MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Siti Zaharah, R., Noranizan, M., Son, R., Roselina, K., Yusof, N. L., Koh, P. C., et al.
    Pennywort (Centella asiatica) is a herbaceous vegetable commonly consumed raw as ‘ulam’ or salad. Consumption of raw leafy green vegetables is one of the pathogenic mechanisms that could cause foodborne outbreaks. The aim of the present work was therefore to investigate the effect of pulsed light (PL) treatment at fluences of 1.5, 4.2, 6.9, 9.6, and 12.3 J/cm² on the microbiological and physical quality of pennywort stored at 4 ± 1°C. Escherichia coli (E. coli) were inoculated onto the pennywort leaves before being exposed to PL and viewed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PL fluences of 6.9, 9.6, and 12.3 J/cm² significantly reduced the microbial count; however, the highest inactivation was obtained by using fluences of 9.6 and 12.3 J/cm². The color of pennywort was not significantly affected by PL treatment applied at lower fluences of 1.5, 4.2, and 6.9 J/cm²; however, at higher fluence, 9.6 and 12.3 J/cm², the color was affected. PL at 1.5, 4.2, 6.9, and 9.6 J/cm² was able to retain the texture appearance of the leaves. To conclude, PL at 6.9 J/cm² showed the best fluence to reduce total aerobic mesophilic count while retaining the physical properties of pennywort leaves and extend the shelf life to about four days. The inactivation of E. coli population was significantly higher at PL fluence of 6.9 J/cm². It was observed that PL caused the destruction to the surface of E. coli’s cell membrane. The reductions of samples inoculated with E. coli were better than those achieved in native microbiota. Furthermore, the present work also demonstrated that PL treatment was able to reduce the microbial count on pennywort leaves.
    MeSH terms: Cell Membrane; Color; Disease Outbreaks; Escherichia coli; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Vegetables; Plant Leaves; Centella; Physical Phenomena; Microbiota
  2. McNeil HC, Jefferies JM, Clarke SC
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 2015 06;13(6):705-14.
    PMID: 25962101 DOI: 10.1586/14787210.2015.1033401
    Worldwide bacterial meningitis accounts for more than one million cases and 135,000 deaths annually. Profound, lasting neurological complications occur in 9-25% of cases. This review confirms the greatest risk from bacterial meningitis is in early life in Malaysia. Much of the disease burden can be avoided by immunization, particularly against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Despite inclusion of the Hib vaccine in the National Immunisation Programme and the licensure of pneumococcal vaccines, these two species are the main contributors to bacterial meningitis in Malaysia, with Neisseria meningitidis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, causing a smaller proportion of disease. The high Hib prevalence may partly be due to dated, small-scale studies limiting the understanding of the current epidemiological situation. This highlights the need for larger, better quality surveillance from Malaysia to evaluate the success of Hib immunization and to help guide immunization policy for vaccines against S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis.
    MeSH terms: Age Factors; Humans; Malaysia/epidemiology; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Vaccination; Bacterial Capsules; Meningitis, Bacterial/classification; Meningitis, Bacterial/mortality; Meningitis, Bacterial/prevention & control*; Cost of Illness; Immunization Programs; Haemophilus Vaccines/therapeutic use*; Disease Management; Haemophilus influenzae type b; Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use*
  3. Gwani AS, Asari MA, Mohd Ismail ZI
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2017;76(4):682-688.
    PMID: 28553850 DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2017.0049
    BACKGROUND: The foot is composed of medial, lateral and transverse arches which, particularly the medial arch, provide it with the ability to function both as a flexible and rigid structure for proper locomotion. Arches of the foot, as well as their effect on lower extremity function, have been studied. However, quantitative data on the relationship between these arches still remain scanty. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine how the three arches of the foot intercorrelate.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-six participants (58 males, 18 females) were recruited to participate in the study. Bilateral weight-bearing lateral radiographs of the right foot were taken from each participant. Navicular heights (NH), medial cuneiform height (MCH), calcaneal inclination angle (CIA) and calcaneal-first metatarsal angle (C1MA) were measured to represent the medial arch. The lateral arch was represented by cuboid height (CH) and calcaneal-fifth metatarsal angle (C5MA) whereas; MCH and CH represented the transverse arch. Mean difference of variables between males and females was compared using independent t-test while the correlation between the variables was determined using Pearson correlation.

    RESULTS: All the variables were not significantly related to gender. Significant moderate to excellent linear correlations were observed between the variables. CIA showed the strongest correlation with C1MA (r = -0.90) and C5MA (r = -0.84) whereas, CH had the least correlation with other variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: The moderate to excellent correlations between the variables indicate that deformation or elevation of the medial arch may consequently result in similar movements of the lateral and transverse arches and vice versa.

