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MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Teh, H. M., Mohd Sayuti, R., Kahairi, A., Bathma, D. S., Salman, A., Nor Kamaruzaman Esa, et al.
    MyJurnal
    The occurrence of pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) after total salvage laryngectomy following radiotherapy
    as primary treatment is quite common. In most cases, pharyngocutaneous fistula can heal spontaneously
    with conservative measures. Here, we are reporting a 69-year-old male with a residual carcinoma of the
    larynx following failed radiotherapy as primary treatment whose later underwent a salvage total
    laryngectomy. Post-operatively, it was complicated by the formation of pharyngocutaneous fistula which
    was failed to heal with conservative measures and few attempts of surgical repair. The fistula later healed
    with the application of Montgomery Salivarybypass tube after 3 weeks. The application of the salivary
    bypass tube should be considered and used to promote healing in persistent pharyngocutaneous fistula
    especially in a post radiotherapy patient.
    MeSH terms: Aged; Humans; Laryngectomy; Larynx; Male; Pharyngeal Diseases; Cutaneous Fistula
  2. Norafiza Zainuddin, Nur Adibah Shamri
    MyJurnal
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a cancer of the large intestine with high mortality and morbidity rate. According to
    the Malaysian National Cancer Registry Report, CRC was reported as the second most frequent cancer after
    breast cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and perception of IIUM Kuantan Campus
    students regarding CRC. Currently, there is no national screening program conducted by the Ministry of
    Health Malaysia for CRC as an early prevention in Malaysia. Despite the increase in incidence and mortality
    rates of CRC, emphasis on creating awareness regarding CRC among Malaysian is still lacking. Using
    convenience sampling method and adapted self-administered questionnaires, this cross-sectional study was
    conducted among the undergraduate students of International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan Campus.
    Overall, more than half of the respondents have a moderate level of knowledge and perceptions regarding
    CRC. Moreover, there was a significant difference between male and female respondents in terms of
    knowledge regarding CRC screening (p
    MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Intestine, Large; Malaysia; Male; Perception; Surveys and Questionnaires; Registries; Students; Universities; Colorectal Neoplasms; Incidence; Early Detection of Cancer
  3. Idris Aliyu Massaud, Atif Amin Baig, Mohd Adzim Khalili Rohin
    MyJurnal
    Pomegranate fruit is the most studied part of punica granatum shrub. The fruit contains enormous
    amount of polyphenol compounds in the peel and arils (flesh) which are responsible for its antioxidant
    activity. The polyphenols present are of varying degree of lipophilicity and thus would require solvents
    of varying polarity to extract them. In this study, the effects of solvent type and homogenisation on
    extraction yield were considered. The fruit was first separated into peel and flesh and subsequently, one
    half of each of the peel and flesh were separately homogenised. Ethanol, ethylacetate and hexane were
    used to extract the polyphenol content of each of the four samples; non-homogenised peel (NP), nonhomogenised flesh (NF), homogenised peel (HP) and homogenised flesh (HF) in decreasing order of
    polarity using maceration method. The extraction was carried out successively using the residue
    recovered from previous extraction. Ethanol was used for a second time to complete the extraction
    process. The total extractive yield from the four samples were 27.19, 26.04, 25.03 and 15.61 for HP,
    NP, HF and NF respectively. The experiment has demonstrated that maceration process can be used to
    extract compounds from pomegranate to give a yield similar to more sophisticated method and ethanol
    is a suitable solvent for extracting hydrophilic compounds from the fruit.
    MeSH terms: Acetates; Ethanol; Antioxidants; Fruit; Hexanes; Solvents; Punicaceae; Polyphenols
  4. Liyana, H. M. A., Hidayah, N. A. B., Nasir, M.
    MyJurnal
    Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main pharmacologically active compound found in the seeds oil of Nigella
    Sativa. Various studies had been investigated on the therapeutic effects of TQ against several diseases such as
    anticancer research, antibacterial, and so on. As a result, a considerable amount of information has been
    generated from these researches thus providing a better understanding of the promising effects of this
    compound. However, research studies on the potential role of this compound on opioid addiction studies are
    still lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to highlight the potential role of TQ as a non-opioid
    substitution therapy in opioid addiction and the chances of this compound to be explored further with special
    attention to opioid substitution therapy.
    MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Attention; Seeds; Benzoquinones; Behavior, Addictive; Nigella; Nigella sativa; Opiate Substitution Treatment
  5. Hassan, B. M.
    MyJurnal
    As primary care doctors, treating patients with Type 2 DM
    is our bread and butter, as the majority of them seek
    treatment at health clinics. It is true that some of the
    patients have managed to achieve good glycaemic control,
    but more than half of them still have poorly controlled
    blood sugar as compared to the clinical practice guideline
    recommendation [1]. And usually, the first thing that comes
    to our mind when seeing these patients is to increase the
    dosage of anti-diabetic medication that they are currently
    on or to add another agent, including insulin. We also
    frequently tell them that the high blood sugar level is not
    surprising, as such is the nature of diabetes, where the
    worsening of blood sugar is expected due to progressive
    deterioration of pancreatic beta cell function. (Copied from article)
    MeSH terms: Blood Glucose; Bread; Butter; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Humans; Hyperglycemia; Insulin; Pancreas; Primary Health Care; Insulin-Secreting Cells
  6. Norhaslinda, R., Adzim, M. K. R., Norhayati, A. H.
    MyJurnal
    Food defined as material that can be brought into the body of a human, animal or plant sources for
    upholding the balance of life and it includes rice, vegetables, bread and others. However, in Islam, its
    emphasized more on clean, harmless food and also with a code known as Halal diet. Halal is a term from
    the Quran which means permissible or lawful. In Islam, known special regulations in the slaughter of
    animals to be Halal diet include with saying the name of Allah the Almighty and make an incision to cut
    the lifeblood of the animal's neck, letting the action veins and organs intact. In contrast, Haram means 'not
    allowed' or 'forbidden' in Islam. Among the Haram foods as mentioned in the Qur'an and the Sunnah, it
    includes carrion, blood, dogs, pigs, and alcohol.
