation and (b) quick training: live demonstrations of 10 minutes (n= 1738) using a live workstation.
Results: While deep training enhanced awareness in 95.51% and quick training in 96.59% globally, the latterwas much appreciated and educated maximum employees. From statistical analysis, quick training was found superior in providing comprehensive training and influencing behavior modification in India, but all over the world it was found highly superior in knowledge enlargement, skills enrichment in addition to providing comprehensive training (P< 0.05). In countries, located to West of India, it significantly influenced behavior modification.
Conclusion: As because few employees attend deep training lectures, the quick 10-minute program is highly promising as it is practical, replicable, yields increased awareness with wider employee coverage in a much shorter time, instilling a feeling of caring and confidence amongst them towards a robust office ergonomics program. This could lead to propose as a best practice for corporate offices globally.
Setting and Design: The current research is a cross-sectional study conducted from January 2015 to July 2015. The study population comprised physicians rendering their services in different hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan, selected by the nonprobability convenience sampling technique. In this study, 500 questionnaires were distributed through email or direct correspondence.
Methods and Materials: Physicians' perception toward the impact of electronic and print media on the health status of patients was assessed with a 20-item questionnaire. Different demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, institution, position, and experience of respondents, were recorded. Quantitative data were analyzed with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 20.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). The association of the demographic characteristics of the responses of physicians was determined by one-way ANOVA using 0.05 level of significance.
Results: In this study, 254 physicians provided consent to show their responses for research purposes. A response rate of 50.8% was obtained. Nearly one-third of the respondents negated that patients get health benefit using electronic and print media. The majority did not consider electronic and print media as lifestyle-modifying factors. Physicians thought that patients particularly do not rely on mass media for acquiring health information and consider healthcare professionals as unswerving information resource.
Conclusions: Mass media can be productive resources to augment awareness among patients, although physicians seem unconvinced about the extended usage of print/electronic media.
Materials and Methods: We examined RANKL expression in 39 patients (21 males, 18 females) by immunohistochemistry. Four patients (10%) were presented with tumor recurrence, eight patients (20%) were complicated with lung metastasis, and two patients (5%) were presented with both recurrence and lung metastasis. Positive RANKL expression was assessed according to a scoring system evaluating the percentage of the immunostained epithelial area and the staining intensity. The cumulative score was calculated to determine the final score value. Data were analyzed using PASW version 18.0 and independent t-test between nonrecurrence/recurrence groups, and nonlung metastasis/lung metastasis groups. Significance was set at P < 0.05.
Results: Thirty-two patients (82%) scored 3 in RANKL-staining percentage from whole stromal cell population (>75%), 6 patients scored 2, and 1 patient scored 1. Nine patients (23%) scored 3 in RANKL-staining intensity (most intense), 19 patients (48%) scored 2, and 11 patients (29%) scored 1. Twenty six patients (67%) had strong RANKL expression (total score of 5-6), 12 patients (31%) showed moderate score (3-4) whereas only 1 patient (2%) showed weak RANKL expression. Together, the mean value of RANKL-staining percentage was 2.79, intensity 1.95 and the total score 4.77. The mean RANKL-staining percentage between recurrence and nonrecurrence groups was statistically significant (P = 0.009). There was no significant difference in the mean staining intensity and total score between nonrecurrence and recurrence groups, and staining percentage staining intensity and a total cumulative score of RANKL expression between lung metastasis and nonlung metastasis groups.
Conclusion: RANKL expression is generally high in Stage III GCT and is a reliable prognostic marker in predicting the risk of local recurrence however not in lung metastasis.
Materials and Methods: Gait analysis was performed in 20 patients with endoprosthesis replacement around the knee. The temporal parameters assessed during gait analysis were walking velocity, stride length, duration of stance, and goniometry of the knee. These parameters were compared with the functional outcome score of the MSTS.
Results: The mean free-paced walking velocity was 0.91 m/s (normal is 1.33 m/s), which was 68% lower than normal gait. The stride length and stance phase were shorter for the affected limb compared to normal (P < 0.05). However, the gait was symmetrical with no difference in stride length (P = 0.148), velocity (P = 0.918), knee flexion (P = 0.465), and knee extension (P = 0.321) between the affected and unaffected limbs. Sixteen patients demonstrated stiff knee gait, two had a flexed knee gait, and only two patients had normal gait during the stance phase. The mean MSTS score was 21. There was significant correlation between overall MSTS scores (P = 0.023), function (P = 0.039), and walking scores (P = 0.007).
Conclusion: Limb salvage surgery with endoprosthesis reconstruction around the knee gives good functional outcome, both objectively and subjectively, as evidenced by the symmetrical gait pattern and significant correlation with MSTS score. Despite decreased walking velocity, stride length, and stance phase of the operated limb, the patient still has a symmetrical gait.
