MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Mazlan Ismail
    Movement Health & Exercise, 2019;8(2):141-152.
    This study is aimed to investigate the effect of 25 minutes of continuous active stretching – based exercise (STAxercise) on the flexibility and agility / balance of a group of elderly men. An experimental research design was used. Participants consisted of 20 sedentary males aged 60 to 64 years, who participated in this study having different weight and height. All participants took part in the “Healthy Generation Program” held in Petaling Jaya in 2016. They were engaged three times per week for 24 weeks of STAxercise interventions. All participants completed the tests (i.e. flexibility & agility / dynamic balance) before and after the intervention. The results showed that the participants had increased in inches in terms of flexibility and reduced in time agility - dynamic balance after 24 weeks of intervention. The present study recommends STAxercise as another approach for elderly people to practice at home. Future research needs to investigate the effectiveness of STAxercise with different modes of exercises other than the effects on psychological states of the participants.
  2. Amir Bahram Kashiani, Kim, Geok Soh
    Movement Health & Exercise, 2019;8(2):153-163.
    It is generally accepted that the implementation of high intensity resistance training can lead to several physiological adaptations such as muscular strength. In recent years, many individuals have been attracted to weight training to increase muscular strength. One of the most important variables affecting muscular strength improvement is the training system. Two common resistance training systems are single set and multiple sets. Which training system is superior remains undetermined. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks single set versus multiple set resistance training on upper and lower body muscular strength among untrained male adults. Twenty four apparently healthy untrained males (age: 20.5 ± 1.8 years, body height: 174.9 ± 4.2 cm, body mass: 72.3 ± 3.2 kg, and body fat mass percentage: %18.2 ± 1.3) were selected randomly and assigned into two groups: single set (SS) and multiple sets (MS). Both groups completed 8 weeks of high intensity resistance training (70 80% of one repetition maximum) with 8 10 repetitions for 3 times per week which SS and MS groups performed one set and three sets of each exercise, respectively. Dependent variables involving maximal muscular strength using one
    repetition maximum were measured before and after the intervention. Significance level was set at P < 0.05. No differences existed among both groups at baseline for depended variables. A paired Student’s t test and an independent sample t test revealed significant increases in upper and lower body maximal muscular strength in both groups after the intervention (P < 0.05), and upper and lower body maximal muscular strength increased significantly more in MS group compared with SS group (%23.43 increase in MS group vs. %12.70 increase in SS group). The results of this study showed that MS resistance training had a significant better effect than SS resistance training to improve upper and lower body muscular strength after 8 weeks of resistance training among untrained male adults.
  3. Nor Sheila Majid, Noor Ezailina Badarudin, Nurul Ain Yahaya
    Visual functions deteriorate gradually during the normal aging process. As the number of older population increase rapidly, it is important to educate the senior citizens about the nature of age-related visual functions deterioration and their underlying mechanisms. This literature review compiles all the information concerning the changes in the visual system due to aging process, including: decrease of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, reduction of orientation discrimination sensitivity and motion direction detection, decline of binocular summation; information processing; visual field sensitivity; wavelength sensitivity; pupil size, and increased tear film evaporation and presbyopia.

  4. Doewes, Rumi Iqbal, Fadilah Umar, Manshuralhudroli
    Movement Health & Exercise, 2019;8(2):112-122.
    This research was based on the reality that there is no motor ability exercise model for football players with cerebral palsy. The coach has difficulty in handling the physical/motor ability issues, such as falling more easily, difficulty reversing and changing the direction quickly, less balance, and poor coordination. The main research problem is how to develop Motor Ability Exercise Model with Circuit Method for Indonesian CP football team. The research purpose was to produce a special circuit training model for CP football. The study design was used quasi experiment. The research subjects included 12 players of the Indonesian CP Football team for APG Malaysia 2017. The data collection technique used a modification of motor ability test and development (Research and Development). The research was started from November 2016 and has been completed in June 2017. The research result was the development of a motor ability exercise model with the Circuit Method for the Indonesian CP football team, which effectively improved the motor ability of the Indonesian CP Football Team in National Training for the 2017 ASEAN Paragames Malaysia. This included (1) a motor ability exercise model with circuit model for flexibility, (2) a motor ability exercise model with circuit model for strength (3) a motor ability exercise model with circuit model for balance and (4) motor ability exercise model with circuit model for coordination.
  5. Mohd Junaedy Osman, Wan Md. Zin Wan Yunus, Ong, Keat Khim, Jahwarhar Izuan Abd. Rashid
    This review summarizes the evolution that has been made for organophosphates (OPs) detection technique using conventional technique (lab-based) and compact technique (colorimetric and electrochemical). Right after introduction section, a first section covers the types, chemical structure and risks of OPs. Methods for detection using conventional and compact technique were discussed next. An additional section covers the limitation of conventional detection technique and advantages of compact detection technique are addressed. Several Tables are presented that give an overview on the OPs detection using conventional and compact detection technique. A concluding section addresses a brief idea on the detection method available nowadays.
