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  1. GBD 2016 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators
    Lancet, 2017 Sep 16;390(10100):1211-1259.
    PMID: 28919117 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32154-2
    BACKGROUND: As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016.
    METHODS: We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death rates for each condition. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies if incidence or prevalence needed to be derived from other data. YLDs were estimated as the product of prevalence and a disability weight for all mutually exclusive sequelae, corrected for comorbidity and aggregated to cause level. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. GBD 2016 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER).
    FINDINGS: Globally, low back pain, migraine, age-related and other hearing loss, iron-deficiency anaemia, and major depressive disorder were the five leading causes of YLDs in 2016, contributing 57·6 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 40·8-75·9 million [7·2%, 6·0-8·3]), 45·1 million (29·0-62·8 million [5·6%, 4·0-7·2]), 36·3 million (25·3-50·9 million [4·5%, 3·8-5·3]), 34·7 million (23·0-49·6 million [4·3%, 3·5-5·2]), and 34·1 million (23·5-46·0 million [4·2%, 3·2-5·3]) of total YLDs, respectively. Age-standardised rates of YLDs for all causes combined decreased between 1990 and 2016 by 2·7% (95% UI 2·3-3·1). Despite mostly stagnant age-standardised rates, the absolute number of YLDs from non-communicable diseases has been growing rapidly across all SDI quintiles, partly because of population growth, but also the ageing of populations. The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years. Age-standardised YLD rates for all conditions combined were 10·4% (95% UI 9·0-11·8) higher in women than in men. Iron-deficiency anaemia, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, major depressive disorder, anxiety, and all musculoskeletal disorders apart from gout were the main conditions contributing to higher YLD rates in women. Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual violence. Globally, we noted much less geographical variation in disability than has been documented for premature mortality. In 2016, there was a less than two times difference in age-standardised YLD rates for all causes between the location with the lowest rate (China, 9201 YLDs per 100 000, 95% UI 6862-11943) and highest rate (Yemen, 14 774 YLDs per 100 000, 11 018-19 228).
    INTERPRETATION: The decrease in death rates since 1990 for most causes has not been matched by a similar decline in age-standardised YLD rates. For many large causes, YLD rates have either been stagnant or have increased for some causes, such as diabetes. As populations are ageing, and the prevalence of disabling disease generally increases steeply with age, health systems will face increasing demand for services that are generally costlier than the interventions that have led to declines in mortality in childhood or for the major causes of mortality in adults. Up-to-date information about the trends of disease and how this varies between countries is essential to plan for an adequate health-system response.
    FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health.
    Malaysian collaborators: School of Medicine, Xiamen University Malaysia Campus, Sepang, Malaysia (Y J Kim PhD); School of Medical Sciences, University of Science Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia (K I Musa MD); Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (R Sahathevan PhD); Department of Community Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (C T Sreeramareddy MD)
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Cause of Death/trends*; Child; Child, Preschool; Communicable Diseases/mortality; Female; Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data*; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Middle Aged; Global Health/statistics & numerical data; Wounds and Injuries/mortality; Incidence; Prevalence; Age Distribution; Sex Distribution; Young Adult; Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data*
  2. GBD 2016 Causes of Death Collaborators
    Lancet, 2017 Sep 16;390(10100):1151-1210.
    PMID: 28919116 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32152-9
    BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends.
    METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year. YLLs were calculated from the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. We used the GBD cause of death database composed of: vital registration (VR) data corrected for under-registration and garbage coding; national and subnational verbal autopsy (VA) studies corrected for garbage coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specific causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes) by location and year. Based on completeness, garbage coding, cause list detail, and time periods covered, we provided an overall data quality rating for each location with scores ranging from 0 stars (worst) to 5 stars (best). We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to generate estimates for each location, year, age, and sex. We assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific deaths in relation to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility, with locations grouped into quintiles by SDI. Relative to GBD 2015, we expanded the GBD cause hierarchy by 18 causes of death for GBD 2016.
