MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Aujara KM, Chieng BW, Ibrahim NA, Zainuddin N, Thevy Ratnam C
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Apr 18;20(8).
    PMID: 31003413 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20081910
    Gamma-ray radiation was used as a clean and easy method for turning the physicochemical properties of graphene oxide (GO) in this study. Silane functionalized-GO were synthesized by chemically grafting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTES) onto GO surface using gamma-ray irradiation. This established non-contact process is used to create a reductive medium which is deemed simpler, purer and less harmful compared conventional chemical reduction. The resulting functionalized-GO were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Raman spectroscopy. The chemical interaction of silane with the GO surface was confirmed by FT-IR. X-ray diffraction reveals the change in the crystalline phases was due to surface functionalization. Surface defects of the GO due to the introduction of silane mioties was revealed by Raman spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis of the functionalized-GO exhibits a multiple peaks in the temperature range of 200-650 °C which corresponds to the degradation of chemically grafted silane on the GO surface.
  2. Taha M, Rahim F, Ali M, Khan MN, Alqahtani MA, Bamarouf YA, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Apr 18;24(8).
    PMID: 31003424 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24081528
    Chromen-4-one substituted oxadiazole analogs 1-19 have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for β-glucuronidase inhibition. All analogs exhibited a variable degree of β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging in between 0.8 ± 0.1-42.3 ± 0.8 μM when compared with the standard d-saccharic acid 1,4 lactone (IC50 = 48.1 ± 1.2 μM). Structure activity relationship has been established for all compounds. Molecular docking studies were performed to predict the binding interaction of the compounds with the active site of enzyme.
  3. Fawzy AS, Daood U, Matinlinna JP
    Dent Mater, 2019 Apr 16.
    PMID: 31003759 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2019.04.001
    OBJECTIVE: This study introduced the potential and proof-of-concept of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) technology for dentin-surface treatment for resin-dentin bonding without acid-aided demineralization. This new strategy could provide a way to enhance interface-integrity and bond-durability by changing the nature of dentin-substrate; bonded-interface structure and properties; and minimizing denuded-collagen exposure.

    METHODS: The interaction between HIFU waves and dentin-surface in terms of structural, mechanical and chemical variations were investigated by SEM, TEM, AFM, nano-indentation and Raman-analysis. The bonding between HIFU-treated dentin and two-step, etch-and-rinse, adhesive was preliminary explored by characterizing dentin-bound proteases activities, resin-dentin interfacial morphology and bond-durability with HIFU exposure at different time-points of 60, 90 and 120 s compared to conventional acid-etching technique.

    RESULTS: With the increase in HIFU exposure-time from 60-to-120 s, HIFU waves were able to remove the smear-layer, expose dentinal-tubules and creating textured/rough dentin surface. In addition, dentin surfaces showed a pattern of interlocking ribbon-like minerals-coated collagen-fibrils protruding from the underlaying amorphous dentin-background with HIFU exposure for 90 s and 120 s. This characteristic pattern of dentin-surface showing inorganic-minerals associated/aligned with collagen-fibrils, with 90-to-120 s HIFU-treatment, was confirmed by the Raman-analysis. HIFU-treated specimens showed higher nano-indentation properties and lower concentrations of active MMP-2 and Cathepsin-K compared to the acid-etched specimens. The resin-dentin bonded interface revealed the partial/complete absence of the characteristic hybrid-layer formed with conventional etch-and-rinse bonding strategy. Additionally, resin-infiltration and resin-tags formation were enhanced with the increase in HIFU exposure-time to 120 s. Although, all groups showed significant decrease in bond-strength after 12 months compared to 24 h storage in artificial saliva, groups exposed to HIFU for 90 s and 120 s showed significantly higher μTBS compared to the control acid-etched group.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The implementation of HIFU-technology for dental hard-tissues treatment could be of potential significance in adhesive/restorative dentistry owing to its ability of controlled, selective and localised combined tissue alteration/ablation effects.

  4. Sah SK, Samuel VP, Dahiya S, Singh Y, Gilhotra RM, Gupta G, et al.
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2019 Apr 17.
    PMID: 31004596 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2019.04.022
    Major challenges of dealing elder patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are the individualization of consideration in persons with various comorbid types of conditions. In spite of the fact that microvascular and macrovascular problems associated with DM are well documented, there is only a few numbers of reports viewing different conditions, for example, cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive dysfunction is of specific significance due to its effect on self-care and quality of life. All in all, the etiology of cognitive dysfunction in the maturing populace is probably going to be the grouping of ischemic and degenerative pathology. It is likewise trusted that Hyperglycemia is engaged with the system of DM-related cognitive dysfunction. At present, it isn't certain in the case of enhancing glycemic control or utilizing therapeutic agents can enhance the risk of cognitive decay. Amylin was later characterized as an amyloidogenic peptide, confined from a beta cell tumor and called islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), and after that, amylin. Conversely, we investigate the beneficial role and hypothesizing the mechanism of amylin related expanding the level and activation of CGRP receptor to enhance the cognition declination amid diabetic dementia.
    MeSH terms: Blood Glucose; Cognition; Dementia; Humans; Hyperglycemia; Insulinoma; Pancreatic Neoplasms; Quality of Life; Risk; Self Care; Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide; Islet Amyloid Polypeptide
  5. Sologashvili T, Saat SA, Tille JC, De Valence S, Mugnai D, Pierre Giliberto J, et al.
    Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 2019 Apr 17.
    PMID: 31004790 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2019.04.012
    OBJECTIVE: Vascular prostheses for small caliber bypass grafts in cardiac and vascular diseases or for access surgery are still missing. Poly (Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) has been previously investigated by our group and showed good biocompatibility and mechanical properties in vitro and rapid endothelialisation, cellular infiltration and vascularisation in vivo yielding optimal patency in the abdominal aortic position. The aim of the present study is to evaluate our PCL graft in the carotid position and to compare its outcome to the grafts implanted in the abdominal aortic position.

