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MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Shariff NM, Shah SA, Kamaludin F
    J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 2019 12;19:274-279.
    PMID: 31100500 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2019.05.009
    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the treatment outcomes of HIV-negative drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) patients in Malaysia. With respect to this issue, this study aimed to determine factors associated with unsuccessful treatment outcomes among drug-resistant TB patients at the Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    METHODS: This retrospective cohort study involved laboratory-confirmed drug-resistant TB patients from January 2009 to June 2013. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the outcome, which was subsequently defined according to the recent definition by the WHO. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows version 22.0.

    RESULTS: Among the 403 patients who were analysed, 66.7% of them were found to have achieved successful outcomes (cured or completed treatment) while the remaining 33.3% had unsuccessful treatment outcomes (defaulted, treatment failure or died). Multivariable analysis showed that the type of resistance [polyresistant (aOR = 3.00, 95% CI 1.14-7.91), multidrug resistant (MDR) (aOR = 5.37, 95% CI 2.65-10.88)], ethnicity [Malay (aOR = 2.86, 95% CI 1.44-5.71), Indian (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI 1.20-7.70)], and treatment non-compliance (aOR = 26.93, 95% CI 14.47-50.10) were the independent risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcomes among this group of patients. Notably, the odds of unsuccessful treatment outcome was also amplified among Malay MDR-TB patients in this study (aOR = 13.44, 95% CI 1.99-90.58).

    CONCLUSION: In order to achieve better treatment outcomes for TB, effective behavioural intervention and thorough investigation on ethnic disparities in TB treatment are needed to promote good compliance.

  2. Lim SY, Tan AH, Ahmad-Annuar A, Klein C, Tan LCS, Rosales RL, et al.
    Lancet Neurol, 2019 09;18(9):865-879.
    PMID: 31175000 DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30195-4
    1·8 billion people of diverse ethnicities and cultures live in the Western Pacific Region. The increasing longevity of populations in this region is a major contributor to the exponential increase in Parkinson's disease prevalence worldwide. Differences exist between Parkinson's disease in the Western Pacific Region and in Europe and North America that might provide important insights into our understanding of the disease and approaches to management. For example, some genetic factors (such as LRRK2 mutations or variants) differ, environmental exposures might play differential roles in modulating the risk of Parkinson's disease, and fewer dyskinesias are reported, with some differences in the profile of non-motor symptoms and comorbidities. Gaps in awareness of the disease and inequitable access to treatments pose challenges. Further improvements in infrastructure, clinical governance, and services, and concerted collaborative efforts in training and research, including greater representation of the Western Pacific Region in clinical trials, will improve care of patients with Parkinson's disease in this region and beyond.
  3. Chendran P, Seng Fai T, Wan Abdul Halim WH, Md Din N
    J. Glaucoma, 2019 10;28(10):e162-e164.
    PMID: 31368915 DOI: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001334
    Ocular pyogenic granuloma is a benign tumor seen after ocular insult secondary to ocular surgeries, trauma or infection. Although benign, intervention is sometimes necessary. Previous authors have reported pyogenic granuloma formation following oculoplastic surgeries. We report a pyogenic granuloma after an Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. A 65-year-old gentleman presented with right eye redness associated with pain and swelling ~2 months after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. Examination found a sessile growth on the tube extruding puss with signs of endophthalmitis. The glaucoma drainage device was explanted and culture results grew Staphylococcus aureus. This article discusses the formation of pyogenic granuloma on a glaucoma drainage device and its management.
  4. Salam AM, Sulaiman K, Alsheikh-Ali AA, Singh R, AlHabib KF, Al-Zakwani I, et al.
    Med Princ Pract, 2020;29(3):270-278.
    PMID: 31522185 DOI: 10.1159/000503334
    OBJECTIVE: Despite the expanding burden of heart failure (HF) worldwide, data on HF precipitating factors (PFs) in developing countries, particularly the Middle East, are very limited. We examined PFs in patients hospitalized with acute HF in a prospective multicenter HF registry from 7 countries in the Middle East.