    FINDINGS: The quality of available data varied by location. Data quality in 25 countries rated in the highest category (5 stars), while 48, 30, 21, and 44 countries were rated at each of the succeeding data quality levels. Vital registration or verbal autopsy data were not available in 27 countries, resulting in the assignment of a zero value for data quality. Deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represented 72·3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 71·2-73·2) of deaths in 2016 with 19·3% (18·5-20·4) of deaths in that year occurring from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases and a further 8·43% (8·00-8·67) from injuries. Although age-standardised rates of death from NCDs decreased globally between 2006 and 2016, total numbers of these deaths increased; both numbers and age-standardised rates of death from CMNN causes decreased in the decade 2006-16-age-standardised rates of deaths from injuries decreased but total numbers varied little. In 2016, the three leading global causes of death in children under-5 were lower respiratory infections, neonatal preterm birth complications, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma, combined resulting in 1·80 million deaths (95% UI 1·59 million to 1·89 million). Between 1990 and 2016, a profound shift toward deaths at older ages occurred with a 178% (95% UI 176-181) increase in deaths in ages 90-94 years and a 210% (208-212) increase in deaths older than age 95 years. The ten leading causes by rates of age-standardised YLL significantly decreased from 2006 to 2016 (median annualised rate of change was a decrease of 2·89%); the median annualised rate of change for all other causes was lower (a decrease of 1·59%) during the same interval. Globally, the five leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were cardiovascular diseases; diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; neoplasms; neonatal disorders; and HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. At a finer level of disaggregation within cause groupings, the ten leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, road injuries, malaria, neonatal preterm birth complications, HIV/AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of total YLLs in 113 countries for men and 97 countries for women. Comparisons of observed levels of YLLs by countries, relative to the level of YLLs expected on the basis of SDI alone, highlighted distinct regional patterns including the greater than expected level of YLLs from malaria and from HIV/AIDS across sub-Saharan Africa; diabetes mellitus, especially in Oceania; interpersonal violence, notably within Latin America and the Caribbean; and cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, particularly in eastern and central Europe. The level of YLLs from ischaemic heart disease was less than expected in 117 of 195 locations. Other leading causes of YLLs for which YLLs were notably lower than expected included neonatal preterm birth complications in many locations in both south Asia and southeast Asia, and cerebrovascular disease in western Europe.
    INTERPRETATION: The past 37 years have featured declining rates of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases across all quintiles of SDI, with faster than expected gains for many locations relative to their SDI. A global shift towards deaths at older ages suggests success in reducing many causes of early death. YLLs have increased globally for causes such as diabetes mellitus or some neoplasms, and in some locations for causes such as drug use disorders, and conflict and terrorism. Increasing levels of YLLs might reflect outcomes from conditions that required high levels of care but for which effective treatments remain elusive, potentially increasing costs to health systems.
    FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    Malaysian collaborators: School of Medicine, Xiamen University Malaysia Campus, Sepang, Malaysia (Y J Kim PhD); School of Medical Sciences, University of Science Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia (K I Musa MD); Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (R Sahathevan PhD); Department of Community Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (C T Sreeramareddy MD)
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Cause of Death/trends*; Child; Child, Preschool; Communicable Diseases/mortality; Disasters/statistics & numerical data; Female; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Middle Aged; Nutrition Disorders/mortality; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications/mortality; Socioeconomic Factors; Global Health/statistics & numerical data; Wounds and Injuries/mortality; Age Distribution; Young Adult; Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data*
  3. GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators
    Lancet, 2016 Oct 08;388(10053):1459-1544.
    PMID: 27733281 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1
    BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures.
    METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography-year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation processes, as well as data sources, in accordance with Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER).
