MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.
Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.
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METHODS: Both ictal and interictal ESI were performed by the use of patient-specific realistic forward models and 3 different linear distributed inverse models. Lateralization as well as concordance between ESI-estimated focuses and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) focuses were assessed.
RESULTS: All the ESI focuses (both ictal and interictal) were found lateralized to the same hemisphere as ictal SPECT focuses. Lateralization results also were in agreement with the lesion sides as visualized on magnetic resonance imaging. Ictal ESI results, obtained from the best-performing inverse model, were fully concordant with the same cortical lobe as SPECT focuses, whereas the corresponding concordance rate is 87.50% in case of interictal ESI.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that ictal ESI gives fully lateralized and highly concordant results with ictal SPECT and may provide a cost-effective substitute for ictal SPECT.
NEW METHOD: In this study the presence of reactive astrocytes and NG2 proteoglycans was investigated in two ex vivo models of SCI; stab injury and transection injury. Stereological analysis to measure immunohistochemical staining was performed on the scar and injury zones to detect astrocytes and the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan NG2.
RESULTS: The volume fraction (Vv) of reactive astrocytes and NG2 proteoglycans increased significantly between day 3 and day 10 post injury in both ex vivo models. This data shows how ex vivo SCI models are a useful research tool allowing reduction of research cost and time involved in carrying out animal studies, as well as reducing the numbers of animals used.
COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD: This is the first evidence of an ex vivo stab injury model of SCI and also the first comparison of immunohistochemical staining for injury markers within stab injured and transection injured ex vivo slice cultures.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of organotypic slice culture models provide a simple way to study the cellular consequences following SCI and they can also be used as a platform for potential therapeutics regimes for the treatment of SCI.