    METHOD: Data were derived from the Gulf CARE (Gulf aCute heArt failuRe rEgistry) for a prospective, multinational, multicenter study of consecutive patients hospitalized with HF in 47 hospitals in 7 Middle Eastern countries between February 2012 and November 2012. PFs were determined by the treating physician from a predefined list at the time of hospitalization.

    RESULTS: The study included 5,005 patients hospitalized with acute HF, 2,276 of whom (45.5%) were hospitalized with acute new-onset HF (NOHF) and 2,729 of whom (54.5%) had acute decompensated chronic HF (DCHF). PFs were identified in 4,319 patients (86.3%). The most common PF in the NOHF group was acute coronary syndromes (ACS) (39.2%). In the DCHF group, it was noncompliance with medications (27.8%). Overall, noncompliance with medications was associated with a lower inhospital mortality (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.28-0.80; p = 0.005) but a higher 1-year mortality (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.1-1.85; p = 0.007). ACS was associated with higher inhospital mortality (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.26-2.68; p = 0.002) and higher 1-year mortality (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.27-2.06; p = 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Preventive and therapeutic interventions specifically directed at noncompliance with medications and ACS are warranted in our region.

  5. Lin Y, Lin Z, He F, Hu Z, Zimet GD, Alias H, et al.
    Vaccine, 2019 10 16;37(44):6714-6723.
    PMID: 31548016 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.09.026
    BACKGROUND: Little research has been conducted on the intention to obtain HPV vaccine now that the vaccine is approved for use in China. Acceptance of the three HPV vaccines, which differ in valency and price, has never been investigated.

    METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey assessing female undergraduate students' intention to obtain the HPV vaccine and their acceptability of 2-, 4- and 9-valent HPV vaccines (2vHPV, 4vHPV, and 9vHPV, respectively).

    RESULTS: Of a total of 997 complete responses, 55.2% reported intent to obtain the HPV vaccine. Some of the significant factors exerting influence on intent to obtain HPV vaccination were high knowledge score (OR = 1.469, 95% CI:1.087-1.987), perceived high risk of HPV infection (OR = 1.466, 95%CI:1.017-2.114), perception of no serious side effects (OR = 1.562, 95%CI:1.150-2.121), and mass media exposure to HPV vaccination information (OR = 2.196, 95%CI: 1.625-2.966). Socioeconomic status indicators did not significantly influence intent to obtain the HPV vaccine. A higher proportion of respondents were willing to pay for 2vHPV (78.6%) and 4vHPV (68.0%) compared with 9vHPV (49.3%). Socioeconomic status indicators were the strongest correlates of acceptability for all the three vaccines. Exposure to mass media reporting about HPV vaccination is the factor which exerts the most influence on acceptance of 9vHPV after socioeconomic status indicators.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is important to improve knowledge and health beliefs, and to establish a mass media marketing strategy to promote HPV vaccination in order to enhance HPV vaccine uptake. Undergraduate female students should be provided with detailed information about the different valency vaccine choices to help them make informed decisions about immunization.

  6. Abubakar U, Tangiisuran B
    J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 2019 Oct 16;21:148-153.
    PMID: 31628999 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2019.10.007
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the activities and barriers to hospital pharmacists' participation in antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) in Nigerian tertiary hospitals.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional nationwide online survey was conducted over a 6-week period between May and June 2019. Invitation was sent to all the Heads of pharmacy department or pharmacists in charge of infectious diseases (ID) or antimicrobial pharmacists in tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. A validated questionnaire that consists of 24-items was used for data collection.

    RESULTS: Forty-five hospitals were invited and 37 completed the survey (response rate, 82.2%). Five (13.5%) hospitals had a formal antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) team, with each of them having pharmacist representation. Regardless of the existence of an AMS team, hospital pharmacists have implemented AMS strategies, including the evaluation of the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescriptions (54.1%) and monitoring of antimicrobial consumption (48.6%). The most common barriers to pharmacists' involvement in ASP were lack of training in AMS and ID (51.4%), lack of pharmacists with ID specialisation (40.5%) and lack of support from hospital administrators (37.8%). The majority of the pharmacists recommended training in AMS and ID (100%), participation on ward rounds (89.2%) and employment of more pharmacists (73%) as strategies to improve pharmacists' participation in ASP.

