MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.
Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.
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OBJECTIVE: In the current scenario, the development of safe and effective drug delivery systems is the utmost concern of formulation development scientists as well as clinicians.
METHODS: Google, Web of Science, and PubMed portals have been searched for potentially relevant literature to get the latest developments and updated information related to different aspects of green synthesized AgNPs along with their biomedical applications, especially in the treatment of different types of cancers.
RESULTS: The present review highlights the latest published research regarding the different green approaches for the synthesis of AgNPs, their characterization techniques as well as various biomedical applications, particularly in cancer treatment. In this context, environment-friendly AgNPs are proving themselves as better candidates in terms of size, drug loading and release efficiency, targeting efficiency, minimal drug-associated side effects, pharmacokinetic profiling, and biocompatibility issues.
CONCLUSION: With continuous efforts by multidisciplinary team approaches, nanotechnology-based AgNPs will shed new light on diagnostics and therapeutics in various disease treatments. However, the toxicity issues of AgNPs need greater attention as unanticipated toxic effects must be ruled out for their diversified applications.
METHOD: In a graph to obtain the exact location of a required vertex which is unique from all the vertices, several vertices are selected this is called resolving set and its generalization is called resolving partition, where selected vertices are in the form of subsets. Minimum number of partitions of the vertices into sets is called partition dimension.
RESULTS: It was proved that determining the partition dimension a graph is nondeterministic polynomial time (NP) problem. In this article, we find the partition dimension of convex polytopes and provide their bounds.
CONCLUSION: The major contribution of this article is that, due to the complexity of computing the exact partition dimension we provides the bounds and show that all the graphs discussed in results have partition dimension either less or equals to 4, but it cannot been be greater than 4.
Objective: To examine whether the associations of fish consumption with risk of CVD or of mortality differ between individuals with and individuals without vascular disease.
Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis of individual participant data involved 191 558 individuals from 4 cohort studies-147 645 individuals (139 827 without CVD and 7818 with CVD) from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study and 43 413 patients with vascular disease in 3 prospective studies from 40 countries. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by multilevel Cox regression separately within each study and then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. This analysis was conducted from January to June 2020.
Exposures: Fish consumption was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. In 1 of the cohorts with vascular disease, a separate qualitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess intake of individual types of fish.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality and major CVD events (including myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, or sudden death).
Results: Overall, 191 558 participants with a mean (SD) age of 54.1 (8.0) years (91 666 [47.9%] male) were included in the present analysis. During 9.1 years of follow-up in PURE, compared with little or no fish intake (≤50 g/mo), an intake of 350 g/wk or more was not associated with risk of major CVD (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.04) or total mortality (HR, 0.96; 0.88-1.05). By contrast, in the 3 cohorts of patients with vascular disease, the HR for risk of major CVD (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96) and total mortality (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.74-0.91) was lowest with intakes of at least 175 g/wk (or approximately 2 servings/wk) compared with 50 g/mo or lower, with no further apparent decrease in HR with consumption of 350 g/wk or higher. Fish with higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids were strongly associated with a lower risk of CVD (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97 per 5-g increment of intake), whereas other fish were neutral (collected in 1 cohort of patients with vascular disease). The association between fish intake and each outcome varied by CVD status, with a lower risk found among patients with vascular disease but not in general populations (for major CVD, I2 = 82.6 [P = .02]; for death, I2 = 90.8 [P = .001]).
Conclusions and Relevance: Findings of this pooled analysis of 4 cohort studies indicated that a minimal fish intake of 175 g (approximately 2 servings) weekly is associated with lower risk of major CVD and mortality among patients with prior CVD but not in general populations. The consumption of fish (especially oily fish) should be evaluated in randomized trials of clinical outcomes among people with vascular disease.