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MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Gomez R, Stavropoulos V
    Assessment, 2020 12;27(8):1971-1984.
    PMID: 30003809 DOI: 10.1177/1073191118787284
    For a Malaysian sample, the current study used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to determine the best model for parent ratings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and then multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) to confirm this model, and to examine measurement invariance across different language versions (Malay and English), child's gender (boys and girls), informants (mothers and fathers), and racial groups (Malay, Chinese, and Indians). In all 1,407 Malaysian parents completed SDQ ratings of their children (age ranging from 5 to 13 years). The EFA showed most support for a two-factor model oblique model, with factors for a positive construal factor and a psychopathology factor. CFA confirmed this model, and MCFA showed full measurement invariance (configural, metric. and scalar) across the groups in the different comparisons. For all comparisons, there were equivalencies for latent mean scores. The implications of the findings for clinical and research practice involving the SDQ in Malaysia are discussed.
    MeSH terms: Child; Factor Analysis, Statistical; Fathers; Female; Humans; Language; Malaysia; Male; Men; Mothers; Parents; Psychopathology; Surveys and Questionnaires; Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  2. Tabet SM, Lambie GW, Jahani S, Rasoolimanesh SM
    Assessment, 2020 12;27(8):1731-1747.
    PMID: 30873844 DOI: 10.1177/1073191119834653
    The researchers examined the factor structure and model specifications of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) with confirmatory tetrad analysis (CTA) using partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) with a sample of adult clients (N = 298) receiving individual therapy at a university-based counseling research center. The CTA and PLS-SEM results identified the formative nature of the WHODAS 2.0 subscale scores, supporting an alternative measurement model of the WHODAS 2.0 scores as a second-order formative-formative model.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Counseling; Humans; Psychotherapy; Research Personnel; Universities; World Health Organization; Least-Squares Analysis
  3. Chung ELT, Jesse FFA, Marza AD, Ibrahim HH, Abba Y, Zamri-Saad M, et al.
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2019 Jul;51(6):1773-1782.
    PMID: 30919320 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-019-01870-w
    Sudden death is usually the main finding in field animals during haemorrhagic septicaemia outbreaks caused by Pasteurella multocida type B:2 that causes acute, fatal and septicaemic disease in cattle and buffaloes. This situation may be due to failure in early detection of the disease where early treatment of antibiotics may improve the prognosis of the animal and other surviving animals. Thus, there is a grey area on the knowledge on the potential usage of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins as early biomarkers in the diagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia. In addition, exploration of the cerebrospinal fluid during infection has never been studied before. Therefore, this study was designed to fill up the grey areas in haemorrhagic septicaemia research. Twenty-one buffalo calves were divided into seven treatment groups where group 1 was inoculated orally with 10 mL of sterile phosphate-buffered saline pH 7 which act as a negative control group. Groups 2 and 3 were inoculated orally and subcutaneously with 10 mL of 1012 colony-forming unit of P. multocida type B:2. Group 4 and 5 buffaloes were inoculated orally and intravenously with 10 mL of lipopolysaccharide broth. Groups 6 and 7 were administered orally and subcutaneously with 10 mL of outer membrane protein broth. During the post-infection period of 21 days, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were sampled for the analyses of pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute phase proteins and cytological examination. Buffalo calves infected with P. multocida and its immunogens via different routes of inoculation showed significant changes (p 
    MeSH terms: Acute-Phase Proteins/metabolism*; Animals; Buffaloes/blood*; Cattle; Hemorrhagic Septicemia/blood; Hemorrhagic Septicemia/veterinary*; Lipopolysaccharides; Pasteurella Infections/blood; Pasteurella Infections/veterinary*; Cytokines/blood*; Pasteurella multocida*
  4. Bomrungnok W, Arai T, Yoshihashi T, Sudesh K, Hatta T, Kosugi A
    Environ Technol, 2020 Nov;41(25):3318-3328.
    PMID: 30987543 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2019.1608314
    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a natural microbial polyester produced by a variety of bacteria and archaea from renewable resources. PHB resembles some petrochemical plastics but is completely biodegradable. It is desirable to identify suitable microbial strains and develop processes that can directly use starch from agricultural wastes without commercial amylase treatment. Here, PHB production using starch from agricultural waste was developed using a newly isolated strain, Bacillus aryabhattai T34-N4. This strain hydrolyzed cassava pulp and oil palm trunk starch and accumulated up to 17 wt% PHB of the cell dry weight. The α-amylase of this strain, AmyA, showed high activity in the presence of cassava pulp starch (69.72 U) and oil palm trunk starch (70.53 U). High expression of amyA was recorded in the presence of cassava pulp starch, whereas low expression was detected in the presence of glucose. These data suggest that starch saccharification by amyA allows strain T34-N4 to grow and directly produce PHB from waste starch materials such as cassava pulp and oil palm trunk starch, which may be used as low-cost substrates.