  6. Nor Azliana Akmal Jamaludin, Mohd Nazri Ismail, Megat Fariz Azril Zuhairi
    Wireless Sensor Technologies (WST) is entering a new phase. Recent advances offer vast opportunities for research and development. On top of that, this is the consequence of the decreasing costs of ownership, the increase of smaller sensing devices in engineering and the achievements in radio frequency technology and digital circuits. The aim of this research was to combine the Wireless Sensor Network with ZigBee technology. It is expected to develop Haze Smart Greenhouse to control the temperature and humidity via remote automation. In addition, a GUI interface will be built to ease in controlling and managing the prototype through computer via wired and wireless technology. This Haze Smart Greenhouse prototype will be proposed to be developed and tested with operational via remote automation.
  7. Adlina Suleiman, Hanisah N., Nurul Syazana M. Z .C, Sughashini S., Nur Farah Zulaikha M. F., Lugovaa, Halyna, et al.
    Inappropriate use of antibiotics (AB) is a significant public health problem. Understanding the patterns of AB-taking behaviour helps in designing educational campaigns to curb the overuse of AB. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of AB usage among students and staff at the National Defence University of Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2018. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Data were described by frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to compare KAP levels between students and staff. The level of significance was established as p ≤ 0.05. This study revealed that fair level of knowledge about AB usage did not translate into positive attitudes and high levels of practices. Overall, students demonstrated poorer KAP regarding indiscriminate usage of AB than staff. Specifically, students had poorer knowledge about its role in ineffectiveness of treatment (p=0.013) and additional burden of medical cost to the patient (p=0.001). Additionally, students were more likely than staff to give the leftover AB to their friends if they become sick (p=0.024). The findings of this study may serve as a preliminary insight on the development of an effective intervention to improve attitudes and practices regarding AB usage.
  8. Nadira Syahira Daman, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Ibrahim Adham Taib, Norsham Ahmad
    Eye tracking is a technology used to track and record what the human eye perceives. It has been applied in detecting visual field loss, determining infant’s preferential looking and virtual reality therapy. In reading tasks, eye tracking needs to be accurate because even a substantial head movement can affect its fixation accuracy; as such, using a headrest can minimise head movements and the associated fixation errors. This experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of headrest usage on eye tracker fixation accuracy during reading aloud activity by comparing a group with headrest and a group without it. The results showed that the difference between the two groups was significant (p=0.004), where the headrest group and non-headrest group introduced a mean fixation error of 30.728 ± 15 mm and 17.671 ± 9 mm respectively. Eye tracking accuracy for the headrest group was then compared with a standard value of 0.6 degrees. The findings showed that the accuracy was significantly different (p
  9. Muhammad Aiman Ramlan, Mohammad Fitri Fahmi Mohd Arif, Mohd Zulfaezal Che, Azemin Norsham Ahmad
    Introduction: The purpose of the study was to compare the size of visual field in horizontal and vertical, peripheral retinal sensitivity at mid- and far-peripheral temporal viewing using different sizes of stimuli between football athletes and age-gender matched non-athlete subjects. Methods: The participants comprised 9 experienced male football (23.44 ± 2.74 years) players and the control group comprised 9 age-matched male non-athletes (23.33 ± 2.96 years). The parameters were measured using Oculus Twinfield automated perimeter. Horizontal and vertical size of visual field was measured using manual kinetic strategy. The mid-peripheral (60deg) and far-peripheral (90deg) temporal retinal sensitivity in different sizes of stimuli were measured using manual static strategy. The measurement of each test was repeated three times, and then the most reliable value was taken from the three readings. Results: The results from athletes and non-athletes did not differ in regards to peripheral visual attention in all measured parameters (p>0.05). However, athletes group showed slightly better results than non-athletes group. Conclusions: Improved visual performance in selected parameters among athlete group in this study supports previous studies with hypothesis of visual skill in athletes is better compared to non-athletes.
  10. Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Khairidzan Mohd Kamal, Mohd Hafidz Ithnin
    This study aimed compares the reliability of subjectively graded real-image pterygium based on its translucence appearance between experienced clinicians. Thirty (30) primary pterygium images from 30 pterygium patients were captured in a standardized magnification, illumination and formatting setting as previously described. All images were projected using PowerPoint presentation™ on liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor with standard resolution. Two experienced clinicians act as a grader and grade all images based on reference images provided. For reliability testing, intra-grader assessment was repeated twice with different sequence at least a month apart between each session. Both clinicians were given a set of 30 randomized pterygium images for all sessions. Reliability testing were evaluated using paired T-test and independent T-test. Descriptive analysis revealed observer 1 obtained mean grade of 2.33 (SD = 0.758) and 2.30 (SD = 0.837) for session 1 and 2 respectively. Observer 2 obtained 2.30 (SD = 0.702) and 2.17 (SD = 0.791) for session 1 and 2 respectively. Paired T-test results showed the difference for both observers were not statistically significant for both observer 1 and 2 (P = 0.662 and P = 0.293) respectively. Reproducibility testing using Independent T-test results showed the difference between observers was not statistically significant (P = 0.769). Subjectively graded pterygium clinical grading based on its translucence appearance was repeatable and reproducible. These findings could serve as basis for future work on to evaluate performance of pterygium clinical grading based on its morphology with different level of experience and larger number of samples.
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