    FINDINGS: Globally, life expectancy from birth increased from 61·7 years (95% uncertainty interval 61·4-61·9) in 1980 to 71·8 years (71·5-72·2) in 2015. Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy from 2005 to 2015, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence. From 2005 to 2015, male life expectancy in Syria dropped by 11·3 years (3·7-17·4), to 62·6 years (56·5-70·2). Total deaths increased by 4·1% (2·6-5·6) from 2005 to 2015, rising to 55·8 million (54·9 million to 56·6 million) in 2015, but age-standardised death rates fell by 17·0% (15·8-18·1) during this time, underscoring changes in population growth and shifts in global age structures. The result was similar for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with total deaths from these causes increasing by 14·1% (12·6-16·0) to 39·8 million (39·2 million to 40·5 million) in 2015, whereas age-standardised rates decreased by 13·1% (11·9-14·3). Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardised death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, gains largely attributable to decreases in mortality rates due to HIV/AIDS (42·1%, 39·1-44·6), malaria (43·1%, 34·7-51·8), neonatal preterm birth complications (29·8%, 24·8-34·9), and maternal disorders (29·1%, 19·3-37·1). Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders. Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. In 2015, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus) was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to diarrhoea (146 000 deaths, 118 000-183 000) and pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to lower respiratory infections (393 000 deaths, 228 000-532 000), although pathogen-specific mortality varied by region. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI. Country patterns of premature mortality (measured as years of life lost [YLLs]) and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases caused the most YLLs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with observed YLLs far exceeding expected YLLs for countries in which malaria or HIV/AIDS remained the leading causes of early death.
    INTERPRETATION: At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems.
    FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    Malaysian collaborators: Southern University College, Skudai, Malaysia (Y J Kim PhD); School of Medical Sciences, University of Science Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia (K I Musa MD); Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (R Sahathevan PhD); Department of Community Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (C T Sreeramareddy MD); WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia (A L Thorne-Lyman ScD)
    MeSH terms: Cause of Death*; Communicable Diseases/epidemiology; Humans; Life Expectancy/trends*; Mortality/trends; Global Health; Mortality, Premature
  4. Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators
    Lancet, 2015 Aug 22;386(9995):743-800.
    PMID: 26063472 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60692-4
    BACKGROUND: Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013.
    METHODS: Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries.
    FINDINGS: Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2·4 billion and 1·6 billion, respectively. The distribution of the number of sequelae in populations varied widely across regions, with an expected relation between age and disease prevalence. YLDs for both sexes increased from 537·6 million in 1990 to 764·8 million in 2013 due to population growth and ageing, whereas the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114·87 per 1000 people to 110·31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated the main drivers of increases were due to musculoskeletal, mental, and substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases; however HIV/AIDS was a notable driver of increasing YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the proportion of disability-adjusted life years due to YLDs increased globally from 21·1% in 1990 to 31·2% in 2013.
    INTERPRETATION: Ageing of the world's population is leading to a substantial increase in the numbers of individuals with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Rates of YLDs are declining much more slowly than mortality rates. The non-fatal dimensions of disease and injury will require more and more attention from health systems. The transition to non-fatal outcomes as the dominant source of burden of disease is occurring rapidly outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results can guide future health initiatives through examination of epidemiological trends and a better understanding of variation across countries.
    FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    Malaysian collaborators: Department of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia (Prof N Mohamed Ibrahim MBBch); Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia (R Sahathevan PhD); Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Tunku Abdul Rahman, Selangor, Malaysia (C T Sreeramareddy MD); WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia (A L Thorne-Lyman ScD); TCM Medical TK SDN BHD TCM, Nusajaya, Johor Bahru, Malaysia (K Yun Kin PhD)
    MeSH terms: Acute Disease/epidemiology*; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Child; Child, Preschool; Chronic Disease/epidemiology*; Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data; Female; Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data*; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Middle Aged; Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data; Global Health/statistics & numerical data; Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology*; Incidence; Prevalence; Cost of Illness; Age Distribution; Sex Distribution; Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data; Young Adult; Neglected Diseases/epidemiology
  5. Gendeh HS, Hashim ND, Mohammad Yunus MR, Gendeh BS, Kosai NR
    ANZ J Surg, 2018 09;88(9):937-938.
