MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

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  1. Nor Azlida Mohd Nor
    Fluorosis is important to measure because it is a condition that can be used as biomarker for the level
    of fluoride exposure during enamel formation. Increased and decreased in fluorosis prevalence may also reflect
    to the different ways of measuring the disease. The choice of measuring fluorosis is depends on the objective of
    the assessment such as assessing public health significant of fluorosis in the population or assessing the detailed
    of biological effects of fluoride. These differences in requirement have led to the adoption of many indices and
    assessment methods of enamel fluorosis, which subsequently led to evaluation of examiner agreement between
    them. Several indices were developed to measure dental fluorosis in the 20th century. These include fluorosis
    specific indices such as Dean’s Index; the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index; the Total Tooth Surface Index; and the
    Fluorosis Risk Index. Non-specific descriptive indices such as the Developmental Defects of Enamel index have
    also been used to record fluorosis. Fluorosis has most commonly been recorded using clinical examinations and
    photographs. Recent developments have seen the use of a Visual Analog Scale and automated grading systems
    such as Quantitative Light Fluorescence emerge as possible enhancements to fluorosis scoring. This article aims
    to review existing indices and new methods in measuring dental fluorosis, together with examiner reliability
    across different methods and indices.
  2. Mohd Safwani Affan Alli Awang Talip, Ahmad Shuhud Irfani Zakaria, Sockalingam, S. Nagarajan M.P.
    Archives of Orofacial Sciences, 2017;12(2):95-104.
    The present study compared and evaluated the shear bond strength (SBS) of two types of glass
    ionomer cement (GIC), Riva Self Cure HVTM (SDI Ltd., Victoria, Australia) and GC Fuji IX GP EXTRATM (GC
    America Inc., Alsip, USA) with and without the use of Riva Bond LCTM (SDI Ltd., Victoria, Australia), a lighted
    cured resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) universal adhesive. Sixty extracted sound premolars with
    prepared exposure of the dentine on the occlusal surface were randomly assigned into four groups according to
    the tested restorative materials. Shear bond strength (SBS) tests were performed by using the Shimadzu
    Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute, and the values obtained were statistically
    analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. The inter-group comparison showed statistically significant
    differences in the SBS values between all the test groups (p < 0.001). A stereomicroscope was used to assess
    the modes of failure. Adhesive failures were predominant in adhesive groups (>80%) compared to higher
    cohesive failures found in the non-adhesive groups (>86%). A Spearman's rho correlation test performed to
    determine the association between SBS values and mode of failures had indicated positive correlations between
    the adhesive failure and SBS values in the adhesive groups (rs=0.86, p
  3. Lim, Daniel, Wei, Cheong Ngeow
    Archives of Orofacial Sciences, 2017;12(2):105-109.
    Surgical ciliated cyst of the maxilla is a rare complication following surgical procedures or trauma
    involving the maxillary sinus. It can occur at any time after any procedures or trauma involving the maxillary
    sinus even though many years have lapsed. Clinically it may mimic other cysts of the maxillary sinus
    therefore a thorough history taking is necessary for diagnosis. Treatment is usually by enucleation or
    marsupialisation. This report highlighted a case of surgical ciliated cyst involving the right maxillary sinus
    probably secondary to maxillary sinus procedures, which were performed 30 years prior to presentation.
  4. Buzayan, Muaiyed Mahmoud, Omar Tawfiq, Choudhary, Suchismita, Sivakumara, Indumathi, Norsiah Yunus, Elkezza, Aeman
    Archives of Orofacial Sciences, 2017;12(2):110-113.
    Prosthodontic rehabilitation and management of microstomia patient presents challenges at all stages
    during prosthesis fabrication; from making primary impressions to the prostheses insertion. These patients have
    reduced mouth opening, and hence it can be extremely challenging to make impressions and to fabricate
    dentures using the conventional methods. The present case report describes prosthodontic management of a
    partially dentate patient with microstomia that developed secondary to surgical resection and radiation therapy of
    head and neck cancer. A simplified novel approach has been advocated using the patient’s existing metal
    removable partial denture as a key in master cast preparation.
  5. Nur Eliana Ahmad Tarmizi, Periasamy, Chenthilnathan, Singh, Avatar Singh Mohan, Irfan Mohamad
    Archives of Orofacial Sciences, 2017;12(2):114-117.
    Foreign bodies (FB) are most often lodged in the upper digestive tract and amongst the common
    encounter in outpatient clinic. In most instances, the ingested FB passes uneventfully through the
    gastrointestinal tract without any harm but in certain cases, it can migrate extraluminally and lead to serious
    complication. Long standing migrated FB can cause devastating complications like neck abscess and
    injuries to the major blood vessels. In the present case, a wooden toothpick had migrated to the soft tissue
    of the neck. A careful and detailed history with clinical-radiographic investigation helped to locate the
    ingested FB and aided in its successful removal.
  6. Srichan W, Thasanasuwan W, Kijboonchoo K, Rojroongwasinkul N, Wimonpeerapattana W, Khouw I, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2016 08;70(8):894-7.
    PMID: 26508460 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.180
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is used to measure bone quality and is known to be safe, radiation free and relatively inexpensive compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) that is considered the gold standard for bone status assessments. However, there is no consensus regarding the validity of QUS for measuring bone status. The aim of this study was to compare QUS and DXA in assessing bone status in Thai children.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 181 Thai children (90 boys and 91 girls) aged 6 to 12 years were recruited. Bone status was measured by two different techniques in terms of the speed of sound (SOS) using QUS and bone mineral density (BMD) using DXA. Calcium intake was assessed by 24 h diet recall. Pearson's correlation, κ-statistic and Bland and Altman analysis were used to assess the agreement between the methods.

