MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open-access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by the Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, and Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included the Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Halpin K, Hyatt AD, Fogarty R, Middleton D, Bingham J, Epstein JH, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2011 Nov;85(5):946-51.
    PMID: 22049055 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0567
    Bats of the genus Pteropus have been identified as the reservoir hosts for the henipaviruses Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV). The aim of these studies was to assess likely mechanisms for henipaviruses transmission from bats. In a series of experiments, Pteropus bats from Malaysia and Australia were inoculated with NiV and HeV, respectively, by natural routes of infection. Despite an intensive sampling strategy, no NiV was recovered from the Malaysian bats and HeV was reisolated from only one Australian bat; no disease was seen. These experiments suggest that opportunities for henipavirus transmission may be limited; therefore, the probability of a spillover event is low. For spillover to occur, a range of conditions and events must coincide. An alternate assessment framework is required if we are to fully understand how this reservoir host maintains and transmits not only these but all viruses with which it has been associated.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Australia; Chiroptera/classification*; Chiroptera/virology*; Disease Reservoirs/veterinary*; Female; Malaysia; Pregnancy; Genome, Viral; Hendra Virus/genetics; Hendra Virus/immunology; Hendra Virus/isolation & purification*; Nipah Virus/genetics; Nipah Virus/immunology; Nipah Virus/isolation & purification*; Henipavirus Infections/transmission*
  2. Leong SL, Teoh SL, Fun WH, Lee SWH
    Eur J Gen Pract, 2021 Dec;27(1):198-210.
    PMID: 34334095 DOI: 10.1080/13814788.2021.1954616
    BACKGROUND: Task shifting is an approach to help address the shortage of healthcare workers through reallocating human resources but its impact on primary care is unclear.

    OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of reviews describing task shifts from physicians to allied healthcare workers in primary care and its impact on clinical outcomes.

    METHODS: Six electronic databases were searched up to 15 December 2020, to identify reviews describing task shifting in primary care. Two reviewers independently screened the references for relevant studies, extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of included reviews using AMSTAR-2.

    RESULTS: Twenty-one reviews that described task shifting in primary care were included. Task shifted include provision of care for people with chronic conditions, medication prescribing, and health education. We found that task shifting could potentially improve several health outcomes such as blood pressure, HbA1c, and mental health while achieving cost savings. Key elements for successful implementation of task shifting include collaboration among all parties, a system for coordinated care, provider empowerment, patient preference, shared decision making, training and competency, supportive organisation system, clear process outcome, and financing.

    CONCLUSION: Evidence suggests that allied healthcare workers such as pharmacists and nurses can potentially undertake substantially expanded roles to support physicians in primary care in response to the changing health service demand. Tasks include providing care to patients, independent prescribing, counselling and education, with comparable quality of care.

    MeSH terms: Delivery of Health Care; Health Personnel*; Humans; Pharmacists; Drug Prescriptions; Primary Health Care*
  3. Velentzis LS, Hawkes D, Caruana M, Brotherton JM, Smith MA, Roeske L, et al.
    Tumour Virus Res, 2023 Jun;15:200255.
    PMID: 36736490 DOI: 10.1016/j.tvr.2023.200255
    Australia's cervical screening program transitioned from cytology to HPV-testing with genotyping for HPV16/18 in Dec'2017. We investigated whether program data could be used to monitor HPV vaccination program impact (commenced in 2007) on HPV16/18 prevalence and compared estimates with pre-vaccination benchmark prevalence. Pre-vaccination samples (2005-2008) (n = 1933; WHINURS), from 25 to 64-year-old women had been previously analysed with Linear Array (LA). Post-vaccination samples (2013-2014) (n = 2989; Compass pilot), from 25 to 64-year-old women, were analysed by cobas 4800 (cobas), and by LA for historical comparability. Age standardised pre-vaccination HPV16/18 prevalence was 4.85% (95%CI:3.81-5.89) by LA; post-vaccination estimates were 1.67% (95%CI:1.21-2.13%) by LA, 1.49% (95%CI:1.05-1.93%) by cobas, and 1.63% (95%CI:1.17-2.08%) for cobas and LA testing of non-16/18 cobas positives (cobas/LA). Age-standardised pre-vaccination oncogenic HPV prevalence was 15.70% (95%CI:13.79-17.60%) by LA; post-vaccination estimates were 9.06% (95%CI:8.02-10.09%) by LA, 8.47% (95%CI:7.47-9.47%) by cobas and cobas/LA. Standardised rate ratios between post-vs. pre-vaccination rates were significantly different for HPV16/18, non-16/18 HPV and oncogenic HPV: 0.34 (95%CI:0.23-0.50), 0.68 (95%CI:0.55-0.84) and 0.58 (95%CI:0.48-0.69), respectively. Additional strategies (LA for all cobas positives; combined cobas and LA results on all samples) had similar results. If a single method is applied consistently, it will provide important data on relative changes in HPV prevalence following vaccination.
  4. Robinson S, Moon TM, Eng TK, Yuen TT, Jong TJ, Selvarajah L, et al.
    Drugs Real World Outcomes, 2023 Jun;10(2):291-298.
    PMID: 36840826 DOI: 10.1007/s40801-023-00359-1
    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis imposes a substantial burden on patients' social, emotional, physical, and family life. Although psoriasis has no complete cure, various treatments are available to control its symptoms and improve a patients' quality of life.

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the effectiveness of biologic versus non-biologic treatments on health-related quality of life among patients with psoriasis in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated data of adult patients diagnosed with psoriasis during 2007-18 from the Malaysian Psoriasis Registry. Baseline demographics, disease, and treatment characteristics were described. For a subset of patients treated with biologics and non-biologics who had baseline and 6-month follow-up data available, changes in the mean Dermatology Life Quality Index scores and the proportion of patients with a clinically relevant improvement (≥ 4 points) post-treatment were assessed.

    RESULTS: Overall, 15,238 adult patients with psoriasis from the Malaysian Psoriasis Registry were included in the analysis. Patients receiving biologics showed a statistically significant reduction in the mean Dermatology Life Quality Index scores after 6 months compared with those receiving non-biologic treatment (- 5.7 vs - 0.8%; p < 0.001). The proportion of patients who achieved a ≥ 4-point improvement in Dermatology Life Quality Index scores was approximately two times greater in the biologic-treated group versus the non-biologic-treated group (56.4 vs 27.7%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Biologic treatment showed a greater reduction in the Dermatology Life Quality Index scores of patients with psoriasis versus non-biologic treatment. These results highlight the importance of early treatment with more efficacious treatment options, such as biologic therapies, to improve the overall health-related quality of life of patients with psoriasis.