    PMID: 27122196 DOI: 10.1111/ans.13624
    MeSH terms: Aged; Barium/adverse effects*; Contrast Media/adverse effects*; Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis; Deglutition Disorders/etiology; Humans; Male; Pneumonia, Aspiration/etiology*; Tracheostomy/methods; X-Rays; Fatal Outcome; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/ethnology
  6. Suh GH, Gega L
    Int Psychogeriatr, 2017 05;29(5):707-708.
    PMID: 28351451 DOI: 10.1017/S1041610217000333
    Among the one million suicide deaths worldwide each year, as many as 60% occur in Asia. The World Health Organization (WHO) found higher suicide rates among the elderly in rapidly industrialized Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore, compared to the corresponding rates of recently industrializing Asian countries like Vietnam and Sri Lanka (WHO, 2014). As a case in point, suicide rates in South Korea have been the highest in the world since 2003 and are rising especially among older people (Hong and Knapp, 2014). Suicide attempts and older age are strong predictors of completed suicide (Szanto et al., 2002; Simon et al., 2013) and, as such, are important in guiding our efforts for suicide prevention; however, most epidemiological studies focus on completed suicides across all ages rather than understanding the reasons behind suicide attempts in older populations.
    MeSH terms: Aged; Aged, 80 and over; China; Cross-Sectional Studies; Far East; Hong Kong; Humans; Japan; Malaysia; Risk Factors; Singapore; Suicide, Attempted*; Prevalence; Republic of Korea
  7. Abdul Rani KN, Abdulmalek M, A Rahim H, Siew Chin N, Abd Wahab A
    Sci Rep, 2017 04 20;7:46521.
    PMID: 28425443 DOI: 10.1038/srep46521
    This research proposes the various versions of modified cuckoo search (MCS) metaheuristic algorithm deploying the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA) multiobjective (MO) optimization technique in rectangular array geometry synthesis. Precisely, the MCS algorithm is proposed by incorporating the Roulette wheel selection operator to choose the initial host nests (individuals) that give better results, adaptive inertia weight to control the positions exploration of the potential best host nests (solutions), and dynamic discovery rate to manage the fraction probability of finding the best host nests in 3-dimensional search space. In addition, the MCS algorithm is hybridized with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and hill climbing (HC) stochastic techniques along with the standard strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA) forming the MCSPSOSPEA and MCSHCSPEA, respectively. All the proposed MCS-based algorithms are examined to perform MO optimization on Zitzler-Deb-Thiele's (ZDT's) test functions. Pareto optimum trade-offs are done to generate a set of three non-dominated solutions, which are locations, excitation amplitudes, and excitation phases of array elements, respectively. Overall, simulations demonstrates that the proposed MCSPSOSPEA outperforms other compatible competitors, in gaining a high antenna directivity, small half-power beamwidth (HPBW), low average side lobe level (SLL) suppression, and/or significant predefined nulls mitigation, simultaneously.
    MeSH terms: Algorithms; Humans; Hybridization, Genetic; Probability
  8. Lee WK, Namasivayam P, Ong Abdullah J, Ho CL
    Sci Rep, 2017 04 24;7:46563.
    PMID: 28436444 DOI: 10.1038/srep46563
    Seaweeds survive in marine waters with high sulfate concentration compared to those living at freshwater habitats. The cell wall polymer of Gracilaria spp. which supplies more than 50% of the world agar is heavily sulfated. Since sulfation reduces the agar quality, it is interesting to investigate the effects of sulfate deprivation on the sulfate contents of seaweed and agar, as well as the metabolic pathways of these seaweeds. In this study, two agarophytes G. changii and G. salicornia were treated under sulfate deprivation for 5 days. The sulfate contents in the seaweed/agar were generally lower in sulfate-deprivated samples compared to those in the controls, but the differences were only statistically significant for seaweed sample of G. changii and agar sample of G. salicornia. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of sulfate-deprivated and untreated seaweed samples revealed 1,292 and 3,439 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; ≥1.5-fold) in sulfate-deprivated G. changii and G. salicornia, respectively, compared to their respective controls. Among the annotated DEGs were genes involved in putative agar biosynthesis, sulfur metabolism, metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, carbon metabolism and oxidative stress. These findings shed light on the sulfate deprivation responses in agarophytes and help to identify candidate genes involved in agar biosynthesis.
