MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

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  1. Yunus U, Zulfiqar MA, Ajmal M, Bhatti MH, Chaudhry GE, Muhammad TST, et al.
    Biomed Mater, 2020 09 26;15(6):065004.
    PMID: 32442994 DOI: 10.1088/1748-605X/ab95e1
    Gemcitabine (GEM) is used to treat various cancers such as breast, pancreatic, non-small lung, ovarian, bladder, and cervical cancers. GEM, however, has the problem of non-selectivity. Water-soluble, fluorescent, and mono-dispersed carbon dots (CDs) were fabricated by ultrasonication of sucrose. The CDs were further conjugated with GEM through amide linkage. The physical and morphological properties of these carbon dot-gemcitabine (CD-GEM) conjugates were determined using different analytical techniques. In vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis studies of CD-GEM conjugates were evaluated by various bioactivity assays on human cell lines, MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), and HeLa (cervical cancer) cell lines. The results of kinetic studies have shown a maximum drug loading efficacy of 17.0 mg of GEM per 50.0 mg of CDs. The CDs were found biocompatible, and the CD-GEM conjugates exhibited excellent bioactivity and exerted potent cytotoxicity against tumor cells with an IC50 value of 19.50 μg ml-1 in HeLa cells, which is lower than the IC50 value of pure GEM (∼20.10 μg ml-1). In vitro studies on CD-GEM conjugates demonstrated the potential to replace the conventional administration of GEM. CD-GEM conjugates are more stable, have a higher aqueous solubility, and are more cytotoxic as compared to GEM alone. The CD-GEM conjugates show reduced side effects in the normal cells along with excellent cellular uptake. Hence, CD-GEM conjugates are more selective toward cancerous cell lines as compared to non-cancerous cells. Also, the CD-GEM conjugates successfully induced early and late apoptosis in cancer cell lines and might be effective and safe to use for in vivo applications.
    MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials; Carbon/chemistry; Cell Adhesion; Cell Survival/drug effects; Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives*; Deoxycytidine/metabolism; Deoxycytidine/pharmacology; Drug Carriers; HeLa Cells; Humans; Solubility; Drug Delivery Systems*; Apoptosis*; Inhibitory Concentration 50; Cell Line, Tumor; Nanomedicine/methods*; MCF-7 Cells
  2. Karunakaran T, Firouz NS, Santhanam R, Jong VYM
    Nat Prod Res, 2022 Jan;36(2):654-659.
    PMID: 32674628 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2020.1795658
    Species from the Genus Calophyllum are rich source for bioactive phenolic compounds such as coumarins and xanthones. Phytochemical study carried out on the plant, Calophyllum macrocarpum has led to the isolation of three known prenylated xanthones, ananixanthone (1), trapezifolixanthone (2) and 8-deoxygartanin (3) with two common triterpenoids, stigmasterol (4), and friedelin (5). The structures of these compounds were identified and determined using spectroscopic techniques such as NMR and MS. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1 and 2 as well as the extracts were tested against HeLa Chang liver and HEK-293 cell lines. Compound 1 exhibited appreciable cytotoxicity with the IC50 value of 11.08 ± 3.09 µM against HeLa Chang liver cell line and moderate cytotoxicity against HEK-293 cell line while compound 2 showed limited toxicity against these two cell lines.
  3. Mishra V, Nayak P, Singh M, Tambuwala MM, Aljabali AA, Chellappan DK, et al.
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2021;21(12):1490-1509.
    PMID: 32951580 DOI: 10.2174/1871520620666200918111024
    BACKGROUND: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most investigated nanostructures in recent years, which exhibit more challenging and promising qualities in different biomedical applications. The AgNPs synthesized by the green approach provide potential healthcare benefits over chemical approaches, including improvement of tissue restoration, drug delivery, diagnosis, being environmentally friendly, and a boon to cancer treatment.