Aim: The present study aims to observe and understand the histological changes of fluorosed teeth under light microscope (LM).
Materials and Methods: Teeth which were indicated for extractions for orthodontic or periodontal problems were selected. Thirty extracted teeth were selected with varying degrees of DF based on modified Dean's fluorosis index. Ground sections of these teeth were prepared and the sections were studied under binocular LM. Photomicrographs were taken under high power objective using 15 megapixels Nikon camera.
Results and Conclusion: Qualitative histologic changes in different grades of fluorosed teeth were evaluated in enamel, dentin, cementum and between their junctions. Fluoride interacts with enamel in both mineral phases and organic macromolecules by strong ionic and hydrogen bonds resulting in incomplete crystal growth at prism peripheries. This presents as hypomineralization of enamel and dentin, increased interglobular dentin, increased secondary curvatures and changes in cementum such as diffuse cementodentinal junction and increased thickness of Tomes' granular layer. Changes in the structure of the teeth with Dean's index below 2 and teeth with Dean's index of 2 and above were compared using Chi-square test. P value was found to be highly significant being 0.00047. Many of the features of dental fluorosis seen in the present study under light microscope are comparable to those results studied under specialized microscopes.
METHODS: We investigated the ocular permeation of topical tazocin after single drop application in normal rabbit eyes by estimating piperacillin and tazobactam concentrations in cornea, aqueous, and vitreous using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Furthermore, we determined the efficacy of repeated dose administration of tazocin against experimentally induced P. aeruginosa keratitis in rabbits in comparison to moxifloxacin. To determine the efficacy, clinical examination, histopathological examination, and estimation of bacterial load and inflammatory cytokines in cornea were done.
RESULTS: Significant corneal concentration of piperacillin and tazobactam was detected in normal rabbit corneas after single dose treatment with tazocin. In rabbits with Pseudomonas-induced keratitis, topical tazocin caused significant clinical and histopathological improvement. This improvement was associated with reduction in corneal bacterial load and inflammatory cytokines. Compared to moxifloxacin 0.5%, tazocin treated group showed greater clinical response which was associated with higher interleukin (IL)-1β, lower tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a comparable level of IL-8, greater reduction in corneal bacterial load, and lesser inflammatory cell infiltration.
CONCLUSION: Tazocin showed good ocular penetration and was effective in treatment of Pseudomonas induced keratitis in rabbits.
Materials and Methods: Fifteen cases diagnosed as either CP or AgP were included in a "case document" and sent electronically to 75 respondents. Case document included a detailed history with periodontal charting, clinical features, images, and radiographs for all the cases. Diagnosis and staging for the case (if diagnosed as AgP) were requested. A reordered case document (cases in a different sequence) was again sent to respondents after a gap of 1 month.
Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics including frequency and percentage were calculated. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to analyze the data collected.
Results: For the "case document," 10.17% of the responses were different from those of the authors for diagnosis, whereas 4.48% of the responses were different from those of the authors for the staging of AgP. The agreement in the overall responses was in the range of 0.69-0.84, which was considered good. Comparison of the responses for diagnosis showed statistically significant (P = 0.009) difference between specialists in oral medicine and GDPs.
Conclusions: Variations exist among respondents regarding the diagnosis of CP versus AgP. Staging of AgP based on the listed criteria showed low variations.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty recently extracted, caries-free premolars and molars will be cleaned of debris and disinfected in a 0.5% solution of sodium hypochlorite and sterile water for 30 min. The occlusal surface of each tooth will be reduced using conventional model trimmer with water to produce the dentin surface. Then, three different resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GICs) were triturated and mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions, 10 specimens will be made of each group. The excess restorative material will be removed from matrix band dentin interface with a sharp number 25 bard parker blade. Samples were shear tested with Instron universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. A shearing bar beveled to a 1 mm thick contact surface area will be placed at the junction of dentin and plastic band matrix. The load required for the failure will be recorded in pounds and converted to megapascals.
Results: Statistical analysis was done with analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Ketac primer as conditioning agent along with Fuji II LC as restorative material had the highest shear bond value whereas intact smear layer which was unmodified dentin had the least value.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that surface conditioning of dentin resulted significantly higher bond strength than unconditioned dentin surfaces.
Clinical Significance: Resin-modified glass ionomers have several advantages compared to chemically cured GICs. The advantages include command cure, ease of handling, improved physical properties, and esthetics. Resin.modified glass ionomers have been marketed as direct restorative materials for Class V lesions as well as liners, bases, and luting agents. Several conditioning agents have been evaluated to condition dentin before the application of conventional glass ionomers and resin-modified glass ionomers. These have mainly included polyacrylic acid, citric acid, phosphoric acid, and ethylenediamine tetra.acetic acid. Of late, manufactures have recommended other conditioners to replace polyacrylic acid which includes Ketac primer as one of the conditioning agents.