    RESULTS: There was no correlation between the two different techniques. Mean difference (s.d.) of the Z-scores of BMD and SOS was -0.61 (1.27) that was different from zero (P<0.05). Tertiles of Z-scores of BMD and QUS showed low agreement (κ 0.022, P=0.677) and the limits of agreement in Bland and Altman statistics were wide.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although QUS is easy and convenient to use, the SOS measurements at the radius seem not appropriate for assessing bone quality status.

    MeSH terms: Child; Female; Humans; Male; Thailand; Ultrasonography/methods; Ultrasonography/statistics & numerical data*; Reproducibility of Results; Absorptiometry, Photon/methods; Absorptiometry, Photon/statistics & numerical data*; Bone Density*
  7. Engku Fatimah Syairah Engku Safruddin, Wan Zainira Wan Zain, Bhavaraju, Venkata Murali Krishna, Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj
    Given that the germline mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer genetic susceptibility to cancer, the
    genetic variations, polymorphisms or mutations are widely analyzed in Western countries. However, in Asian
    population, the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 polymorphisms is very limited. In Asia, breast cancer occurs in
    women early with an age of onset under 50 years. This review comprises the incidence of BRCA1 and BRCA2
    polymorphisms in the Japanese, Korean and Malaysian population. Founder mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2
    were also compared to mark the genetic difference in these populations. The mutational analysis performed to
    analyze the entire coding region of BRCA1 and BRCA2 include the next generation sequencing and full
    sequencing of all exons and intron-exon junctions. From the diagnosis of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC)
    patients, TNBC is associated with the lack of tailored therapies and the treatment option available for TNBC
    patients is mainly chemotherapy. The poor prognosis of TNBC leads to determine the predictive biomarkers in
    order to develop treatment efficacy. This review will address the current clinical therapies available to treat TNBC
    MeSH terms: Asia; Exons; Female; Humans; Introns; Prognosis; Biomarkers; Incidence; Prevalence; Treatment Outcome; Germ-Line Mutation; BRCA1 Protein; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; BRCA2 Protein; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
  8. Firouzi S, Majid HA, Ismail A, Kamaruddin NA, Barakatun-Nisak MY
    Eur J Nutr, 2017 Jun;56(4):1535-1550.
    PMID: 26988693 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-016-1199-8
    AIM: Evidence of a possible connection between gut microbiota and several physiological processes linked to type 2 diabetes is increasing. However, the effect of multi-strain probiotics in people with type 2 diabetes remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of multi-strain microbial cell preparation-also refers to multi-strain probiotics-on glycemic control and other diabetes-related outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes.

    DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, controlled clinical trial.

    SETTING: Diabetes clinic of a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 136 participants with type 2 diabetes, aged 30-70 years, were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either probiotics (n = 68) or placebo (n = 68) for 12 weeks.

    OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes were glycemic control-related parameters, and secondary outcomes were anthropomorphic variables, lipid profile, blood pressure and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium quantities were measured before and after intervention as an indicator of successful passage of the supplement through gastrointestinal tract.

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed on all participants, while per-protocol (PP) analysis was performed on those participants who had successfully completed the trial with good compliance rate.

    RESULTS: With respect to primary outcomes, glycated hemoglobin decreased by 0.14 % in the probiotics and increased by 0.02 % in the placebo group in PP analysis (p 

    MeSH terms: Gastrointestinal Microbiome; Adult; Aged; Bifidobacterium; Blood Glucose/metabolism*; C-Reactive Protein/metabolism; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy*; Diet; Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage; Dietary Fats/administration & dosage; Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage; Double-Blind Method; Female; Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated/metabolism; Humans; Insulin/blood; Lactobacillus; Malaysia; Male; Middle Aged; Exercise; Treatment Outcome; Probiotics/administration & dosage*
  9. Othman SA, Aidil Koay NA
    Sci Rep, 2016 08 10;6:31335.
    PMID: 27507713 DOI: 10.1038/srep31335
    We analyzed the facial features of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a normal control group using a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry camera. This cross-sectional study examined 3D measurements of the facial surfaces of 20 Chinese children with repaired UCLP and 40 unaffected Chinese children aged 7 to 12 years old, which were captured using the VECTRA 3D five-pod photosystem and analyzed using Mirror software. Twenty-five variables and two ratios were compared between both groups using independent t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using ten randomly selected images and analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC). The level of significance was set at p 
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