  5. Peter OJ, Panigoro HS, Abidemi A, Ojo MM, Oguntolu FA
    Acta Biotheor, 2023 Mar 06;71(2):9.
    PMID: 36877326 DOI: 10.1007/s10441-023-09460-y
    This paper is concerned with the formulation and analysis of an epidemic model of COVID-19 governed by an eight-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations, by taking into account the first dose and the second dose of vaccinated individuals in the population. The developed model is analyzed and the threshold quantity known as the control reproduction number [Formula: see text] is obtained. We investigate the equilibrium stability of the system, and the COVID-free equilibrium is said to be locally asymptotically stable when the control reproduction number is less than unity, and unstable otherwise. Using the least-squares method, the model is calibrated based on the cumulative number of COVID-19 reported cases and available information about the mass vaccine administration in Malaysia between the 24th of February 2021 and February 2022. Following the model fitting and estimation of the parameter values, a global sensitivity analysis was performed by using the Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient (PRCC) to determine the most influential parameters on the threshold quantities. The result shows that the effective transmission rate [Formula: see text], the rate of first vaccine dose [Formula: see text], the second dose vaccination rate [Formula: see text] and the recovery rate due to the second dose of vaccination [Formula: see text] are the most influential of all the model parameters. We further investigate the impact of these parameters by performing a numerical simulation on the developed COVID-19 model. The result of the study shows that adhering to the preventive measures has a huge impact on reducing the spread of the disease in the population. Particularly, an increase in both the first and second dose vaccination rates reduces the number of infected individuals, thus reducing the disease burden in the population.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Computer Simulation; Models, Theoretical; Vaccination; Pandemics/prevention & control
  6. Okuma HS, Yoshida H, Kobayashi Y, Arakaki M, Mizoguchi C, Inagaki L, et al.
    Cancer Sci, 2023 Jun;114(6):2664-2673.
    PMID: 36919757 DOI: 10.1111/cas.15790
    Tissue specimen quality assurance is a major issue of precision medicine for rare cancers. However, the laboratory standards and quality of pathological specimens prepared in Asian hospitals remain unknown. To understand the methods in Southeast Asian oncology hospitals and to clarify how pre-analytics affect the quality of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, a questionnaire surveying pre-analytical procedures (Part I) was administered, quality assessment of immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining and DNA/RNA extracted from the representative FFPE specimens from each hospital (Part II) was conducted, and the quality of DNA/RNA extracted from FFPE of rare-cancer patients for genomic sequencing (Part III) was examined. Quality measurements for DNA/RNA included ΔΔCt, DV200, and cDNA yield. Six major cancer hospitals from Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam participated. One hospital showed unacceptable quality for the DNA/RNA assessment, but improved by revising laboratory procedures. Only 57% (n = 73) of the 128 rare-cancer patients' specimens met both DNA and RNA quality criteria for next-generation sequencing. Median DV200 was 80.7% and 64.3% for qualified and failed RNA, respectively. Median ΔΔCt was 1.25 for qualified and 4.89 for failed DNA. Longer storage period was significantly associated with poor DNA (fail to qualify ratio = 1579:321 days, p 
  7. Aftab H, Kemp M, Stensvold CR, Nielsen HV, Jakobsen MM, Porskrog A, et al.
    Travel Med Infect Dis, 2023;53:102580.
    PMID: 37088361 DOI: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2023.102580
    Plasmodium knowlesi has been reported as an emerging infection throughout the Southeast Asian region, especially in the Malaysian state of Sabah, where it accounts for the majority of the malaria cases reported. This is in contrast to Europe, where imported P. knowlesi is a rarely reported infection. We present a case of P. knowlesi infection in a Danish woman returning from a short trip to Malaysian Borneo. Microscopy of blood smears revealed 0.8% infected erythrocytes, but due to the atypical morphological presentation, a conclusive species identification was made by molecular methods. Plasmodium knowlesi is a potentially fatal infection and taking the increasing travel activity into consideration after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, P. knowlesi should be a differential diagnosis in patients with travel-associated illness returning from highly endemic Southeast Asian areas.
  8. Wan Mohtar WHM, Wan-Mohtar WAAQI, Zahuri AA, Ibrahim MF, Show PL, Ilham Z, et al.
    Bioengineered, 2022;13(7-12):14903-14935.
    PMID: 37105672 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2023.2184785
    Fungal biomass is the future's feedstock. Non-septate Ascomycetes and septate Basidiomycetes, famously known as mushrooms, are sources of fungal biomass. Fungal biomass, which on averagely comprises about 34% protein and 45% carbohydrate, can be cultivated in bioreactors to produce affordable, safe, nontoxic, and consistent biomass quality. Fungal-based technologies are seen as attractive, safer alternatives, either substituting or complementing the existing standard technology. Water and wastewater treatment, food and feed, green technology, innovative designs in buildings, enzyme technology, potential health benefits, and wealth production are the key sectors that successfully reported high-efficiency performances of fungal applications. This paper reviews the latest technical know-how, methods, and performance of fungal adaptation in those sectors. Excellent performance was reported indicating high potential for fungi utilization, particularly in the sectors, yet to be utilized and improved on the existing fungal-based applications. The expansion of fungal biomass in the industrial-scale application for the sustainability of earth and human well-being is in line with the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.
    MeSH terms: Agaricales*; Ascomycota*; Basidiomycota*; Carbohydrates; Fungi/metabolism; Humans; Biomass; Bioreactors
  9. Anand VV, Zhe ELC, Chin YH, Goh RSJ, Lin C, Kueh MTW, et al.
    Int J Cardiol, 2023 Jul 15;383:140-150.
    PMID: 37116760 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2023.04.042
    BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is an important prognosticator amongst patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This paper analysed the effects of SES on ACS outcomes.

    METHODS: Medline and Embase were searched for articles reporting outcomes of ACS patients stratified by SES using a multidimensional index, comprising at least 2 of the following components: Income, Education and Employment. A comparative meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects models to estimate the risk ratio of all-cause mortality in low SES vs high SES populations, stratified according to geographical region, study year, follow-up duration and SES index.

    RESULTS: A total of 29 studies comprising of 301,340 individuals were included, of whom 43.7% were classified as low SES. While patients of both SES groups had similar cardiovascular risk profiles, ACS patients of low SES had significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR:1.19, 95%CI: 1.10-1.1.29, p 

  10. Murad MW, Abdullah ABM, Islam MM, Alam MM, Reaiche C, Boyle S
    J Public Health Policy, 2023 Jun;44(2):230-241.
    PMID: 37117262 DOI: 10.1057/s41271-023-00413-w
    We investigated the macroeconomic determinants of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortalities in Bangladesh for the period 1991-2018 and discuss implications of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG 3) and Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) for developing countries. We used annual time series data and the econometric techniques of Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) and Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) regressions for analysis. Determinants most effective in combating neonatal, infant, and under-five mortalities include variables such as 'protecting newborns against tetanus', 'increasing healthcare expenditure', and 'making sure births are attended by skilled healthcare staff'. Employing more healthcare workers and assuring more and improved healthcare provisions can further reduce the neonatal, infant, and under-five mortalities. Developing countries with similar macroeconomic profiles can achieve similar SDG 3 and MDG 4 outcomes by emulating the policies and strategies Bangladesh applied to reducing child mortalities over the last three decades.
    MeSH terms: Bangladesh/epidemiology; Child; Developing Countries*; Health Personnel; Humans; Infant; Infant Mortality*; Infant, Newborn; Child Mortality
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