    CONCLUSIONS: Hospital pharmacists are actively involved in AMS activities despite the lack of established AMS teams in most tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. However, lack of training and personnel were major barriers to pharmacist's involvement in ASP.

  7. Raman P, Suliman NB, Zahari M, Mohamad NF, Kook MS, Ramli N
    J. Glaucoma, 2019 11;28(11):952-957.
    PMID: 31688446 DOI: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001359
    PRECIS: This 5-year follow-up study on normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients demonstrated that those with baseline central visual field (VF) defect progress at a more increased rate compared with those with peripheral field defect.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics, including 24-hour ocular perfusion pressure and risk of progression in patients with baseline central VF defect, as compared with those with peripheral VF defect in NTG.

    DESIGN: This was a prospective, longitudinal study.

    METHODS: A total of 65 NTG patients who completed 5 years of follow-up were included in this study. All the enrolled patients underwent baseline 24-hour intraocular pressure and blood pressure monitoring via 2-hourly measurements in their habitual position and had ≥5 reliable VF tests during the 5-year follow-up. Patients were assigned to two groups on the basis of VF defect locations at baseline, the central 10 degrees, and the peripheral 10- to 24-degree area. Modified Anderson criteria were used to assess global VF progression over 5 years. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to compare the elapsed time of confirmed VF progression in the two groups. Hazard ratios for the association between clinical risk factors and VF progression were obtained by using Cox proportional hazards models.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the patients with baseline central and peripheral VF defects in terms of demography, clinical, ocular and systemic hemodynamic factors. Eyes with baseline defects involving the central fields progressed faster (difference: βcentral=-0.78 dB/y, 95% confidence interval=-0.22 to -1.33, P=0.007) and have 3.56 times higher hazard of progressing (95% confidence interval=1.17-10.82, P=0.025) than those with only peripheral defects.

    CONCLUSION: NTG patients with baseline central VF involvement are at increased risk of progression compared with those with peripheral VF defect.

  8. Luthfi AAI, Tan JP, Isa NFAM, Bukhari NA, Shah SSM, Mahmod SS, et al.
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2020 Jul;43(7):1153-1169.
    PMID: 32095989 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-020-02311-x
    This study aimed to enhance the crystallizability of bio-based succinic acid for its efficient recovery while maintaining the end product at the highest purity. Immobilization of Actinobacillus succinogenes was initially evaluated based on three different carriers: volcanic glass, clay pebbles, and silica particles. The adsorption capacity of metabolites with a low concentration (10 g/L) and a high concentration (40 g/L) was investigated. It was demonstrated that clay pebbles adsorbed the least succinic acid (
  9. Yap PSX, Ahmad Kamar A, Chong CW, Yap IKS, Teh CSJ
    J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 2020 Apr 15;21:246-251.
    PMID: 32304769 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2020.03.024
    BACKGROUND: Resistance to colistin, the last line therapy for infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria represents a major public health threat. Citrobacter freundii B9-C2 which was isolated from the stool of preterm neonate on the first week of life, displayed resistance to almost all major antibiotics, including colistin. Through whole genome sequencing (WGS), we characterised the genome features that underline the antibiotic-resistance phenotype of this isolate.

    METHODS: Genome of C. freundii B9-C2 was sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform. The assembled genome was annotated and deposited into GenBank under the accession number CP027849.

    RESULTS: Multiple antimicrobial resistance genes including blaCMY-66 were identified. Further, the presence of 15 antibiotic efflux pump-encoding resistance genes, including crp, baeR, hns, patA, emrB, msbA, acrA, acrB, emrR, mdtC, mdtB, mdtG, kdpE, mdfA and msrB were detected and likely to account for the observed cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides and monobactams resistance in C. freundii B9-C2. The isolate also presented unique virulence genes related to biofilm formation, motility and iron uptake. The genome was compared to publicly available genomes and it was closely related to strains with environmental origins.

    CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of intestinal carriage of colistin-resistant C. freundii from the stool of neonate in Malaysia. Using genomic analysis, we have contributed to the understanding of the potential mechanism of resistance and the phylogenetic relationship of the isolates with draft genomes available in the public domain.

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