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MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Romano V, Cruciani M, Conti L, Fontana L
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2016 12 02;12:CD011308.
    PMID: 27911983 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011308.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Pterygium, a growth of the conjunctiva over the cornea, is a progressive disease leading in advanced stages to visual impairment, restriction of ocular motility, chronic inflammation and cosmetic concerns. Surgical removal is the treatment of choice, but recurrence can be a problem. Currently the best surgical option in terms of recurrence is conjunctival autograft. To date the most common surgical methods of attaching conjunctival autografts to the sclera are through suturing or fibrin glue. Each method presents its own advantages and disadvantages. Sutures require considerable skill from the surgeon and can be associated with a prolonged operation time, postoperative discomfort and suture-related complications, whereas fibrin glue may give a decreased operation time, improve postoperative comfort and avoid suture-related problems.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of fibrin glue compared to sutures in conjunctival autografting for the surgical treatment of pterygium.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2016), Embase (January 1980 to October 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 14 October 2016.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any setting where fibrin glue was compared with sutures to treat people with pterygium.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the search results, assessed trial quality, and extracted data using standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Our primary outcome was recurrence of pterygium defined as any re-growth of tissue from the area of excision across the limbus onto the cornea. The secondary outcomes were surgical time and complication rate. We graded the certainty of the evidence using GRADE.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included 14 RCTs conducted in Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Sweden and Turkey. The trials were published between 2004 and 2016, and were assessed as a mixture of unclear and low risk of bias with three studies at high risk of attrition bias. Only adults were enrolled in these studies.Using fibrin glue for the conjunctival autograft may result in less recurrence of pterygium compared with using sutures (risk ratio (RR) 0.47, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.82, 762 eyes, 12 RCTs; low-certainty evidence). If pterygium recurs after approximately 10 in every 100 surgeries with sutures, then using fibrin glue may result in approximately 5 fewer cases of recurrence in every 100 surgeries (95% CI 2 fewer to 7 fewer cases). Using fibrin glue may lead to more complications compared with sutures (RR 1.92; 95% CI 1.22 to 3.02, 11 RCTs, 673 eyes, low-certainty evidence). The most common complications reported were: graft dehiscence, graft retraction and granuloma. On average using fibrin glue may mean that surgery is quicker compared with suturing (mean difference (MD) -17.01 minutes 95% CI -20.56 to -13.46), 9 RCTs, 614 eyes, low-certainty evidence).

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analyses, conducted on people with pterygium in a hospital or outpatient setting, show fibrin glue may result in less recurrence and may take less time than sutures for fixing the conjunctival graft in place during pterygium surgery. There was low-certainty evidence to suggest a higher proportion of complications in the fibrin glue group.

    MeSH terms: Conjunctiva/transplantation*; Humans; Pterygium/prevention & control; Pterygium/surgery*; Recurrence; Sutures*; Tissue Adhesives/adverse effects; Tissue Adhesives/therapeutic use*; Transplantation, Autologous; Fibrin Tissue Adhesive/adverse effects; Fibrin Tissue Adhesive/therapeutic use*; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Secondary Prevention/methods*; Autografts*
  2. Costas L, Lujan-Barroso L, Benavente Y, Allen NE, Amiano P, Ardanaz E, et al.
    Am J Epidemiol, 2019 02 01;188(2):274-281.
    PMID: 30481275 DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy259
    The role of hormonal factors in the etiology of lymphoid neoplasms remains unclear. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results, have lacked sufficient statistical power to assess many lymphoma subtypes, or have lacked detailed information on relevant exposures. Within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we analyzed comprehensive data on reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use collected at baseline (1992-2000) among 343,458 women, including data on 1,427 incident cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and its major subtypes identified after a mean follow-up period of 14 years (through 2015). We estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable proportional hazards modeling. Overall, we observed no statistically significant associations between parity, age at first birth, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, or ever use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of B-cell NHL or its subtypes. Women who had undergone surgical menopause had a 51% higher risk of B-cell NHL (based on 67 cases) than women with natural menopause (hazard ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.94). Given that this result may have been due to chance, our results provide little support for the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in lymphomagenesis.
    MeSH terms: Breast Feeding; Europe/epidemiology; Female; Humans; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Estrogen Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data*; Proportional Hazards Models; Women's Health; Lymphoma, B-Cell/epidemiology*; Reproductive History*
  3. Vallance TM, Ravishankar D, Albadawi DAI, Layfield H, Sheard J, Vaiyapuri R, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 12 03;9(1):18258.
    PMID: 31796818 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-54617-w
    Platelets are small circulating blood cells that play essential roles in the maintenance of haemostasis via blood clotting. However, they also play critical roles in the regulation of innate immune responses. Inflammatory receptors, specifically Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, have been reported to modify platelet reactivity. A plethora of studies have reported controversial functions of TLR4 in the modulation of platelet function using various chemotypes and preparations of its ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The method of preparation of LPS may explain these discrepancies however this is not fully understood. Hence, to determine the impact of LPS on platelet activation, we used ultrapure preparations of LPS from Escherichia coli (LPSEC), Salmonella minnesota (LPSSM), and Rhodobacter sphaeroides (LPSRS) and examined their actions under diverse experimental conditions in human platelets. LPSEC did not affect platelet activation markers such as inside-out signalling to integrin αIIbβ3 or P-selectin exposure upon agonist-induced activation in platelet-rich plasma or whole blood whereas LPSSM and LPSRS inhibited platelet activation under specific conditions at supraphysiological concentrations. Overall, our data demonstrate that platelet activation is not largely influenced by any of the ultrapure LPS chemotypes used in this study on their own except under certain conditions.
    MeSH terms: Blood Platelets/drug effects; Blood Platelets/immunology; Blood Platelets/metabolism; Escherichia coli; Humans; Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology*; Platelet Aggregation/drug effects; Rhodobacter sphaeroides; Salmonella; Platelet Activation/drug effects*; Platelet Activation/immunology; NF-kappa B/metabolism; Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
  4. Butt J, Jenab M, Pawlita M, Tjønneland A, Kyrø C, Boutron-Ruault MC, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2020 07;29(7):1475-1481.
    PMID: 32332031 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-1545
    BACKGROUND: While Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric cancer, it has also been suggested to be involved in colorectal cancer development. However, prospective studies addressing H. pylori and colorectal cancer are sparse and inconclusive. We assessed the association of antibody responses to H. pylori proteins with colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    METHODS: We applied H. pylori multiplex serology to measure antibody responses to 13 H. pylori proteins in prediagnostic serum samples from 485 colorectal cancer cases and 485 matched controls nested within the EPIC study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable conditional logistic regression to estimate the association of H. pylori overall and protein-specific seropositivity with odds of developing colorectal cancer.

    RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of colorectal cancer cases were H. pylori seropositive compared with 44% of controls, resulting in an OR of 1.36 (95% CI, 1.00-1.85). Among the 13 individual H. pylori proteins, the association was driven mostly by seropositivity to Helicobacter cysteine-rich protein C (HcpC; OR: 1.66; 95% CI, 1.19-2.30) and Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) (OR: 1.34; 95% CI, 0.99-1.82), the latter being nonstatistically significant only in the fully adjusted model.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective multicenter European study, antibody responses to H. pylori proteins, specifically HcpC and VacA, were associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer.

    IMPACT: Biological mechanisms for a potential causal role of H. pylori in colorectal carcinogenesis need to be elucidated, and subsequently whether H. pylori eradication may decrease colorectal cancer incidence.

    MeSH terms: Antibody Formation/genetics*; Europe; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Colorectal Neoplasms/virology*; Cohort Studies; Case-Control Studies; Helicobacter pylori/pathogenicity*
  5. Gibbs DC, Song M, McCullough ML, Um CY, Bostick RM, Wu K, et al.
    JNCI Cancer Spectr, 2020 Feb;4(1):pkz083.
    PMID: 32337495 DOI: 10.1093/jncics/pkz083
    Background: Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25(OH)D] concentrations are consistently inversely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in observational studies. However, it is unknown whether this association depends on the functional GC-rs4588*A (Thr436Lys) variant encoding the vitamin D-binding protein-2 (DBP2) isoform, which may affect vitamin D status and bioavailability.

    Methods: We analyzed data from 1710 incident CRC cases and 1649 incidence-density-matched controls nested within three prospective cohorts of mostly Caucasians. Study-specific incidence rate ratios (RRs) for associations of prediagnostic, season-standardized 25(OH)D concentrations according to DBP2 isoform with CRC were estimated using multivariable unconditional logistic regression and were pooled using fixed-effects models. All statistical significance tests were two-sided.

    Results: The odds of having 25(OH)D concentrations less than 50 nmol/L (considered insufficient by the Institute of Medicine) were 43% higher for each DBP2-encoding variant (rs4588*A) inherited (per DBP2 odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27 to 1.62, P trend = 1.2 × 10-8). The association of 25(OH)D concentrations with CRC risk differed by DBP2: 25(OH)D concentrations considered sufficient (≥ 50 nmol/L), relative to deficient (

