MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.
Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.
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METHODOLOGY: One hundred and twenty clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae were obtained from patients of University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). The strains were screened using a multiplex real-time PCR method for the presence of alterations in the genes encoding the penicillin binding proteins: pbp2b, macrolide resistance determinant ermB and the pneumolysin gene, ply. Dual-labelled Taqman probes were used in the real-time detection method comprising three different genes labeled with individual fluorophores at different wavelengths. One hundred and twenty isolates from bacterial cultures and isolates directly from blood cultures samples were analyzed using this assay.
RESULTS: A multiplex PCR comprising the antibiotic resistance genes, ermB and and pneumolysin gene (ply), a S. pneumoniae species specific gene, was developed to characterize strains of S. pneumoniae. Out of the 120 pneumococcal isolates, 58 strains were categorized as Penicillin Sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP), 36 as Penicillin Intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae (PISP) and 26 as Penicillin Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP). All the 58 PSSP strains harboured the pbp2b gene while the 36 PISP and 26 PRSP strains did not harbour this gene, thus suggesting reduced susceptibility to penicillin. Resistance to erythromycin was observed in 47 of the pneumococcal strains while 15 and 58 were intermediate and sensitive to this drug respectively. Susceptibility testing to other beta-lactams (CTX and CRO) also showed reduced susceptibility among the strains within the PISP and PRSP groups but most PSSP strains were sensitive to other antibiotics.
CONCLUSION: The characterization of pneumococcal isolates for penicillin and erythromycin resistance genes could be useful to predict the susceptibility of these isolates to other antibiotics, especially beta-lactams drugs. We have developed an assay with a shorter turnaround time to determine the species and resistance profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae with respect to penicillin and macrolides using the Real Time PCR format with fluorescent labeled Taqman probes, hence facilitating earlier and more definitive antimicrobial therapy which may lead to better patient management.
METHODOLOGY: A 12-mer random peptide library expressed on the surface of the filamentous phage, M13, was used to select the mimotopes of two S. Typhi heat shock proteins by biopanning with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), DnaK and HSP90. The immunogenicity of the selected peptides was determined through binding affinity with polyclonal antibodies from pooled typhoid-confirmed patients' sera and purified HSPs mAb using Western blotting and ELISA.
RESULTS: Five rounds of biopanning resulted in enrichment of phage clones expressing the binding motifs TDxSTRP and FPSHYWLYPPPT, respectively. The selected peptides showed strong immunoreactivity with patients' sera. Thus, monoclonal antibodies against HSP and patient sera can select common mimotopes from the random peptide library.
CONCLUSION: These findings may provide fundamental information for further studies on diagnostic application or vaccine design against this aetiologic agent of typhoid fever.
METHOD: A prospective cohort-targeted comprehensive surveillance study on NI associated with usage of devices was conducted in three ICUs in Malaysia using a developed NI surveillance form. Patients who developed infection outside an ICU were excluded from the study.
RESULTS: The device associated NI was 21.1%. The mean duration for development of NI was 10.0 +/- 7.44 days in ICU. The major device-associated infections were nosocomial pneumonia (18.7%) followed by bacteremia (8.5%) and urinary tract infections (4.7%) respectively. NI incidence density rate was 20.6 per 1,000 patient-days. Bacteremia, urinary tract infection (UTI) and nosocomial pneumonia (NP) rates were 8.9, 4.7 and 20.5 per 1,000 patient-days, respectively. Acinetobacter species, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant pathogens isolated from the NIs subjects during the study period in the three ICUs.
CONCLUSION: Analysis of the rate of the NIs associated with usage of devices in the three ICUs showed that it is highly correlated with the use of mechanical ventilation devices, followed by intravascular devices and usage of indwelling urinary catheters.
METHODS: This was a prospective study carried out in normal subjects at the Vascular Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, from March 2006 to September 2006. The study compared the popliteal artery blood flow during change of posture from the horizontal (supine) to the sitting position and the effect of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) of the foot and calf on popliteal artery blood flow immediately and 10 minutes after cessation of compression.
RESULTS: A total of 15 subjects involving 30 limbs were examined in this study. On comparing flows between the horizontal and sitting position, there was a mean reduction in blood flow of 23% (p < 0.005). Immediately after compression of the foot and calf, there was an increase in blood flow of between 4% and 35% with a mean of 15% (p < 0.05). Peak systolic flows at 10 minutes postcompression were 536 +/- 95 mL/min, which was still significantly higher than precompression measurements.
CONCLUSION: There is a significant reduction in popliteal artery blood flow on changing from the supine to the sitting position. Popliteal artery blood flow is higher than baseline after 15 minutes of intermittent pneumatic foot and calf compression. The increase in popliteal artery blood flow is still present 10 minutes after cessation of IPC.
METHODS: This was a prospective randomized comparative trial. Women who required vacuum assisted vaginal delivery were randomized into the Kiwi Omnicup (KO) group and the Malmstrom metal cup (MM) group. The vacuum assisted deliveries were conducted according to hospital protocol. Details of the procedure and delivery outcomes including success and complications were analyzed.
RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-four women were recruited - 85 were assigned to vacuum assisted delivery using the KO and 79 the MM. One hundred percent delivery success was achieved with no significant differences between the two instruments in terms of maternal morbidity (P = 0.66). Six women in the MM group sustained post delivery complications in comparison to five in the KO group. Three babies were diagnosed with birth asphyxia in each group. More babies in the MM group were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) (10 babies versus 5 babies) and suffered complications (14 versus 12 babies), compared to the KO group, although the difference was not statistically significant. There were no intrapartum or neonatal deaths and of those admitted to the NICU, all were discharged within a week without any serious consequences.
CONCLUSION: Kiwi Omnicup is an effective alternative to the currently available Malmstrom metal cup for vacuum assisted delivery with no increase in maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality.