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MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Mottalib A, Mohd-Yusof BN, Shehabeldin M, Pober DM, Mitri J, Hamdy O
    Nutrients, 2016 Jul 22;8(7).
    PMID: 27455318 DOI: 10.3390/nu8070443
    Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs) are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP) effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL) and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC) versus oatmeal (OM) on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG). After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose area under the curve (AUC0-240) after GL and UGC was lower than OM (p < 0.001 for both). Insulin positive AUC0-120 after UGC was higher than after OM (p = 0.02). GLP-1 AUC0-120 and AUC0-240 after GL and UGC was higher than after OM (p < 0.001 for both). FFA and TG levels were not different between meals. Intake of DSNFs improves PP glucose for 4 h in comparison to oatmeal of similar caloric level. This is achieved by either direct stimulation of insulin secretion or indirectly by stimulating GLP-1 secretion. The difference between their effects is probably related to their unique blends of amino acids, carbohydrates and fat.
    MeSH terms: Aged; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diet therapy*; Diet, Diabetic/methods; Diet, Reducing/methods; Dietary Carbohydrates/therapeutic use; Dietary Fats, Unsaturated/therapeutic use; Female; Food, Formulated*; Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated/analysis; Humans; Hyperglycemia/prevention & control*; Hyperinsulinism/prevention & control*; Hyperlipidemias/prevention & control*; Male; Middle Aged; Seeds/chemistry; Body Mass Index; Avena/chemistry; Cross-Over Studies; Glycemic Index; Overweight/complications; Overweight/diet therapy*; Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/blood; Meals
  2. Ioannis K, Ippokratis P, Nazzar T
    Malays Orthop J, 2016 Nov;10(3):58-59.
    PMID: 28553453 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1611.015
    Gout is a well known metabolic disorder characterized by the formation of urate crystals in joints resulting in recurrent attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis following which tophi can occur in joints or subcutaneous tissues. We report a rare localization of gouty tophi in a 52 years old male. The tophi had formed over the stainless steel implant used for the fixation of a lateral malleolus fracture 20 years ago.
    MeSH terms: Gout; Male; Metabolic Diseases; Stainless Steel; Uric Acid; Arthritis, Gouty; Subcutaneous Tissue; Ankle Fractures
  3. Mohamad NV, Ima-Nirwana S, Chin KY
    Aging Male, 2020 Dec;23(5):327-334.
    PMID: 29495911 DOI: 10.1080/13685538.2018.1446075
    This study aimed to compare the skeletal effect between GnRH agonist therapy and orchidectomy in male rats assessed using serum turnover markers and bone histomorphometry. Three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 46) were divided into three experimental arms, baseline, buserelin, and orchidectomy. In the buserelin arm, the rats received a daily subcutaneous injection of either normal saline or buserelin acetate at 25 µg/kg or 75 µg/kg. In the orchidectomy arm, the rats were either sham-operated or orchidectomized. The rats were euthanized after the three-month treatment. Blood was collected for the evaluation of bone turnover markers. Femurs were harvested for bone histomorphometry examination. A significant increase in serum C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen was observed in the orchidectomized group compared with the sham group (p 
    MeSH terms: Animals; Arm; Bone and Bones; Buserelin; Femur; Humans; Injections, Subcutaneous; Male; Orchiectomy; Osteoclasts; Osteolysis; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Collagen Type I; Rats; Cancellous Bone
  4. Kühn T, Stepien M, López-Nogueroles M, Damms-Machado A, Sookthai D, Johnson T, et al.
    J Natl Cancer Inst, 2020 05 01;112(5):516-524.
    PMID: 31435679 DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djz166
    BACKGROUND: Bile acids have been proposed to promote colon carcinogenesis. However, there are limited prospective data on circulating bile acid levels and colon cancer risk in humans.

    METHODS: Associations between prediagnostic plasma levels of 17 primary, secondary, and tertiary bile acid metabolites (conjugated and unconjugated) and colon cancer risk were evaluated in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Bile acid levels were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry in samples from 569 incident colon cancer cases and 569 matched controls. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for colon cancer risk across quartiles of bile acid concentrations.

    RESULTS: Positive associations were observed between colon cancer risk and plasma levels of seven conjugated bile acid metabolites: the primary bile acids glycocholic acid (ORquartile 4 vs quartile 1= 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52 to 3.26), taurocholic acid (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.23 to 2.58), glycochenodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.13 to 2.48), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.11 to 2.36), and glycohyocholic acid (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.13 to 2.40), and the secondary bile acids glycodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.54) and taurodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.31). By contrast, unconjugated bile acids and tertiary bile acids were not associated with risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study showed that prediagnostic levels of certain conjugated primary and secondary bile acids were positively associated with risk of colon cancer. Our findings support experimental data to suggest that a high bile acid load is colon cancer promotive.

    MeSH terms: Adult; Aged; Bile Acids and Salts/blood*; Colonic Neoplasms/blood*; Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis; Colonic Neoplasms/epidemiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Risk; Spain/epidemiology; Cohort Studies; Case-Control Studies
  5. Sien PLM, Jamaludin NIA, Samrin SNA, S NS, Ismail R, Anuar Zaini A, et al.
    J Health Psychol, 2020 08;25(9):1310-1318.
    PMID: 31755316 DOI: 10.1177/1359105319890397
    Adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus are prone to have eating problems. This study aimed to determine factors of eating problems among this population in University Malaya Medical Centre. Fifteen adolescents who scored more than 20 marks in the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey - Revised questionnaire were invited for an in-depth interview. Questions were asked based on their questionnaire's response. The interview sessions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was used. Five main themes emerged: pressure, physiological factor, psychological factor, patient's low compliances to insulin intake and food control and fear. Early referral to child psychologist would prevent it from developing.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Feeding and Eating Disorders/etiology*; Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology*; Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Patient Compliance; Surveys and Questionnaires; Qualitative Research*
  6. Cheah WY, Show PL, Yap YJ, Mohd Zaid HF, Lam MK, Lim JW, et al.
    Bioengineered, 2020 12;11(1):61-69.
    PMID: 31884878 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2019.1704536
    Chlorella sorokiniana CY-1 was cultivated using palm oil mill effluent (POME) in a novel-designed photobioreactor (NPBR) and glass-made vessel photobioreactor (PBR). The comparison was made on biomass and lipid productions, as well as its pollutants removal efficiencies. NPBR is transparent and is developed in thin flat panels with a high surface area per volume ratio. It is equipped with microbubbling and baffles retention, ensuring effective light and CO2 utilization. The triangular shape of this reactor at the bottom serves to ease microalgae cell harvesting by sedimentation. Both biomass and lipid yields attained in NPBR were 2.3-2.9 folds higher than cultivated in PBR. The pollutants removal efficiencies achieved were 93.7% of chemical oxygen demand, 98.6% of total nitrogen and 96.0% of total phosphorus. Mathematical model revealed that effective light received and initial mass contributes toward successful microalgae cultivation. Overall, the results revealed the potential of NPBR integration in Chlorella sorokiniana CY-1 cultivation, with an aim to achieve greater feasibility in microalgal-based biofuel real application and for environmental sustainability.
    MeSH terms: Biotechnology/instrumentation; Biotechnology/methods*; Chlorella/growth & development; Chlorella/metabolism*; Culture Media/metabolism; Lipids/biosynthesis*; Nitrogen/metabolism; Phosphorus/metabolism; Biomass; Biofuels/analysis; Microalgae/growth & development; Microalgae/metabolism*; Photobioreactors
  7. Tan JS, Lee SY, Chew KW, Lam MK, Lim JW, Ho SH, et al.
    Bioengineered, 2020 12;11(1):116-129.
    PMID: 31909681 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2020.1711626
    The richness of high-value bio-compounds derived from microalgae has made microalgae a promising and sustainable source of useful product. The present work starts with a review on the usage of open pond and photobioreactor in culturing various microalgae strains, followed by an in-depth evaluation on the common harvesting techniques used to collect microalgae from culture medium. The harvesting methods discussed include filtration, centrifugation, flocculation, and flotation. Additionally, the advanced extraction technologies using ionic liquids as extractive solvents applied to extract high-value bio-compounds such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and other bioactive compounds from microalgae biomass are summarized and discussed. However, more work needs to be done to fully utilize the potential of microalgae biomass for the application in large-scale production of biofuels, food additives, and nutritive supplements.
    MeSH terms: Culture Media; Plant Extracts/isolation & purification*; Plant Extracts/chemistry; Biomass; Ionic Liquids/chemistry; Biofuels/analysis; Microalgae/growth & development*; Microalgae/metabolism; Microalgae/chemistry*
  8. Fachal L, Aschard H, Beesley J, Barnes DR, Allen J, Kar S, et al.
    Nat Genet, 2020 01;52(1):56-73.
    PMID: 31911677 DOI: 10.1038/s41588-019-0537-1
    Genome-wide association studies have identified breast cancer risk variants in over 150 genomic regions, but the mechanisms underlying risk remain largely unknown. These regions were explored by combining association analysis with in silico genomic feature annotations. We defined 205 independent risk-associated signals with the set of credible causal variants in each one. In parallel, we used a Bayesian approach (PAINTOR) that combines genetic association, linkage disequilibrium and enriched genomic features to determine variants with high posterior probabilities of being causal. Potentially causal variants were significantly over-represented in active gene regulatory regions and transcription factor binding sites. We applied our INQUSIT pipeline for prioritizing genes as targets of those potentially causal variants, using gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci), chromatin interaction and functional annotations. Known cancer drivers, transcription factors and genes in the developmental, apoptosis, immune system and DNA integrity checkpoint gene ontology pathways were over-represented among the highest-confidence target genes.
    MeSH terms: Bayes Theorem; Breast Neoplasms/genetics*; Chromosome Mapping/methods*; Female; Humans; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid; Risk Factors; Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics*; Linkage Disequilibrium; Genetic Predisposition to Disease*; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*; Quantitative Trait Loci*; Genome-Wide Association Study*
  9. Taghizadeh SM, Berenjian A, Chew KW, Show PL, Mohd Zaid HF, Ramezani H, et al.
    Bioengineered, 2020 12;11(1):141-153.
    PMID: 31994978 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2020.1718477
    Cell immobilization on the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and magnetic harvesting is a novel approach for microalgal cells separation. To date, the effect of these nanoparticles on microalgal cells was only studied over a short period of time. More studies are hence needed for a better understanding of the magnetic harvesting proposes or environmental concerns relating to long-term exposure to nanoparticles. In this study, the impact of various concentrations of MNPs on the microalgal cells growth and their metabolic status was investigated over 12 days. More than 60% reduction in mitochondrial activity and pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids) content occurred during the first 6 days of exposure to ≥50 µg/mL nanoparticles. However, more than 50% growth inhibitory effect was seen at concentrations higher than 400 µg/mL. Exposure to MNPs gradually induced cellular adaptation and after about 6 days of exposure to stress generating concentrations (˂400 µg/mL) of IONs, microalgae could overcome the imposed damages. This work provides a better understanding regarding the environmental impact of MNPs and appropriate concentrations of these particles for future algal cells magnetic immobilization and harvesting.
    MeSH terms: Chlorophyll/analysis; Chlorophyll/metabolism; Cells, Immobilized/metabolism; Cells, Immobilized/chemistry; Chlorella vulgaris/growth & development; Chlorella vulgaris/metabolism; Chlorella vulgaris/chemistry*; Nanoparticles/chemistry*; Microalgae/growth & development; Microalgae/metabolism; Microalgae/chemistry; Magnetic Phenomena
  10. Abdul-Latif NS, Ong MY, Nomanbhay S, Salman B, Show PL
    Bioengineered, 2020 12;11(1):154-164.
    PMID: 32013677 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2020.1718471
    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission will increase due to the increasing global plastic demand. Statistical data shows that plastic production alone will contribute to at least 20% of the annual global carbon budget in the near future. Hence, several alternative methods are recommended to overcome this problem, such as bio-product synthesis. Algae consist of diverse species and have huge potential to be a promising biomass feedstock for a range of purposes, including bio-oil production. The convenient cultivation method of algae could be one of the main support for algal biomass utilization. The aim of this study is to forecast and outline the strategies in order to meet the future demand (year 2050) of plastic production and, at the same time, reduce CO2 emission by replacing the conventional plastic with bio-based plastic. In this paper, the analysis for 25%, 50% and 75% CO2 reduction has been done by using carbon emission pinch analysis. The strategies of biomass utilization in Malaysia are also enumerated in this study. This study suggested that the algal biomass found in Malaysia coastal areas should be utilized and cultivated on a larger scale in order to meet the increasing plastic demand and, at the same time, reduce carbon footprint. Some of the potential areas for macroalgae sea-farming cultivation in Sabah coastline (Malaysia), comprised of about 3885 km2 (388,500 ha) in total, have been highlighted. These potential areas have the potential to produce up to 14.5 million tonnes (Mt)/y of macroalgae in total, which can contribute 370 Mt of phenol for bioplastic production.
    MeSH terms: Carbon Dioxide/analysis*; Carbon Dioxide/metabolism; Environmental Monitoring; Malaysia; Seaweed/growth & development; Seaweed/metabolism*; Biomass; Biofuels
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