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MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open-access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by the Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, and Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included the Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Lee WC, Russell B, Sobota RM, Ghaffar K, Howland SW, Wong ZX, et al.
    Elife, 2020 Feb 18;9.
    PMID: 32066522 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.51546
    In malaria, rosetting is described as a phenomenon where an infected erythrocyte (IRBC) is attached to uninfected erythrocytes (URBC). In some studies, rosetting has been associated with malaria pathogenesis. Here, we have identified a new type of rosetting. Using a step-by-step approach, we identified IGFBP7, a protein secreted by monocytes in response to parasite stimulation, as a rosette-stimulator for Plasmodium falciparum- and P. vivax-IRBC. IGFBP7-mediated rosette-stimulation was rapid yet reversible. Unlike type I rosetting that involves direct interaction of rosetting ligands on IRBC and receptors on URBC, the IGFBP7-mediated, type II rosetting requires two additional serum factors, namely von Willebrand factor and thrombospondin-1. These two factors interact with IGFBP7 to mediate rosette formation by the IRBC. Importantly, the IGFBP7-induced type II rosetting hampers phagocytosis of IRBC by host phagocytes.
    MeSH terms: Culture Media; Erythrocytes/parasitology*; Humans; Ligands; Neutralization Tests; Phagocytosis*; Plasmodium falciparum/physiology*; Plasmodium vivax/physiology*; Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins/metabolism*
  2. Chua LL, Rajasuriar R, Lim YAL, Woo YL, Loke P, Ariffin H
    BMC Cancer, 2020 Feb 24;20(1):151.
    PMID: 32093640 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-020-6654-5
    BACKGROUND: Alteration in gut microbiota has been recently linked with childhood leukemia and the use of chemotherapy. Whether the perturbed microbiota community is restored after disease remission and cessation of cancer treatment has not been evaluated. This study examines the chronological changes of gut microbiota in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) prior to the start-, during-, and following cessation of chemotherapy.

    METHODOLOGY: We conducted a longitudinal observational study in gut microbiota profile in a group of paediatric patients diagnosed with ALL using 16 s ribosomal RNA sequencing and compared these patients' microbiota pattern with age and ethnicity-matched healthy children. Temporal changes of gut microbiota in these patients with ALL were also examined at different time-points in relation to chemotherapy.

    RESULTS: Prior to commencement of chemotherapy, gut microbiota in children with ALL had larger inter-individual variability compared to healthy controls and was enriched with bacteria belonging to Bacteroidetes phylum and Bacteroides genus. The relative abundance of Bacteroides decreased upon commencement of chemotherapy. Restitution of gut microbiota composition to resemble that of healthy controls occurred after cessation of chemotherapy. However, the microbiota composition (beta diversity) remained distinctive and a few bacteria were different in abundance among the patients with ALL compared to controls despite completion of chemotherapy and presumed restoration of normal health.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings in this pilot study is the first to suggest that gut microbiota profile in children with ALL remains marginally different from healthy controls even after cessation of chemotherapy. These persistent microbiota changes may have a role in the long-term wellbeing in childhood cancer survivors but the impact of these changes in subsequent health perturbations in these survivors remain unexplored.

    MeSH terms: Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics*; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use*; Bacteria/classification*; Bacteria/genetics; Child; Child, Preschool; Feces/microbiology; Female; Humans; Male; Phylogeny; Pilot Projects; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics*; Case-Control Studies; Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods; Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy; Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/microbiology*; Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/pathology
  3. Mancini MV, Herd CS, Ant TH, Murdochy SM, Sinkins SP
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2020 Mar;14(3):e0007926.
    PMID: 32155143 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007926
    The global incidence of arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, including dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika, has increased dramatically in recent decades. The release of Aedes aegypti carrying the maternally inherited symbiont Wolbachia as an intervention to control arboviruses is being trialled in several countries. However, these efforts are compromised in many endemic regions due to the co-localization of the secondary vector Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito. Ae. albopictus has an expanding global distribution following incursions into a number of new territories. To date, only the wMel and wPip strains of Wolbachia have been reported to be transferred into and characterized in this vector. A Wolbachia strain naturally infecting Drosophila simulans, wAu, was selected for transfer into a Malaysian Ae. albopictus line to create a novel triple-strain infection. The newly generated line showed self-compatibility, moderate fitness cost and complete resistance to Zika and dengue infections.
    MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology*; Aedes/virology*; Animals; Antibiosis*; Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control; Arboviruses/growth & development*; Drosophila/microbiology; Female; Male; Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control; Wolbachia/growth & development*; Wolbachia/isolation & purification; Mosquito Vectors/microbiology; Mosquito Vectors/virology
  4. Abdullah M, Alabduljalil T
    Retin Cases Brief Rep, 2024 May 01;18(3):400-403.
    PMID: 36728588 DOI: 10.1097/ICB.0000000000001399
    PURPOSE: To report a case of autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2A with novel retinal findings.