  9. Alshaibani M, Zin NM, Jalil J, Sidik N, Ahmad SJ, Kamal N, et al.
    J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2017 07 28;27(7):1249-1256.
    PMID: 28535606 DOI: 10.4014/jmb.1608.08032
    In our search for new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites from Streptomyces sp., the ethyl acetate extracts from endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 afforded five active diketopiperazine (DKP) compounds. The aim of this study was to characterize the bioactive compounds isolated from endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 and evaluate their bioactivity against multiple drug resistance (MDR) bacteria such as Enterococcus raffinosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp., and their cytotoxic activities against the human hepatoma (HepaRG) cell line. The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thornton's medium. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and cryopreserved HepaRG cells were selected to test the cytotoxicity. The results showed that endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 produces four active DKP compounds and an acetamide derivative, which were elucidated as cyclo-(L-Val-L-Pro), cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Pro), cyclo-(L-Phe-L-Pro), cyclo-(L-Val-L-Phe), and N-(7-hydroxy-6-methyl-octyl)-acetamide. These active compounds exhibited activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 and Enterococcus raffinosus, with low toxicity against human hepatoma HepaRG cells. Endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 has the ability to produce DKP derivatives biologically active against some MDR bacteria with relatively low toxicity against HepaRG cells line.
    MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology*; Bacteria/drug effects*; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Cytotoxins/isolation & purification; Cytotoxins/pharmacology*; Cytotoxins/chemistry; Humans; Peptides, Cyclic/isolation & purification; Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology; Peptides, Cyclic/chemistry; Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects; Streptomyces/chemistry*; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial; Diketopiperazines/isolation & purification*; Diketopiperazines/pharmacology*; Diketopiperazines/chemistry; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects; Endophytes/chemistry; Secondary Metabolism
  10. Gan YL, Fu JY, Lai OM, Chew BH, Yuen KH, Teng KT, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 09 14;7(1):11542.
    PMID: 28912593 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-11813-w
    Tocotrienols, the unsaturated form of vitamin E, were reported to modulate platelet aggregation and thrombotic mechanisms in pre-clinical studies. Using a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved cartridge-based measurement system, a randomised, double-blind, crossover and placebo-controlled trial involving 32 metabolic syndrome adults was conducted to investigate the effect of palm-based tocotrienols and tocopherol (PTT) mixture supplementation on platelet aggregation reactivity. The participants were supplemented with 200 mg (69% tocotrienols and 31% α-tocopherol) twice daily of PTT mixture or placebo capsules for 14 days in a random order. After 14 days, each intervention was accompanied by a postprandial study, in which participants consumed 200 mg PTT mixture or placebo capsule after a meal. Blood samples were collected on day 0, day 14 and during postprandial for the measurement of platelet aggregation reactivity. Subjects went through a 15-day washout period before commencement of subsequent intervention. Fasting platelet aggregation reactivity stimulated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) did not show substantial changes after supplementation with PTT mixture compared to placebo (p = 0.393). Concomitantly, changes in postprandial platelet aggregation reactivity remained similar between PTT mixture and placebo interventions (p = 0.408). The results of this study highlight the lack of inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation after short-term supplementation of PTT mixture in participants with metabolic syndrome.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Double-Blind Method; Female; Humans; Malaysia; Male; Middle Aged; Placebos/administration & dosage; Platelet Aggregation/drug effects*; Treatment Outcome; Dietary Supplements*; Tocopherols/administration & dosage*; Tocotrienols/administration & dosage*; Metabolic Syndrome X/pathology*; Metabolic Syndrome X/therapy*; Phytochemicals/administration & dosage*
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