    MeSH terms: alpha-Amylases; Manihot*; Starch
  5. Praveena SM, Rashid U, Rashid SA
    Environ Technol, 2020 Nov;41(25):3363-3374.
    PMID: 31002023 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2019.1609590
    There is limited information on the optimal processes to remove heavy metals in greywater. A Response Surface Methodology (RSM) via the Box-Behnken Design (BBD) approach was applied in this study to investigate and optimise the process variables of activation time (1.5-2.5 h), impregnation ratio (0.25-0.75) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) percentage (20-60%) for the removal of heavy metal ions (Cd, Cu, Pb and Ni) associated with greywater treatment. The quadratic model was chosen to describe the effects of the process variables (activation time, impregnation ratio, ZnCl2 percentage) on predicting the responses (heavy metal ions removal) with low p-values (
    MeSH terms: Adsorption; Charcoal; Ions; Metals, Heavy*; Musa*
  6. Tong WT, Ng CJ, Lee YK, Lee PY
    J Eval Clin Pract, 2020 Jun;26(3):755-764.
    PMID: 31115132 DOI: 10.1111/jep.13161
    RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Few studies focus on patients' views on factors influencing implementation of patient decision aids (PDAs). This study aims to explore patients' views on the factors influencing implementation of an "insulin choice" PDA in a primary care setting.

    METHODS: This study used a descriptive qualitative study design. Interviews were conducted using a semistructured interview guide developed based on the theoretical domains framework. Nine in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted with patients with type 2 diabetes who have been advised to start insulin or were currently using insulin and those who had been seeking diabetes treatment in the clinic for more than 1 year. Interviews were conducted after the participants were familiarized with the PDA. Data were analysed using a thematic approach.

    RESULTS: Five themes emerged from the data analysis: (a) trust in the physician (patients preferred physicians to other health care providers in delivering the insulin PDA to them as they trusted physicians more when it comes to making decisions such as starting insulin), (b) physician's attitude (patients were more likely to trust a physician who is friendly and sympathetic hence would be more willing to use the insulin PDA), (c) physician's communication style (patients were more willing to use the insulin PDA if the physicians would take time and guide them in the PDA use), (d) conducive environment (patients preferred to read the PDA at home), and (e) cost (patients would not be willing to pay to use the insulin PDA unless they needed it).

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients want physicians to play a major role in the implementation of the insulin PDA; physicians' communication style and commitment may influence implementation outcomes. Health care authorities need to create a conducive environment and provide patients with free access to PDA to promote effective implementation.

    MeSH terms: Decision Support Techniques; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Humans; Insulin; Physician-Patient Relations; Physicians; Primary Health Care; Focus Groups; Qualitative Research; Insulin, Regular, Human
  7. Catapano M, Vergnano M, Romano M, Mahil SK, Choon SE, Burden AD, et al.
    J Invest Dermatol, 2020 04;140(4):816-826.e3.
    PMID: 31539532 DOI: 10.1016/j.jid.2019.08.444
    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disorder associated with severe systemic comorbidities. Whereas IL-36 is a key disease driver, the pathogenic role of this cytokine has mainly been investigated in skin. Thus, its effects on systemic immunity and extracutaneous disease manifestations remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the consequences of excessive IL-36 activity in circulating immune cells. We initially focused our attention on generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), a clinical variant associated with pervasive upregulation of IL-36 signaling. By undertaking blood and neutrophil RNA sequencing, we demonstrated that affected individuals display a prominent IFN-I signature, which correlates with abnormal IL-36 activity. We then validated the association between IL-36 deregulation and IFN-I over-expression in patients with severe psoriasis vulgaris (PV). We also found that the activation of IFN-I genes was associated with extracutaneous morbidity, in both GPP and PV. Finally, we undertook mechanistic experiments, demonstrating that IL-36 acts directly on plasmacytoid dendritic cells, where it potentiates toll-like receptor (TLR)-9 activation and IFN-α production. This effect was mediated by the upregulation of PLSCR1, a phospholipid scramblase mediating endosomal TLR-9 translocation. These findings identify an IL-36/ IFN-I axis contributing to extracutaneous inflammation in psoriasis.