    METHODS: Case report.

    RESULTS: A 22-year-old female patient presented with a long-standing history of reduced visual acuity in her right eye. She has generalized redundant skin, downslanting of palpebral fissures, and long philtrum. Ophthalmic examination showed ptosis in her right eye and visual acuity of 20/2000 in the right eye and 20/30p in the left eye. Funduscopic examination showed a round macular scar lesion in the right eye macula and a chorioretinal scar superonasally in the left eye. Multimodal imaging showed macular atrophy in the right eye with speckled hypoautofluorescence of the described lesions. Genetic testing showed a homozygous splice acceptor variant of the ATP6V0A2 gene.

    CONCLUSION: The natural history of the presented pigmentary lesions is not known, and further follow-up is needed to assess any progressive nature. Our case adds to the variability of ophthalmic manifestations reported in autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2A and, therefore, to the importance of regular ophthalmic surveillance in patients with cutis laxa.

    MeSH terms: Female; Proton-Translocating ATPases/genetics; Humans; Retinal Diseases/diagnosis; Retinal Diseases/genetics; Visual Acuity; Young Adult
  5. Ladner J, Madi F, Jayasundera R, Saba J, Audureau E
    J Comp Eff Res, 2023 Jul;12(7):e220210.
    PMID: 37278943 DOI: 10.57264/cer-2022-0210
    Aim: Survival of patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma is lower in in low- and middle-income countries, but factors leading to these outcomes are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify predictive factors associated with overall survival among cancer patients undergoing therapy in seven low- and middle-income countries. Materials & methods: A multicenter cohort was conducted in Egypt, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, Thailand and Ukraine. Results. A total of 460 patients were included. Phone-based support during patient follow-up and number of patients seen by the physician provided a positive impact, while the number of adverse events remains a predictor of death and physician decision to stop treatment. Conclusion: Furthers research on the potential benefit of phone-based programs to support patients with chronic diseases treatments should be explored in less developed countries.
    MeSH terms: Developing Countries; Humans; Mexico/epidemiology; Peru/epidemiology; Thailand/epidemiology
  6. Schmidt F, Abdesselem HB, Suhre K, Vaikath NN, Sohail MU, Al-Nesf M, et al.
    Front Physiol, 2023;14:1203723.
    PMID: 37520825 DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2023.1203723
    Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) manifests many clinical symptoms, including an exacerbated immune response and cytokine storm. Autoantibodies in COVID-19 may have severe prodromal effects that are poorly understood. The interaction between these autoantibodies and self-antigens can result in systemic inflammation and organ dysfunction. However, the role of autoantibodies in COVID-19 complications has yet to be fully understood. Methods: The current investigation screened two independent cohorts of 97 COVID-19 patients [discovery (Disc) cohort from Qatar (case = 49 vs. control = 48) and replication (Rep) cohort from New York (case = 48 vs. control = 28)] utilizing high-throughput KoRectly Expressed (KREX) Immunome protein-array technology. Total IgG autoantibody responses were evaluated against 1,318 correctly folded and full-length human proteins. Samples were randomly applied on the precoated microarray slides for 2 h. Cy3-labeled secondary antibodies were used to detect IgG autoantibody response. Slides were scanned at a fixed gain setting using the Agilent fluorescence microarray scanner, generating a 16-bit TIFF file. Group comparisons were performed using a linear model and Fisher's exact test. Differentially expressed proteins were used for KEGG and WIKIpathway annotation to determine pathways in which the proteins of interest were significantly over-represented. Results and conclusion: Autoantibody responses to 57 proteins were significantly altered in the COVID-19 Disc cohort compared to healthy controls (p ≤ 0.05). The Rep cohort had altered autoantibody responses against 26 proteins compared to non-COVID-19 ICU patients who served as controls. Both cohorts showed substantial similarities (r 2 = 0.73) and exhibited higher autoantibody responses to numerous transcription factors, immunomodulatory proteins, and human disease markers. Analysis of the combined cohorts revealed elevated autoantibody responses against SPANXN4, STK25, ATF4, PRKD2, and CHMP3 proteins in COVID-19 patients. The sequences for SPANXN4 and STK25 were cross-validated using sequence alignment tools. ELISA and Western blot further verified the autoantigen-autoantibody response of SPANXN4. SPANXN4 is essential for spermiogenesis and male fertility, which may predict a potential role for this protein in COVID-19-associated male reproductive tract complications, and warrants further research.
  7. Magoon R, Suresh V
    Ann Surg Oncol, 2024 Jan;31(1):403-404.
    PMID: 37864120 DOI: 10.1245/s10434-023-14473-5
    MeSH terms: Female; Humans; Mastectomy; Anesthesiologists*
  8. Li J, Zhan JC, Xie CH, Han SY
    Front Public Health, 2023;11:1237241.
    PMID: 38074766 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1237241
    OBJECTIVES: The willingness of family members to take care of older relatives directly affects the quality of life of disabled older adults, so it is necessary to understand the status quo of willingness to care and its influencing factors. This has been extensively studied in other countries, but, it is rarely studied in China. Based on the theory of altruism, employing a unique sample from Shanghai, China in 2017 and 2022, we attempt to reveal the influencing factors of the care willingness of family caregivers during the transition period.