Methods: Focus groups discussion was employed in this qualitative study. A total of 17 hypertensive patients were purposively recruited. Three focus group discussions with semi-structured interview were carried out at Flat Desa Wawasan, Penang. All the conversations were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed.
Results: Three major themes were developed, including medication adherence among hypertensive patients, self-management of hypertension and patients' knowledge towards hypertension. Poor medication adherence was found and different strategies were taken to overcome the barriers towards adherence. Use of herbal and traditional therapies was perceived as alternative method in controlling blood pressure instead of taking antihypertensive medication. The participants were found to have poor knowledge on side effect and mechanism of action of hypertensive medication.
Conclusions: The misconception about the side effect of antihypertensive medication has led to poor adherence among the participants. Lack of knowledge on targeted blood pressure level has led to poor blood pressure monitoring among the participants. Health awareness program and counselling from health care professional should be advocated among the hypertensive patients in addressing the above gaps.
Objectives: This paper represents the first report on the phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging properties of the extracts of three porcupine dates: grassy date (GD), black date (BD), and powdery date (PD).
Materials and Methods: Dried samples were extracted with methanol and lyophilized. Samples were screened for phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant assays based on total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging, and ferric reducing power (FRP) as well as intracellular ROS and RNS scavenging properties.
Results: Phytochemical screening and total tannins assay revealed that tannins, cardiac glycosides, and terpenoids were found in all porcupine dates with tannins forming the major portion of the TPC. In comparison to GD, BD and PD were found to contain significantly high TPC, radical scavenging activity, and FRP. At 200 μg/ml, BD and PD remarkably scavenged 2, 2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced ROS in RAW264.7 cells and significantly reduced nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells.
Conclusion: Overall, BD and PD exhibited promising in vitro antioxidant as well as intracellular ROS/RNS scavenging properties.
SUMMARY: Tannins, cardiac glycoside, and terpenoids were found in all three types of porcupine dates with tannins being the major compoundsAntioxidant contents and properties of three dates were in the order black date (BD) > powdery date (PD) > grassy dateBD and PD extracts showed significant intracellular reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species scavenging properties. Abbreviations Used: TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine, BD: Black date, GD: Grassy date, PD: Powdery date, TPC: Total phenolic content, FRS: Free radical scavenging, FRP: Ferric reducing power, NO: Nitric oxide, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, RNS: Reactive nitrogen species, GAE: Gallic acid equivalent, AAE: Ascorbic acid equivalent, PVPP: Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, DCFH-DA: Dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate, AAPH: 2, 2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, LPS: Lipopolysaccharide.
Objective: To study the antitumor activity of annonacin and its mechanism of action in EC cells (ECCs).
Materials and Methods: Viability of ECCs treated with annonacin for 72 h was determined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death was evaluated using propidium iodide and annexin V-PE/7-AAD assay, respectively. DNA strand breaks were visualized using transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, and the effects of annonacin on survival signaling were determined using western blotting.
Results: Annonacin exhibited antiproliferative effects on EC cell lines (ECC-1 and HEC-1A) and primary cells (EC6-ept and EC14-ept) with EC50values ranging from 4.62 to 4.92 μg/ml. EC cells were shown arrested at G2/M phase after treated with 4 μg/ml of annonacin for 72 h. This led to a significant increase in apoptotic cell death (65.7%) in these cells when compared to vehicle-treated cells (P < 0.005). We further showed that annonacin-mediated apoptotic cell death was associated with an increase in caspase-3 cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Cell apoptosis was accompanied with downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase survival protein expression and induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest.
Conclusion: Annonacin may be a potential novel therapeutic agent for EC patients.
SUMMARY: We aimed to study the antitumor activity of annonacin and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer cells. Annonacin exerted antiproliferation effects on both endometrial cancer cell lines and primary cells via induction of apoptosis and inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Our data represented that annonacin could be an alternative therapeutic treatment to combat endometrial cancer. Abbreviations Used: 7-AAD: 7-Amino-Actinomycin, ATP: Adenosine diphosphate, BSA: Bovine serum albumin, DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, EC: Endometrial cancer, ECC-1: Endometrial cancer cell-1, EC50: Half maximal effective concentration, Ept: Epithelial, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, HEC-1A: Human endometrial carcinoma-1A, MTT: Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium, NaCl: Sodium chloride, NADH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, RPMI 1640: Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium, SDS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate.