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METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised controlled trial. We recruited diabetic patients aged > 18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class II-III, who were scheduled for unilateral diabetic foot surgery below the knee. All patients were assessed for autonomic dysfunction using the Survey of Autonomic Symptoms score. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either PNB or SAB for the surgery. Hemodynamic data, including usage of vasopressors, were recorded at 5-min intervals for up to 1 h after the induction of anesthesia. Pain scores were recorded postoperatively, and follow-up was done via telephone 6 months later.
RESULTS: Compared to the PNB group, the SAB group had a larger number of patients with significant hypotension (14 vs. 1; p = 0.001) and more patients who required vasopressor boluses (6 vs. 0 patients). Compared to SAB group, the patients in the PNB group had a longer postoperative pain-free duration (9 vs. 4.54 h; p = 0.002) and lower pain scores 1 day after surgery (3.63 vs. 4.69; p = 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Peripheral nerve block should be considered, whenever possible, as the first option of anesthesia for lower limb surgery in diabetic patients as it provides hemodynamic stability and superior postoperative pain control compared to SAB.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov. ID NCT02727348.
PURPOSE: This is a retrospective analytical study to determine the outcome of Multiple Myeloma patients who underwent ASCT in Ampang Hospital.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included a 5-year cohort of patients transplanted from 1st July 2014 to 30th June 2019. Data were obtained through electronic medical records. Prognostic factors for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using simple and multiple Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. All analyses were done using software R version 3.6.2 with validated statistical packages.
RESULTS: 139 patients were analyzed. The median age at transplant was 56 years old and 56.1% are males (n＝78). The most common subtype is IgG Kappa (n＝67, 48.2%). Only 93 patients in which the International Staging System (ISS) could be determined, and among them, 33.3% of patients (n＝31) have advanced stage Ⅲ disease. The most common induction received before ASCT was a bortezomib based regimen and/or an immunomodulatory (IMiD) based regimen. 63.3% of patients achieved at least a very good partial response (VGPR) before ASCT. Most patients received myeloablative conditioning (MAC) (n＝119, 85.6%). The mean cell dose is 3.68×106/kg. The median time to engraftment was 11 days for both platelet and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). With the median follow-up of 17.3 (range, 6.2-33.4) months, the median OS and PFS were not reached. The 1-year and 2-year PFS were 75% (95% CI 66-82%) and 52% (95% CI 42-62%), respectively. The 1-year and 2-year OS were 82% (95% CI 74-88%) and 70% (95% CI 60-78%), respectively. 6 patients (4.3%) had transplant-related mortality (TRM). IgA subtype was found to adversely affect PFS. Maintenance therapy and the absence of renal impairment was associated with better PFS and OS.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that ASCT following induction treatment is safe and beneficial to achieve a deeper remission status. In our study, the addition of maintenance therapy is associated with an improved outcome in PFS and OS.