    METHODS: To measure caregiver burden and functional disability of the care recipient, we employ the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) and the Barthel Index, respectively. Then we utilized the ordinary least squares (OLS) methodology and estimated four regression models. Models 1, 2, and 3 examined the impact of the variables of the caregiver burden, responsibility and love, and the quality of the caregiver-caregiver recipient relationship, respectively, on family caregivers' willingness to care. Model 4 was the full model. To testify whether the caregiver burden is likely to act as a mediator, path analysis was used, and the path was adjusted and verified.

    RESULTS: According to the survey, in Shanghai, only half of the caregivers had a very high care willingness to care for disabled older relatives, while nearly one-tenth of the caregivers had a low willingness. It was the caregiver burden rather than the functional disability of older adults that harms family caregivers' willingness to care. Responsibility and caring out of love were positively related to care willingness. Relationship quality was the most important influencing factor, explaining 10.2% of the variance in care willingness. Path analysis demonstrated that responsibility, caring out of love, and relationship quality directly and through the mediation of caregiver burden indirectly affected care willingness.

    CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that reciprocal altruism presented by the quality of the caregiver-care recipient relationship had a significantly positive impact on family caregivers' willingness to care. In addition, the caregiver burden was found not only directly affected care willingness, but also acted as a mediator. To promote the perfection of laws and policies, comprehensive samples of different types of cities should be included and the measurement of key variables could be further improved in future studies.

    MeSH terms: Aged; Altruism; China; Disabled Persons*; Humans; Quality of Life*; Caregivers
  9. Zhou B, Mui LG
    J Clin Nurs, 2024 Jun;33(6):2362-2363.
    PMID: 38407407 DOI: 10.1111/jocn.17089
    MeSH terms: Humans; Students, Nursing/psychology
  10. Pan XH, Tan B, Chin YH, Lee ECZ, Kong G, Chong B, et al.
    Obesity (Silver Spring), 2024 May;32(5):840-856.
    PMID: 38413012 DOI: 10.1002/oby.24002
    OBJECTIVE: This network meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy and safety of tirzepatide compared to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) and other weight loss drugs in the treatment of overweight and obesity.

    METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched for randomized controlled trials on tirzepatide, GLP-1 RA, and weight loss drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. A network meta-analysis was performed, drawing direct and indirect comparisons between treatment groups. Network diagrams and surface under the cumulative ranking curve analysis were performed for primary (≥5%, ≥10%, ≥15%, absolute weight loss) and secondary outcomes and adverse effects.

    RESULTS: Thirty-one randomized controlled trials, involving more than 35,000 patients, were included in this study. Tirzepatide 15 mg ranked in the top three across weight-related parameters, glycemic profile (glycated hemoglobin), lipid parameters (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides), and blood pressure. Tirzepatide 15 mg had the highest efficacy compared with placebo for achieving ≥15% weight loss (risk ratio 10.24, 95% CI: 6.42-16.34). As compared to placebo, tirzepatide and GLP-1 RA across all doses had significant increases in gastrointestinal adverse effects.

    CONCLUSIONS: The superiority of tirzepatide and GLP-1 RA in inducing weight loss and their ability to target multiple metabolic parameters render them promising candidates in the treatment of patients with overweight and obesity.

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