    OBJECTIVE: In the current scenario, the development of safe and effective drug delivery systems is the utmost concern of formulation development scientists as well as clinicians.

    METHODS: Google, Web of Science, and PubMed portals have been searched for potentially relevant literature to get the latest developments and updated information related to different aspects of green synthesized AgNPs along with their biomedical applications, especially in the treatment of different types of cancers.

    RESULTS: The present review highlights the latest published research regarding the different green approaches for the synthesis of AgNPs, their characterization techniques as well as various biomedical applications, particularly in cancer treatment. In this context, environment-friendly AgNPs are proving themselves as better candidates in terms of size, drug loading and release efficiency, targeting efficiency, minimal drug-associated side effects, pharmacokinetic profiling, and biocompatibility issues.

    CONCLUSION: With continuous efforts by multidisciplinary team approaches, nanotechnology-based AgNPs will shed new light on diagnostics and therapeutics in various disease treatments. However, the toxicity issues of AgNPs need greater attention as unanticipated toxic effects must be ruled out for their diversified applications.

    MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology*; Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry; Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor; Humans; Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Neoplasms/pathology; Silver/pharmacology*; Silver/chemistry; Cell Proliferation/drug effects; Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry*; Green Chemistry Technology*
  4. Chu YZ, Yeoh KH, Chew KH
    J Phys Condens Matter, 2021 Feb 17;33(7):075002.
    PMID: 33152714 DOI: 10.1088/1361-648X/abc807
    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have recently emerged as potential candidates for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries anode materials because of their compelling physicochemical and structural properties. In the present study, we use first-principles calculations to investigate the performance of 2D Mg2C as anode materials for Li, Na, K and Ca-ions batteries. The calculated average open-circuit voltage are 0.37, 0.50, 0.03 and 0.06 eV vs Li, Na, K, Ca. No significant structural deformations are observed on the 2D Mg2C upon the adsorption of Li, Na, K or Ca and the metallic characteristic of the 2D Mg2C is retained. The metallic behaviour of both pristine and adsorbed Mg2C ensures the desirable electric conductivity, implying the advantages of 2D Mg2C for batteries. The Na and K atoms show an extremely high diffusivity on the 2D Mg2C with a low energy barrier of 0.08 and 0.04 eV respectively, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than that of Li atom. For the Na and K atoms, the theoretical storage capacity can reach up to 1770 mAh g-1, nearly two times that of the Li atom of 885 mAh g-1. Our study suggests that the 2D Mg2C is a promising anode material which offers a fast ion diffusion and high storage capacity.
  5. Kher U, Tunkiwala A, Patil PG
    J Prosthet Dent, 2022 Jan;127(1):6-14.
    PMID: 33243475 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2020.09.023
    Implant-supported fixed prostheses in the edentulous maxilla can be difficult because of anatomic limitations and high esthetic demand. The choice between cement and screw retention depends on factors such as esthetics, occlusion, retrievability, and passivity. The choice is also often governed by the ability to manage technical or biologic complications. In the edentulous maxilla, because of the bone trajectory and resorption pattern, unfavorable implant angulations may be encountered. In such situations, a conventional screw-retained prosthesis is difficult to design. This article describes the restoration of edentulous maxillae for a series of patients with different complete-arch fixed prosthesis designs. The clinical guidelines, including indications, advantages, and limitations of each design, were discussed.
    MeSH terms: Esthetics, Dental; Humans; Maxilla/surgery; Mouth, Edentulous*; Dental Implants*; Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported; Dental Restoration Failure
  6. Liu JB, Nadeem MF, Azeem M
    PMID: 33280591 DOI: 10.2174/1386207323666201204144422
    AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: The idea of partition and resolving sets plays an important role in various areas of engineering, chemistry and computer science such as robot navigation, facility location, pharmaceutical chemistry, combinatorial optimization, networking, and mastermind game.