    MeSH terms: Ethanol; Animals; Bread; Diet; Dogs; Humans; Islam; Oryza; Swine; Vegetables; Sus scrofa
  7. Shanzay, A., Siddra, T. A., Warda, F., Sheeza, A., Maryam, A., Aina, S. Z., et al.
    MyJurnal
    Bacterial biofilms are a complex community of microbes in which the cells are embedded in a polysaccharide matrix.
    This slime is a mean of protection in hostile environments. Biofilms in hospital settings are perilous as they not only
    make treatment difficult, cause blockage of pipes but are also cause of serious nosocomial infections thus making their
    dispersal an even more important phenomenon. Any foaming method is not applicable at all places for the cleaning of
    biofilms hence biofilm dispersal by household sweep containing hydrochloric acid was checked using the microliter
    plate assay as dispersal strategy. Bacteria from hospital waste disposal pipes were isolated, its ability to form biofilm
    was noted under different time intervals and then finally biofilm degradation was done using different concentrations
    of household sweep. It was noted that household sweep can be successfully employed at many places especially waste
    disposal pipes and acid resistant tubes. Our results indicated that 20% sweep (HCl conc. 1%) if used for only one
    minute can reduce the biofilms to 50%. Similarly increasing contact time can reduce the biofilms further.
    MeSH terms: Bacteria; Cross Infection; Employment; Family Characteristics; Hydrochloric Acid; Polysaccharides; Refuse Disposal; Biofilms
  8. Sundus, S., Memoona, S., Muhammad, I. N., Rashid, H. N.
    MyJurnal
    Asthma is one of the chronic and long-term diseases of the airways. It is characterized by reversible airflow
    obstruction, chest tightness, and dyspnea with decreased work of breathing. The inside airway’s walls are swollen or
    inflamed. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of active cycle of breathing technique as an airway
    clearance technique in patients with asthma. The health-related quality of life and functional capacity of patients was
    measured using a standardized airway questionnaire (AQ20) and six-minute walk test. The study was cohort design
    included 38 patients (mean age 41.131±14.711) of both genders with mild to moderate asthma. Each patient received
    multiple sessions (3times/week for one month) of active cycle of breathing technique. Pre and post-treatment
    measures were recorded for functional capacity and health-related quality of life in the form of six-minute walk test
    and standardized airway questionnaire. All 38 patients were stable during the study period. The health-related quality
    of life and functional capacity of patient significantly improved post-treatment sessions with means [205.375±93.594
    for week 1, 1248.719±112.187 for week 2, 306.429±140.5554 for week 3, 337.245±134.389 for week 4], for sixminute wall test and mean difference 4.13± 2.3SD for standardized airway questionnaire with p-value (0.00)
    significant upon paired t-test. It is concluded that the active cycle of breathing technique is very beneficial
    intervention for improving quality of life and functional capacity of patients with mild to moderate asthma. Further,
    investigations are required to explore efficiency of ABCT as a tool for cardio-pulmonary rehabilitation.
  9. Abdul, R., Hasnain, J., Zarfishan, T., Aina, S. Z., Warda, F., Iftkhar, A., et al.
    MyJurnal
    This study was aimed to find out the prevalence of HCV infection and frequency of its genotypes in the
    population of the Karol war village i.e. situated in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It was a descriptive crosssectional study model. Tests were performed in the Department of Bacteriology, Institute of Public
    Health Lahore, Pakistan. Cases positive for Anti-HCV antibodies by chemiluminescence assay were
    subjected to HCV RNA detection by PCR. Genotyping was done by Geno-Sen’s HCV Genotyping
    1/2/3/4 Real Time PCR kit for Rotor Gene. A total of 396 patients were enrolled for this study. The
    incidence of positive HBSAg and HCV cases were 11.86% and 1.5% respectively. Males were more
    affected with 61.7% (n=29) while positive cases in females were 38.3% (n=18). Age group of 31-45
    years had higher infection rate among other ages (n=20). The frequency of genotypes 3, 1 and 2 was
    36, 4 and 3 respectively while the genotype of 4 patients was found to be indeterminate. Genotype 3 is
    the most prevalent genotype in the studied individuals which corresponds to the local data available so
    far however 11.86 % positivity figure is quite alarming figure for that area.
  10. Aliya, S., Shamim, A. K., Ilyas, M. N., Saif, U. K., Nordin, S., Atif, A. B.
    MyJurnal
    Smoking is a known established threat playing a definite role in destroying youth, the future foundation
    for any generation. Whether steps taken are being effective or not have to be tested vigilantly as most
    of the previous results are based on self-reported questionnaires and the reliability of the questionnaires
    can be dubious. For most of the Asian parents, tobacco consumption can be a taboo especially if the
    teenagers are involved. Different studies have shown that prevalence of smoking among youngsters
    are as high as 37% to as low as 11.5% in Malaysia. How can these figures are verified as they are selfreported and how can be generations protected from ill effects of tobacco consumption. The onus not
    only lies on the government but also on parents/guardians, healthcare setup at various levels of care and
    on general population. Despite of stringent steps taken there are loopholes in the system providing
    these children and adolescents easy access to tobacco.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Child; Government; Humans; Malaysia; Parent-Child Relations; Parents; Smoking; Taboo; Tobacco; Reproducibility of Results; Prevalence; Self Report; Tobacco Use
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