  6. Otani Y, Bernard H, Wong A, Tangah J, Tuuga A, Hanya G, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 09 25;10(1):15749.
    PMID: 32978415 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-72606-2
    Many species of terrestrial animals, including primates, live in varied association with the aquatic (e.g., riverine or coastal) environment. However, the benefits that each species receive from the aquatic environment are thought to vary depending on their social and ecological characteristics, and thus, elucidating those benefits to each species is important for understanding the principles of wild animal behaviour. In the present study, to gain a more complete picture of aquatic environment use, including social and ecological factors in primates, factors affecting riverine habitat utilization of two macaque species (Macaca nemestrina and M. fascicularis) were identified and qualitative comparisons were made with sympatric proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus), which have different social and ecological characteristics. Temporal variation in sighting frequency of macaques at the riverbanks was positively related to the fruit availability of a dominant riparian plant species and negatively related to the river water level which affects the extent of predation pressure. Riverine utilization of macaques was greatly influenced by distribution and abundance of food (especially fruit) resources, possibly in association with predation pressure. Additionally, qualitative ecological comparisons with sympatric proboscis monkeys suggest that the drivers of riverine utilization depend on the feeding niches of the species, and different anti-predator strategies resulting from their differing social structures.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Environment; Feeding Behavior/physiology*; Macaca/physiology*; Ecosystem; Genetic Speciation; Sympatry
  7. McMahon DE, Semeere A, Laker-Oketta M, Byakwaga H, Mugglin C, Duda SN, et al.
    J Invest Dermatol, 2021 Oct;141(10):2533-2536.e2.
    PMID: 33864771 DOI: 10.1016/j.jid.2021.02.758
  8. Menger F, Mohammed Halim NA, Rimmer B, Sharp L
    Support Care Cancer, 2021 Nov;29(11):7013-7027.
    PMID: 34018030 DOI: 10.1007/s00520-021-06253-2
    PURPOSE: Interest is growing in post-traumatic growth (PTG) after cancer prompted, in part, by observations of positive associations with health-related quality of life. Qualitative research provides valuable insight into survivors' experiences. We conducted a scoping review of qualitative evidence on PTG in cancer, determining the number, nature, range and scope of studies, and gaps in the literature.

    METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PsycINFO for qualitative research exploring positive changes after cancer published from 1996. From eligible studies, we extracted: terms used for PTG; design, methodological orientation, and techniques, and participant characteristics. Using descriptive mapping, we explored whether study findings fit within Tedeschi and Calhoun's PTG framework, and evidence for unique positive changes post-cancer.

    RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies were eligible. Cancer sites included were: breast, 14; mixed, 6; haematological, 4; head and neck cancer, 2; bone, 1, and testis, 1. Multiple studies were conducted in: the USA (12), Australia (3), Iran (2), and the UK (2). Twenty-three studies collected data using individual interviews (21) or focus groups (2). Definitions of PTG varied. Studies largely focused on descriptive accounts of PTG. Findings mapped onto existing PTG dimensions; health behaviour changes were often reported, under 'new possibilities'.

    CONCLUSIONS: A range of PTG outcomes can occur after cancer. Positive health behaviour changes warrant further exploration. Future research should include more diverse patient populations, collect longitudinal data, and focus on pathways towards positive changes.

  9. Yong TSM, Panting AJ, Juatan N, Perialathan K, Ahmad M, Ahmad Sanusi NH, et al.
    Vet Med Sci, 2021 Sep;7(5):1558-1563.
    PMID: 34137200 DOI: 10.1002/vms3.547
    BACKGROUND: Zoonoses among household pets are recognized as disease and infections transmitted between animals and humans. World Health Organization-estimated zoonotic diseases have contributed about one billion cases of illness and millions of mortalities every year. Despite the emerging and re-emerging zoonotic disease, most pet owners are unaware of the risks posed by their pets. As there are a lack of studies assessing infections at home, this study aimed to develop and validate a cognitive, affective and behaviour questionnaire (CAB-ZDQ) to assess household pets' zoonotic diseases.

    METHODS: This paper covers detailed explanation on the various developmental and validation process stages of the CAB zoonotic disease questionnaire development. The development phase comprised thorough literature search, focus group discussion, expert panel assessment and review. The validation process included pre-test and pilot testing, data analysis of results, analysis of internal consistency and the development of the final version of the questionnaire. Participants selected represented main ethnicities, gender, levels of education and population type (urban/rural) in the Klang Valley area.

    RESULTS: The items in the questionnaire has undergone various changes in structurally and linguistically. The final refined CAB questionnaire consists of 14 items cognitive (no items removed at pilot phase), nine items affective (one item removed at pilot phase) and five items behaviour (no items removed from pre-test phase), respectively. Reliability analysis revealed Cronbach's alpha values were 0.700 (cognitive) and 0.606 (affective) which indicated good internal consistency after item reduction.

    CONCLUSIONS: The developed questionnaire has proved its feasibility in assessing the Malaysian general population cognitive, affective and behavior regarding the household pets' zoonotic diseases.

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