    MeSH terms: Calcaneus; Female; Foot; Humans; Locomotion; Male; Metatarsal Bones; Tarsal Bones; Weight-Bearing; Lower Extremity
  4. Newton AMJ, Lakshmanan P
    PMID: 30657050 DOI: 10.2174/1871523018666190118112230
    OBJECTIVE: A number of natural polymer-based drug delivery systems targeting the colon are reported for different applications. Most of the research is based on the class of natural polymers such as polysaccharides. This study compares the anti-inflammatory effect of different polysaccharide based tablets on IBD when a drug carrier is targeted to the colon as matrix and coated systems.

    METHODS: The TNBS induced IBD Wistar rats were used as a model for the study. The microscopic and macroscopic parameters were studied in detail. Almost all the important IBD parameters were reported in this work.

    RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the polysaccharides are efficient in carrying the drugs to the colon. Reduction in the level of ulcer index (UI), Myeloperoxidase (MPO), and Malondialdehyde MDA, confirmed the inhibitory activity on the development of Reactive oxygen species (ROS). The increased level of Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) an expression of colonic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was lowered in treatments as compared to TNBS control.

    CONCLUSION: The different polymer-based mesalamine (DPBM) confirmed the efficient anti- inflammatory activity on IBD induced rats. The increased level of glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) also confirmed the effective anti-inflammatory effect. A significant decrease in the ulcer score and ulcer area was reported. The investigation revealed that chitosan is superior to pectin in IBD treatment likewise polysaccharide-based matrix systems are superior to the coated system.

    MeSH terms: Animals; Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use*; Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry; Colon/pathology*; Disease Models, Animal; Humans; Pectins/chemistry*; Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid; Ulcer/drug therapy*; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy*; Drug Delivery Systems/methods*; Rats, Wistar; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism; Mesalamine/chemistry*; Chitosan/chemistry; Rats
  5. Dewi EK, Dahlui M, Chalidyanto D, Rochmah TN
    Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 2020 Jun;20(3):289-294.
    PMID: 31203686 DOI: 10.1080/14737167.2019.1633308
    BACKGROUND: A good drug inventory planning system is important for an efficient budgeting, procurement, and cost control of drugs. When stagnant drugs in the inventory are too much, wastage due to expired and spoiled drugs could occur. These will not only cause loss of income but could also jeopardize healthcare service delivery.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study aimed to determine the most efficient and effective management of stagnant and shortage drugs by comparing three pharmacy logistic methods; the economic order quantity (EOQ), minimum-maximum stock level (MMSL), and the traditional consumption of drug inventory, at RA Basoeni Hospital, Mojokerto. Drug inventory was analyzed to calculate the opportunity loss, opportunity cost, and proportions of both stagnant and shortage drugs.

    RESULTS: We found that EOQ and MMSL performed best for control of stagnant drugs and shortage drugs, respectively. Both methods had proved as effective pharmacy logistic planning. In addition, EOQ produced the lowest opportunity cost for stagnant drugs besides the lowest opportunity loss for shortage drugs.

    CONCLUSION: The study concluded that EOQ is the most effective and efficient method to manage stagnant and shortage drugs at hospital pharmacy.

    MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis; Cost Control; Pharmaceutical Preparations/economics; Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution*; Humans; Indonesia; Inventories, Hospital/economics*; Pharmacy Service, Hospital/economics*; Logistic Models
  6. Rama Chandran S, A Vigersky R, Thomas A, Lim LL, Ratnasingam J, Tan A, et al.
    Diabetes Technol Ther, 2020 02;22(2):103-111.
    PMID: 31502876 DOI: 10.1089/dia.2019.0277
    Complex changes of glycemia that occur in diabetes are not fully captured by any single measure. The Comprehensive Glucose Pentagon (CGP) measures multiple aspects of glycemia to generate the prognostic glycemic risk (PGR), which constitutes the relative risk of hypoglycemia combined with long-term complications. We compare the components of CGP and PGR across type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
    Participants: n = 60 type 1 and n = 100 type 2 who underwent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Mean glucose, coefficient of variation (%CV), intensity of hypoglycemia (INThypo), intensity of hyperglycemia (INThyper), time out-of-range (TOR <3.9 and >10 mmol/L), and PGR were calculated. PGR (median, interquartile ranges [IQR]) for diabetes types, and HbA1c classes were compared.
    While HbA1c was lower in type 1 (type 1 vs. type 2: 8.0 ± 1.6 vs. 8.6 ± 1.7, P = 0.02), CGM-derived mean glucoses were similar across both groups (P > 0.05). TOR, %CV, INThypo, and INThyper were all higher in type 1 [type 1 vs. type 2: 665 (500, 863) vs. 535 (284, 823) min/day; 39% (33, 46) vs. 29% (24, 34); 905 (205, 2951) vs. 18 (0, 349) mg/dL × min2; 42,906 (23,482, 82,120) vs. 30,166 (10,276, 57,183) mg/dL × min2, respectively, all P 
    MeSH terms: Adult; Blood Glucose/analysis*; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy; Female; Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated/analysis*; Humans; Hyperglycemia/chemically induced; Hypoglycemia/chemically induced; Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use; Insulin/therapeutic use; Male; Middle Aged; Prognosis; Time Factors; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring; Glycemic Index*
  7. Catapano M, Vergnano M, Romano M, Mahil SK, Choon SE, Burden AD, et al.
    J Invest Dermatol, 2020 04;140(4):816-826.e3.
    PMID: 31539532 DOI: 10.1016/j.jid.2019.08.444
    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disorder associated with severe systemic comorbidities. Whereas IL-36 is a key disease driver, the pathogenic role of this cytokine has mainly been investigated in skin. Thus, its effects on systemic immunity and extracutaneous disease manifestations remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the consequences of excessive IL-36 activity in circulating immune cells. We initially focused our attention on generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), a clinical variant associated with pervasive upregulation of IL-36 signaling. By undertaking blood and neutrophil RNA sequencing, we demonstrated that affected individuals display a prominent IFN-I signature, which correlates with abnormal IL-36 activity. We then validated the association between IL-36 deregulation and IFN-I over-expression in patients with severe psoriasis vulgaris (PV). We also found that the activation of IFN-I genes was associated with extracutaneous morbidity, in both GPP and PV. Finally, we undertook mechanistic experiments, demonstrating that IL-36 acts directly on plasmacytoid dendritic cells, where it potentiates toll-like receptor (TLR)-9 activation and IFN-α production. This effect was mediated by the upregulation of PLSCR1, a phospholipid scramblase mediating endosomal TLR-9 translocation. These findings identify an IL-36/ IFN-I axis contributing to extracutaneous inflammation in psoriasis.
    MeSH terms: Dendritic Cells/immunology*; Dendritic Cells/metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation*; Humans; Interferons/metabolism*; Interleukin-1/biosynthesis; Interleukin-1/genetics*; Neutrophils/immunology; Neutrophils/metabolism; Psoriasis/immunology*; Psoriasis/metabolism; Psoriasis/pathology; RNA/genetics*; Signal Transduction
  8. Willoughby AR, de Zambotti M, Baker FC, Colrain IM
    Alcohol, 2020 05;84:1-7.
    PMID: 31539623 DOI: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2019.09.005
    There is evidence for impairment in both central nervous system (CNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function with prolonged alcohol use. While these impairments persist into abstinence, partial recovery of function has been demonstrated in both systems during sleep. To investigate potential ANS dysfunction associated with cortical CNS responses (impairment in CNS-ANS coupling), we assessed phasic heart rate (HR) fluctuation associated with tones that did and those that did not elicit a K-complex (KC) during stable N2 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in a group of 16 recently abstinent alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients (41.6 ± 8.5 years) and a group of 13 sex- and age-matched control participants (46.6 ± 9.3 years). Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) data were recorded throughout the night. Alcohol consumption questionnaires were also administered to the AUD patients. AUD patients had elevated HR compared to controls at baseline prior to tone presentation. The HR fluctuation associated with KCs elicited by tone presentation was significantly smaller in amplitude, and tended to be delayed in time, in the AUD group compared with the control group, and the subsequent deceleration was also smaller in AUD patients. In both groups, the increase in HR was larger and occurred earlier when KCs were produced than when they were not, and there was no difference in the magnitude of the KC effect between groups. Phasic HR changes associated with KCs elicited by tones are impaired in AUD participants, reflecting ANS dysfunction possibly caused by an alteration of cardiac vagal trafficking. However, only the timing of the HR response was found to relate to estimated lifetime alcohol consumption in AUD. The clinical meaning and implications of these novel findings need to be determined.
