MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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    Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci., 1963 Dec 10;159:220-45.
    PMID: 14087992
    MeSH terms: Africa; Austria; Belgium; Family*; Family Characteristics*; Family Planning Services*; Fertility*; Great Britain; Guyana; Humans; India; Infant; Infant Mortality*; Malaysia; Norway; Puerto Rico; Sri Lanka; United States; Vital Statistics*; Wales; West Indies
  2. Peters W
    Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci., 1976 Sep 28;275(941):439-82.
    PMID: 10589
    The primary objective of this project was to study the life cycle and ecology of Plasmodium pitheci, a malaria parasite of the orang-utan. The field work was based on the orang-utan rehabilitation centre in the Sepilok Forest Reserve of eastern Sabah. Two visits were made to Sepilok, the first in February and March, 1972, and the second (by W.P.) in January 1974. On the first visit two species of "surrogate host" were taken to Sabah, i.e. chimpanzees and Aotus monkeys for experimental work. The arboreal habitat of the orang-utan in the dipterocarp forests of eastern Sabah is described. In the Sepilok Forest Reserve dwell gibbons and leaf-monkeys, in addition to a small population of semi-domesticated and wild, free-ranging orang-utans of various ages. Although numerous species of anopheline mosquitoes have been collected in eastern Sabah, longitudinal studies are not available. Anopheles balabacensis was caught both attracted to orang-utans and to man at Sepilok. This species which is the main vector of human malaria in the north of Borneo, is suspected also of transmitting orang-utan malaria in this part of Sabah. Repeated blood examinations have been made on a number of orang-utans in the centre since 1966 and a high prevalence of infection was recorded with Plasmodium pitheci. In 1966 10 out of 19 animals had demonstrable parasitaemia. Detailed case histories are presented to show the course of parasitaemia in several orang-utans. Infections of P. pitheci were found to run a very chronic course. During the 1972 expedition a second, previously undescribed malaria parasite of the orang-utan was discovered, and was named P. silvaticum. The new parasite was successfully transmitted both by blood inoculation and, later, by sporozoite inoculation, into splenectomized chimpanzees. Although both species of malaria parasite may cause transitory signs of illness, orang-utans in general appear to be little discomforted by the infection. The animals do however suffer from other infectious diseases such as amoebic and balantidial dysentery, and melioidosis is a serious natural hazard which may have accounted for several deaths of wild orang-utans. An unidentified, intraerythrocytic structure that appeared in the blood of one chimpanzee, which had been inoculated with blood from an orang-utan, may have contributed to its death. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of P. pitheci and P. silvaticum are given. All stages of the life cycle of P. silvaticum are known (the tissue stages having been described in the liver of a "surrogate host", the chimpanzee) but only the blood and sporogonic stages of P. pitheci have been seen. This species was not infective to a chimpanzee, although there is an earlier report of a transient infection in this host by other workers. In the blood both parasites showed a tertian periodicity. From the appearance of the tissue schizonts on the seventh day it was estimated that the complete pre-erythrocytic cycle of P. silvaticum in the chimpanzee would occupy 8 days. P...
    MeSH terms: Animals; Anopheles; Borneo; Environment; Erythrocyte Inclusions/ultrastructure; Biological Evolution; Hylobates/parasitology; Malaria/transmission; Malaria/veterinary*; Methods; Plasmodium/cytology; Plasmodium/growth & development; Plasmodium/isolation & purification; Species Specificity
  3. Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS
    Molecules, 2011 Dec 28;17(1):248-66.
    PMID: 22205091 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17010248
    Evidence shows that honey improves glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Besides its hypoglycemic effect, studies indicate that honey ameliorates lipid abnormalities in rats and humans with diabetes. The majority of these studies do not examine the mechanisms by which honey ameliorates glycemic and/or lipid derangements. The gut microbiota is now recognized for its ability to increase energy harvest from the diet and alter lipid metabolism of the host. Recently available data implicate a causal role of these gut microbes in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. In this review, we present some of the latest findings linking gut microbiota to pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. The review also underlines data that demonstrate the beneficial effects of oligosaccharides on various abnormalities commonly associated with these disorders. Based on the similarities of some of these findings with those of honey, together with the evidence that honey contains oligosaccharides, we hypothesize that oligosaccharides present in honey might contribute to the antidiabetic and other health-related beneficial effects of honey. We anticipate that the possibility of oligosaccharides in honey contributing to the antidiabetic and other health-related effects of honey will stimulate a renewed research interest in this field.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Appetite Regulation/drug effects; Blood Glucose/drug effects; Body Weight/drug effects; Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism; Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated/metabolism; Honey*; Humans; Hypoglycemic Agents/metabolism*; Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology; Insulin Resistance; Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism; Intestines/drug effects; Intestines/microbiology; Oligosaccharides/metabolism*; Oligosaccharides/pharmacology; Pancreas/drug effects; Pancreas/metabolism; Pancreatic Hormones/metabolism; Lipid Metabolism/drug effects; Metagenome/drug effects; Metagenome/physiology
