MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.
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MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-six participants (58 males, 18 females) were recruited to participate in the study. Bilateral weight-bearing lateral radiographs of the right foot were taken from each participant. Navicular heights (NH), medial cuneiform height (MCH), calcaneal inclination angle (CIA) and calcaneal-first metatarsal angle (C1MA) were measured to represent the medial arch. The lateral arch was represented by cuboid height (CH) and calcaneal-fifth metatarsal angle (C5MA) whereas; MCH and CH represented the transverse arch. Mean difference of variables between males and females was compared using independent t-test while the correlation between the variables was determined using Pearson correlation.
RESULTS: All the variables were not significantly related to gender. Significant moderate to excellent linear correlations were observed between the variables. CIA showed the strongest correlation with C1MA (r = -0.90) and C5MA (r = -0.84) whereas, CH had the least correlation with other variables.
CONCLUSIONS: The moderate to excellent correlations between the variables indicate that deformation or elevation of the medial arch may consequently result in similar movements of the lateral and transverse arches and vice versa.
METHODS: The TNBS induced IBD Wistar rats were used as a model for the study. The microscopic and macroscopic parameters were studied in detail. Almost all the important IBD parameters were reported in this work.
RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the polysaccharides are efficient in carrying the drugs to the colon. Reduction in the level of ulcer index (UI), Myeloperoxidase (MPO), and Malondialdehyde MDA, confirmed the inhibitory activity on the development of Reactive oxygen species (ROS). The increased level of Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) an expression of colonic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was lowered in treatments as compared to TNBS control.
CONCLUSION: The different polymer-based mesalamine (DPBM) confirmed the efficient anti- inflammatory activity on IBD induced rats. The increased level of glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) also confirmed the effective anti-inflammatory effect. A significant decrease in the ulcer score and ulcer area was reported. The investigation revealed that chitosan is superior to pectin in IBD treatment likewise polysaccharide-based matrix systems are superior to the coated system.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study aimed to determine the most efficient and effective management of stagnant and shortage drugs by comparing three pharmacy logistic methods; the economic order quantity (EOQ), minimum-maximum stock level (MMSL), and the traditional consumption of drug inventory, at RA Basoeni Hospital, Mojokerto. Drug inventory was analyzed to calculate the opportunity loss, opportunity cost, and proportions of both stagnant and shortage drugs.
RESULTS: We found that EOQ and MMSL performed best for control of stagnant drugs and shortage drugs, respectively. Both methods had proved as effective pharmacy logistic planning. In addition, EOQ produced the lowest opportunity cost for stagnant drugs besides the lowest opportunity loss for shortage drugs.
CONCLUSION: The study concluded that EOQ is the most effective and efficient method to manage stagnant and shortage drugs at hospital pharmacy.