    MeSH terms: Acoustic Stimulation*; Adult; Alcoholism/physiopathology*; Autonomic Nervous System/physiopathology*; Central Nervous System/physiology*; Electrocardiography; Electroencephalography; Evoked Potentials, Auditory*; Female; Heart Rate*; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; San Francisco; Sleep Stages/physiology*; Alcohol Abstinence
  9. Ha ZY, Mathew S, Yeong KY
    Curr Protein Pept Sci, 2020;21(1):99-109.
    PMID: 31702488 DOI: 10.2174/1389203720666191107094949
    Butyrylcholinesterase is a serine hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of esters in the body. Unlike its sister enzyme acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase has a broad substrate scope and lower acetylcholine catalytic efficiency. The difference in tissue distribution and inhibitor sensitivity also points to its involvement external to cholinergic neurotransmission. Initial studies on butyrylcholinesterase showed that the inhibition of the enzyme led to the increment of brain acetylcholine levels. Further gene knockout studies suggested its involvement in the regulation of amyloid-beta, a brain pathogenic protein. Thus, it is an interesting target for neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. The substrate scope of butyrylcholinesterase was recently found to include cocaine, as well as ghrelin, the "hunger hormone". These findings led to the development of recombinant butyrylcholinesterase mutants and viral gene therapy to combat cocaine addiction, along with in-depth studies on the significance of butyrylcholinesterase in obesity. It is observed that the pharmacological impact of butyrylcholinesterase increased in tandem with each reported finding. Not only is the enzyme now considered an important pharmacological target, it is also becoming an important tool to study the biological pathways in various diseases. Here, we review and summarize the biochemical properties of butyrylcholinesterase and its roles, as a cholinergic neurotransmitter, in various diseases, particularly neurodegenerative disorders.
    MeSH terms: Acetylcholine/metabolism; Acetylcholinesterase/genetics; Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism; Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy*; Alzheimer Disease/genetics; Alzheimer Disease/metabolism; Alzheimer Disease/pathology; Brain/drug effects; Brain/metabolism; Butyrylcholinesterase/genetics; Butyrylcholinesterase/metabolism; Butyrylcholinesterase/therapeutic use*; Cocaine/antagonists & inhibitors; Cocaine/metabolism; Humans; Synaptic Transmission; Obesity/drug therapy*; Obesity/genetics; Obesity/metabolism; Obesity/pathology; Parkinson Disease/drug therapy*; Parkinson Disease/genetics; Parkinson Disease/metabolism; Parkinson Disease/pathology; Recombinant Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism; Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use; Substrate Specificity; Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors; Amyloid beta-Peptides/genetics; Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism; Cocaine-Related Disorders/drug therapy*; Cocaine-Related Disorders/genetics; Cocaine-Related Disorders/metabolism; Cocaine-Related Disorders/pathology; Ghrelin/antagonists & inhibitors; Ghrelin/genetics; Ghrelin/metabolism; Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods*
  10. Muthusami S, Vidya B, Shankar EM, Vadivelu J, Ramachandran I, Stanley JA, et al.
    Curr Protein Pept Sci, 2020;21(1):52-65.
    PMID: 31702489 DOI: 10.2174/1389203720666191106113435
    Hormones are known to influence various body systems that include skeletal, cardiac, digestive, excretory, and immune systems. Emerging investigations suggest the key role played by secretions of endocrine glands in immune cell differentiation, proliferation, activation, and memory attributes of the immune system. The link between steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids and inflammation is widely known. However, the role of peptide hormones and amino acid derivatives such as growth and thyroid hormones, prolactin, dopamine, and thymopoietin in regulating the functioning of the immune system remains unclear. Here, we reviewed the findings pertinent to the functional role of hormone-immune interactions in health and disease and proposed perspective directions for translational research in the field.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Cell Communication; Dopamine/genetics; Dopamine/immunology; Dopamine/metabolism; Endocrine System Diseases/genetics; Endocrine System Diseases/immunology; Endocrine System Diseases/metabolism*; Endocrine System Diseases/pathology; Endocrine System/cytology; Endocrine System/immunology; Endocrine System/metabolism*; Glucocorticoids/genetics; Glucocorticoids/immunology; Glucocorticoids/metabolism; Humans; Immune System/cytology; Immune System/immunology; Immune System/metabolism*; Immune System Diseases/genetics; Immune System Diseases/immunology; Immune System Diseases/metabolism*; Immune System Diseases/pathology; Prolactin/genetics; Prolactin/immunology; Prolactin/metabolism*; Receptors, Dopamine/genetics; Receptors, Dopamine/immunology; Receptors, Dopamine/metabolism; Growth Hormone/genetics; Growth Hormone/immunology; Growth Hormone/metabolism*; Thyroid Hormones/genetics; Thyroid Hormones/immunology; Thyroid Hormones/metabolism; Cytokines/genetics; Cytokines/immunology; Cytokines/metabolism; Lactotrophs/cytology; Lactotrophs/immunology; Lactotrophs/metabolism; Somatotrophs/cytology; Somatotrophs/immunology; Somatotrophs/metabolism; Thymocytes/cytology; Thymocytes/immunology; Thymocytes/metabolism*
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