  4. Muktar MR, Osman N, Awang K, Hazni H, Qureshi AK, Hadi AH, et al.
    Molecules, 2011 Dec 28;17(1):267-74.
    PMID: 22205092 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17010267
    A new indole alkaloid; neonaucline (1), along with six known compounds-Cadamine (2), naucledine (3), harmane, benzamide, cinnamide and blumenol A-were isolated from the leaves of Ochreinauclea maingayii (Rubiaceae). In addition to that of compound 1, (13)C-NMR data of cadamine (2) and naucledine (3) were also reported. Structural elucidations of these alkaloids were performed using spectroscopic methods especially 1D- and 2D-NMR, IR, UV and LCMS-IT-TOF. The excellent vasorelaxant activity on isolated rat aorta was observed for the alkaloids 1-3 after injection of each sample at 1 × 10(-5) M.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Aorta/drug effects; Vasodilator Agents/isolation & purification; Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology; Vasodilator Agents/chemistry; Plant Leaves/chemistry*; Rubiaceae/chemistry*; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular; Indole Alkaloids/isolation & purification; Indole Alkaloids/pharmacology; Indole Alkaloids/chemistry*; Rats
  5. Abd Elgadir M, Akanda MJ, Ferdosh S, Mehrnoush A, Karim AA, Noda T, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Jan 09;17(1):584-97.
    PMID: 22231495 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17010584
    A binary mixture of starch-starch or starch with other biopolymers such as protein and non-starch polysaccharides could provide a new approach in producing starch-based food products. In the context of food processing, a specific adjustment in the rheological properties plays an important role in regulating production processing and optimizing the applicability, stability, and sensory of the final food products. This review examines various biopolymer mixtures based on starch and the influence of their interaction on physicochemical and rheological properties of the starch-based foods. It is evident that the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of the biopolymers mixture are highly dependent on the type of starch and other biopolymers that make them up mixing ratios, mixing procedure and presence of other food ingredients in the mixture. Understanding these properties will lead to improve the formulation of starch-based foods and minimize the need to resort to chemically modified starch.
    MeSH terms: Whey Proteins; Biopolymers/chemistry*; Carbohydrate Conformation; Caseins/chemistry; Colloids/chemistry; Flour; Food Technology; Milk Proteins/chemistry; Plant Extracts/chemistry*; Plants/chemistry; Starch/chemistry*; Viscosity; Complex Mixtures/chemistry
  6. Mohammed IA, Hamidi RM
    Molecules, 2012 Jan 10;17(1):645-56.
    PMID: 22233565 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17010645
    The phenolic Schiff bases I-VI were synthesized by condensation reactions between various diamines, namely o-dianisidine, o-tolidine and ethylenediamine with vanillin or p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and subsequent reactions between these phenolic Schiff bases and epichlorohydrin to produce new diglycidyl ethers Ia-VIa. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by CHN, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Their thermotropic liquid crystalline behavior was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). All the diglycidyl ethers prepared exhibit nematic mesophases, except for Va and VIa, which did not show any transition mesophases, but simply flow to liquids.
    MeSH terms: Calorimetry, Differential Scanning; Diglycerides/chemical synthesis*; Diglycerides/chemistry; Ethers/chemical synthesis*; Ethers/chemistry; Microscopy, Polarization; Phenols/chemical synthesis*; Phenols/chemistry; Schiff Bases/chemical synthesis*; Schiff Bases/chemistry; Molecular Structure; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared; Liquid Crystals/chemistry*
  7. Khalil MI, Sulaiman SA, Alam N, Moniruzzaman M, Bai'e S, Man CN, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Jan 11;17(1):674-87.
