MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.
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METHODS: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the anti-inflammatory activity of S. ferruginea parasitising on three different hosts of Vitex negundo L., Micromelum minutum (G. Forst.) Wight & Arn. and Tecoma stans (L.) Juss ex HBK., as well as, to determine the metabolite differences related to their anti-inflammatory properties.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two plant parts of S. ferruginea, stems and leaves, were extracted in water. The freeze-dried stem of S. ferruginea grown on T. stans was liquid-liquid partitioned into several solvents. Their potential anti-inflammatory activity was assessed via inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The metabolite variation was examined using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR) combined with multivariate data analysis (MVDA).
RESULTS: Scurrula ferruginea stems parasitising on T. stans and V. negundo which were freeze dried exhibited higher anti-inflammatory activity with IC50 values of 114.47 ± 2.96 and 118.87 ± 2.31 μg/mL, respectively. The mid-polar ethyl acetate fraction of S. ferruginea hosted on T. stans displayed the highest NO inhibition with 84.80 ± 0.45% at 200 μg/mL. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated notable and clear discriminations among the different plant parts and host plants based on the identified metabolites. Furthermore, partial least squares (PLS) regression model suggested the anti-inflammatory bioactivity might be associated with the presence of choline, isoleucine, catechin, leucine and chlorogenic acid.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests S. ferruginea could serve as a potential anti-inflammatory agent, highlighting the importance of T. stans as the host plant.