    METHOD: In a graph to obtain the exact location of a required vertex which is unique from all the vertices, several vertices are selected this is called resolving set and its generalization is called resolving partition, where selected vertices are in the form of subsets. Minimum number of partitions of the vertices into sets is called partition dimension.

    RESULTS: It was proved that determining the partition dimension a graph is nondeterministic polynomial time (NP) problem. In this article, we find the partition dimension of convex polytopes and provide their bounds.

    CONCLUSION: The major contribution of this article is that, due to the complexity of computing the exact partition dimension we provides the bounds and show that all the graphs discussed in results have partition dimension either less or equals to 4, but it cannot been be greater than 4.

  7. Kanwal, Khan KM, Chigurupati S, Ali F, Younus M, Aldubayan M, et al.
    ACS Omega, 2021 Jan 26;6(3):2264-2275.
    PMID: 33521466 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.0c05581
    Indole-3-acetamides (1-24) were synthesized via coupling of indole-3-acetic acid with various substituted anilines in the presence of coupling reagent 1,1-carbonyldiimidazole. The structures of synthetic molecules were elucidated through different spectroscopic techniques including electron ionization-mass spectroscopy (EI-MS), 1H-, 13C NMR, and high-resolution EI-MS (HREI-MS). These compounds were screened for their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials. All compounds displayed good to moderate inhibition against α-amylase enzyme with IC50 values ranging between 1.09 ± 0.11 and 2.84 ± 0.1 μM compared to the standard acarbose (IC50 = 0.92 ± 0.4 μM). Compound 15 (IC50 = 1.09 ± 0.11 μM) was the most active compound of the series and exhibited good inhibition against α-amylase; in addition, this compound also exhibited good antioxidant potential with IC50 values of 0.35 ± 0.1 and 0.81 ± 0.25 μM in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays, respectively. The binding interactions of synthetic molecules with the enzyme's active site were confirmed via in silico studies. The current study had identified a number of lead molecules as potential antihyperglycemic and antioxidant agents.
  8. Nguyen DND, Chilian WM, Zain SM, Daud MF, Pung YF
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 2021 Sep;99(9):827-838.
    PMID: 33529092 DOI: 10.1139/cjpp-2020-0581
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the leading causes of death worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), regulatory molecules that repress protein expression, have attracted considerable attention in CVD research. The vasculature plays a big role in CVD development and progression and dysregulation of vascular cells underlies the root of many vascular diseases. This review provides a brief introduction of the biogenesis of miRNAs and exosomes, followed by overview of the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) intracellular signaling during phenotypic switching, senescence, calcification, and neointimal hyperplasia. Evidence of extracellular signaling of VSMCs and other cells via exosomal and circulating miRNAs is also presented. Lastly, current drawbacks and limitations of miRNA studies in CVD research and potential ways to overcome these disadvantages are discussed in detail. In-depth understanding of VSMC regulation via miRNAs will add substantial knowledge and advance research in diagnosis, disease progression, and (or) miRNA-derived therapeutic approaches in CVD research.
    MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology*; Humans; Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology*; Signal Transduction; Cell Aging; Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/physiology*; MicroRNAs/physiology*; Neointima/pathology; Exome/physiology; Vascular Calcification
  9. Mohan D, Mente A, Dehghan M, Rangarajan S, O'Donnell M, Hu W, et al.
    JAMA Intern Med, 2021 05 01;181(5):631-649.
    PMID: 33683310 DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.0036
    Importance: Cohort studies report inconsistent associations between fish consumption, a major source of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids, and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Whether the associations vary between those with and those without vascular disease is unknown.

    Objective: To examine whether the associations of fish consumption with risk of CVD or of mortality differ between individuals with and individuals without vascular disease.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis of individual participant data involved 191 558 individuals from 4 cohort studies-147 645 individuals (139 827 without CVD and 7818 with CVD) from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study and 43 413 patients with vascular disease in 3 prospective studies from 40 countries. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by multilevel Cox regression separately within each study and then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. This analysis was conducted from January to June 2020.