    PMID: 22237682 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17010674
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of evaporation, gamma irradiation and temperature on the total polyphenols, flavonoids and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities of Tualang honey samples (n = 14) following storage over three, six or twelve months. The mean polyphenol concentrations of the six gamma irradiated honey samples at three, six and twelve months, respectively, were 96.13%, 98.01% and 102.03% higher than the corresponding values of the eight non-gamma irradiated samples. Similarly, the mean values for flavonoids at three, six and twelve months were 111.52%, 114.81% and 110.04% higher, respectively, for the gamma irradiated samples. The mean values for DPPH radical-scavenging activities at three, six and twelve months were also 67.09%, 65.26% and 44.65% higher, respectively, for the gamma irradiated samples. These data indicate that all gamma irradiated honey samples had higher antioxidant potential following gamma irradiation, while evaporation and temperature had minor effects on antioxidant potential.
    MeSH terms: Antioxidants/radiation effects; Antioxidants/chemistry; Biphenyl Compounds/chemistry; Desiccation; Flavonoids/chemistry; Gamma Rays*; Honey/analysis; Honey/radiation effects*; Picrates/chemistry; Free Radical Scavengers/radiation effects*; Free Radical Scavengers/chemistry; Polyphenols/chemistry; Food Storage*
  8. Liew SY, Mukhtar MR, Hadi AH, Awang K, Mustafa MR, Zaima K, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Apr 02;17(4):4028-36.
    PMID: 22469596 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17044028
    A new indole alkaloid, naucline (1) together with four known alkaloids, angustine (2), angustidine (3), nauclefine (4) and naucletine (5), were isolated from the bark of Nauclea officinalis. The structures of all isolated compounds were elucidated with various spectroscopic methods such as 1D- and 2D- NMR, IR, UV and LCMS-IT-TOF. In addition to that of alkaloid 1, the complete 13C-NMR data of naucletine (5) were also reported. Naucline (1) showed a moderate vasorelaxant activity (90% relaxation at 1 × 10(-5) M) whereas, angustine (2), nauclefine (4), and naucletine (5) showed potent vasorelaxant activity (more than 90% relaxation at 1 × 10(-5) M) on an isolated rat aorta.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects; Male; Models, Molecular; Vasodilator Agents/isolation & purification; Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology; Vasodilator Agents/chemistry*; Rats, Wistar; Rubiaceae/chemistry*; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular; Plant Bark/chemistry*; Indole Alkaloids/isolation & purification; Indole Alkaloids/pharmacology; Indole Alkaloids/chemistry*; Rats; In Vitro Techniques
  9. Mollataghi A, Hadi AH, Cheah SC
    Molecules, 2012 Apr 05;17(4):4197-208.
    PMID: 22481540 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17044197
    A new dienamide, (2E,4E)-7-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-ethyl-6-(R)-hydroxyhepta- 2,4-dienamide, named (-)-kunstleramide (1), were isolated from the bark of Beilschmiedia kunstleri Gamble together with one neolignan: (+)-kunstlerone (2) and seven known alkaloids: (+)-nornuciferine (3), (-)-isocaryachine (4), (+)-cassythicine (5), (+)-laurotetanine (6), (+)-boldine (7), noratherosperminine (8), (+)-N-demethylphyllocaryptine (9). Their structures were established from spectroscopic techniques, most notably 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV, IR, OR, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and LCMS-IT-TOF. (-)-Kunstleramide (1) exhibited very poor dose-dependent inhibition of DPPH activity, with an IC₅₀ value of 179.5 ± 4.4 μg/mL, but showed a moderate cytotoxic effect on MTT assays of A375, A549, HT-29, PC-3 and WRL-68 with EC₅₀ values of 64.65, 44.74, 55.94, 73.87 and 70.95 µg/mL, respectively.
    MeSH terms: Amides/pharmacology*; Amides/chemistry; Antioxidants/analysis; Antioxidants/pharmacology*; Antioxidants/chemistry; Cell Line; Cell Survival/drug effects; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Humans; Models, Molecular; Plant Extracts/analysis; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plant Extracts/chemistry; Lauraceae/chemistry*; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular; Plant Bark/chemistry*
  10. Afzan A, Abdullah NR, Halim SZ, Rashid BA, Semail RH, Abdullah N, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Apr 10;17(4):4326-42.
    PMID: 22491681 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17044326
    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.
    MeSH terms: Administration, Oral; Animals; Female; Male; Plant Extracts/administration & dosage; Plant Extracts/toxicity*; Plant Extracts/chemistry; Time Factors; Toxicology; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Plant Leaves/chemistry*; Carica/chemistry*; Rats
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