    MeSH terms: Attention; Dendritic Cells; Humans; Inflammation; Neutrophils; Psoriasis; Skin; Up-Regulation; Cytokines; Sequence Analysis, RNA; Phospholipid Transfer Proteins; Toll-Like Receptor 9
  8. Abdul-Hamid NA, Abas F, Ismail IS, Tham CL, Maulidiani M, Mediani A, et al.
    Food Res Int, 2019 11;125:108565.
    PMID: 31554083 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108565
    Inflammation has been revealed to play a central role in the onset and progression of many illnesses. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics method was adopted to evaluate the effects of Phoenix dactylifera seeds, in particular the Algerian date variety of Deglet on the metabolome of the LPS-IFN-γ-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Variations in the extracellular and intracellular profiles emphasized the differences in the presence of tyrosine, phenylalanine, alanine, proline, asparagine, isocitrate, inosine and lysine. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed noticeable clustering patterns between the treated and induced RAW cells based on the metabolic profile of the extracellular metabolites. However, the effects of treatment on the intracellular metabolites appears to be less distinct as suggested by the PCA and heatmap analyses. A clear group segregation was observed for the intracellular metabolites from the treated and induced cells based on the orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) score plot. Likewise, 11 of the metabolites in the treated cells were significantly different from those in the induced groups, including amino acids and succinate. The enrichment analysis demonstrated that treatment with Deglet seed extracts interfered with the energy and of amino acids metabolism. Overall, the obtained data reinforced the possible application of Deglet seeds as a functional food with anti-inflammatory properties.
    MeSH terms: RAW 264.7 Cells; Animals; Lipopolysaccharides; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Seeds*; Principal Component Analysis; Mice; Metabolomics/methods*; Phoeniceae*; Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods*
  9. Fu C, Wai JW, Nik Mustapha NR, Irles M, Wong GL, Mahadeva S, et al.
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2020 Nov;18(12):2843-2845.e2.
    PMID: 31574313 DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2019.09.027
    Because only a minority of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have advanced fibrosis and would eventually develop liver-related complications, current guidelines recommend initial assessment with noninvasive tests of fibrosis.1-3 Most previous studies focused on overweight and obese patients. Despite a strong association between obesity and NAFLD, 3%-30% of people with relatively normal body mass index (BMI) may still have NAFLD.4,5 Hence, this study aims to evaluate the performance of the common noninvasive tests in non-obese (BMI <25 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) NAFLD patients.
    MeSH terms: Fibrosis; Humans; Obesity; Body Mass Index; Overweight; Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
  10. Musa KA, Ridzwan NFW, Mohamad SB, Tayyab S
    Biopolymers, 2020 Feb;111(2):e23337.
    PMID: 31691964 DOI: 10.1002/bip.23337
    The interaction between mefloquine (MEF), the antimalarial drug, and human serum albumin (HSA), the main carrier protein in blood circulation, was explored using fluorescence, absorption, and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. Quenching of HSA fluorescence with MEF was characterized as static quenching and thus confirmed the complex formation between MEF and HSA. Association constant values for MEF-HSA interaction were found to fall within the range of 3.79-5.73 × 104  M-1 at various temperatures (288, 298, and 308 K), which revealed moderate binding affinity. Hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions were predicted to connect MEF and HSA together in the MEF-HSA complex, as deduced from the thermodynamic data (ΔS = +133.52 J mol-1 K-1 and ΔH = +13.09 kJ mol-1 ) of the binding reaction and molecular docking analysis. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectral analysis pointed out alterations in the microenvironment around aromatic amino acid (tryptophan and tyrosine) residues of HSA consequent to the addition of MEF. Circular dichroic spectra of HSA in the wavelength ranges of 200-250 and 250-300 nm hinted smaller changes in the protein's secondary and tertiary structures, respectively, induced by MEF binding. Noncovalent conjugation of MEF to HSA bettered protein thermostability. Site marker competitive drug displacement results suggested HSA Sudlow's site I as the MEF binding site, which was also supported by molecular docking analysis.
    MeSH terms: Antimalarials/chemistry*; Circular Dichroism; Humans; Spectrometry, Fluorescence; Mefloquine/chemistry*; Molecular Docking Simulation*
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