    Exposures: Fish consumption was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. In 1 of the cohorts with vascular disease, a separate qualitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess intake of individual types of fish.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality and major CVD events (including myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, or sudden death).

    Results: Overall, 191 558 participants with a mean (SD) age of 54.1 (8.0) years (91 666 [47.9%] male) were included in the present analysis. During 9.1 years of follow-up in PURE, compared with little or no fish intake (≤50 g/mo), an intake of 350 g/wk or more was not associated with risk of major CVD (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.04) or total mortality (HR, 0.96; 0.88-1.05). By contrast, in the 3 cohorts of patients with vascular disease, the HR for risk of major CVD (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96) and total mortality (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.74-0.91) was lowest with intakes of at least 175 g/wk (or approximately 2 servings/wk) compared with 50 g/mo or lower, with no further apparent decrease in HR with consumption of 350 g/wk or higher. Fish with higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids were strongly associated with a lower risk of CVD (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97 per 5-g increment of intake), whereas other fish were neutral (collected in 1 cohort of patients with vascular disease). The association between fish intake and each outcome varied by CVD status, with a lower risk found among patients with vascular disease but not in general populations (for major CVD, I2 = 82.6 [P = .02]; for death, I2 = 90.8 [P = .001]).

    Conclusions and Relevance: Findings of this pooled analysis of 4 cohort studies indicated that a minimal fish intake of 175 g (approximately 2 servings) weekly is associated with lower risk of major CVD and mortality among patients with prior CVD but not in general populations. The consumption of fish (especially oily fish) should be evaluated in randomized trials of clinical outcomes among people with vascular disease.

    MeSH terms: Animals; Cardiovascular Diseases/diet therapy; Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology; Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control*; Feeding Behavior/physiology*; Female; Fishes/metabolism*; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Vascular Diseases/mortality*; Vascular Diseases/epidemiology; Cohort Studies; Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism; Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use; Proportional Hazards Models
  10. Schönrath I, Tsvetkov VB, Barceló-Oliver M, Hebenbrock M, Zatsepin TS, Aralov AV, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2021 06;219:111369.
    PMID: 33878529 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2021.111369
    The artificial nucleobase 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-1,N6-ethenoadenine (X) was investigated with respect to its ability to engage in Ag(I)-mediated base pairing in DNA. Spectroscopic data indicate the formation of dinuclear X-Ag(I)2-X homo base pairs and mononuclear X-Ag(I)-C base pairs (C, cytosine). Density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the nucleobase changes from its lactam tautomeric form prior to the formation of the Ag(I)-mediated base pair to the lactim form after the incorporation of the Ag(I) ions. Fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that the two Ag(I) ions of the homo base pair are incorporated sequentially. Isothermal titration calorimetry confirms that the affinity of one of the Ag(I) ions is about tenfold higher than that of the other Ag(I) ion. The computational analysis by means of density functional theory confirms a much larger reaction energy for the incorporation of the first Ag(I) ion. The thermal stabilization upon the formation of the dinuclear Ag(I)-mediated homo base pair exceeds the one previously observed for the closely related nucleobase 1,N6-ethenoadenine by far, despite very similar structures. This additional stabilization may stem from the presence of water molecules engaged in hydrogen bonding with the additional oxygen atom of the artificial nucleobase X. The highly stabilizing Ag(I)-mediated base pair is a valuable addition to established dinuclear metal-mediated base pairs.
    MeSH terms: Adenine/analogs & derivatives*; Adenine/chemistry; Calorimetry/methods; Circular Dichroism/methods; Cytosine/chemistry; DNA/chemistry*; Hydrogen Bonding; Ions/chemistry; Nucleic Acids/chemistry; Oligonucleotides/chemistry; Oxygen/chemistry; Silver/chemistry*; Spectrometry, Fluorescence/methods; Molecular Structure; Base Pairing*; Transition Temperature
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