    METHODS: PCL grafts (1mm ID / 10mm long) were implanted into the left common carotid artery in 20 Sprague-Dawley rats and compared to our previously published series of abdominal aortic implants. The animals were followed up to 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. At each time point, in vivo compliance, angiography and histological examination with morphology were performed.

    RESULTS: PCL grafts showed good mechanical properties and ease of handling. The average graft compliance was 14.5 ± 1.7%/ mmHg compared to 7.8 ± 0.9% for the abdominal position and 45.1 ± 3.2%/ mmHg for the native carotid artery. The overall patency for the carotid position was 65% as compared to 100% in the abdominal position. Complete endothelialisation was achieved at 3 weeks and cell invasion was more rapid than in the aortic position. In contrast, intimal hyperplasia (IH) and vascular density were less pronounced than in the aortic position CONCLUSION: Our PCL grafts in the carotid position were well endothelialised with early cellular infiltration, higher compliance, lower IH and calcification compared to the similar grafts implanted in the aortic position. However, there was a higher occlusion rate compared to our abdominal aorta series. Anatomical position, compliance mismatch, flow conditions may answer the difference in patency seen.

  6. Garba S, Sazili AQ, Mahadzir MF, Candyrine SCL, Jahromi MF, Ebrahimi M, et al.
    Meat Sci., 2019 Apr 09;154:61-68.
    PMID: 31004941 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2019.04.008
    This study investigated the carcass characteristics, physico-chemical properties, storage stability and cholesterol content of meat from goats fed with different levels of naturally-produced lovastatin used to mitigate enteric methane production. Twenty intact Saanen male goats of 5-6 months old with initial live weight of 25.8 ± 4.0 kg were randomly allotted into four dietary treatments containing 0 (Control), 2 (Low), 4 (Medium) and 6 mg (High) per kg live weight (LW) of naturally-produced lovastatin for 12 consecutive weeks. No differences were found in all the parameters measured except for full LW, hot and cold carcass weight, shear force, color and cholesterol content among the treatment groups. Aging had significant effects on all the parameters measured in this study except a* (redness) of meat. Meat samples in the Medium and High treatments were of higher lightness and yellowness, more tender and lower cholesterol levels. We conclude that, in addition to mitigate enteric methane emissions, dietary supplementation of naturally-produced lovastatin at 4 mg/kg LW could be a feasible feeding strategy to produce tender meat containing lower cholesterol.
  7. Lee JJJ, Loh WP
    Comput. Biol. Med., 2019 Apr 06;108:213-222.
    PMID: 31005013 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2019.04.003
    Good badminton lunge skills have been quantitatively described using biomechanical attributes at both static and dynamic phases. The measurement of badminton lunge attributes has often been complicated by various experimental protocols used. No review article has considered or critically reviewed the attributes that align with badminton lunge performance. This paper, hence, presents a review of badminton lunge postures governed by various determinant attributes. This review was performed by involving a number of relevant search engines. A total of 21 articles that fulfilled the predefined inclusion criteria were analysed. The lunge determinant attributes, such as time, lunge distance, plantar, ground reaction force, joint, dynamic balance and muscle attributes, had been examined. Contradictory findings in the dynamic balance attributes, specifically the relative displacement between the centre of mass and the centre of pressure, are presented in this paper. The findings showed that time, lunge distance and ground reaction force determined lunge performance. On the other hand, plantar, joint, dynamic balance and muscle attributes appeared useful in minimising injuries to ensure efficient lunge performance.
    MeSH terms: Posture; Pressure; Rotation; Racquet Sports; Search Engine
  8. Ahmad MH, Ibrahim MI, Mohamed Z, Ismail N, Abdullah MA, Shueb RH, et al.
    PMID: 30999608 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16081380
    Thank you for the comments received on the article "The Sensitivity, Specificity and Accuracy of Warning Signs in Predicting Severe Dengue, the Severe Dengue Prevalence and its Associated Factors" [...].
    MeSH terms: Dengue; Sensitivity and Specificity; Prevalence; Severe Dengue
  9. Benchoula K, Khatib A, Quzwain FMC, Che Mohamad CA, Wan Sulaiman WMA, Abdul Wahab R, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Apr 17;24(8).
    PMID: 30999617 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24081506
    A standard protocol to develop type 1 diabetes in zebrafish is still uncertain due to unpredictable factors. In this study, an optimized protocol was developed and used to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of Psychotria malayana leaf. The aims of this study were to develop a type 1 diabetic adult zebrafish model and to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the plant extract on the developed model. The ability of streptozotocin and alloxan at a different dose to elevate the blood glucose levels in zebrafish was evaluated. While the anti-diabetic activity of P. malayana aqueous extract was evaluated through analysis of blood glucose and LC-MS analysis fingerprinting. The results indicated that a single intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg/kg alloxan was the optimal dose to elevate the fasting blood glucose in zebrafish. Furthermore, the plant extract at 1, 2, and 3 g/kg significantly reduced blood glucose levels in the diabetic zebrafish. In addition, LC-MS-based fingerprinting indicated that 3 g/kg plant extract more effective than other doses. Phytosterols, sugar alcohols, sugar acid, free fatty acids, cyclitols, phenolics, and alkaloid were detected in the extract using GC-MS. In conclusion, P. malayana leaf aqueous extract showed anti-diabetic activity on the developed type 1 diabetic zebrafish model.
    MeSH terms: Alkaloids; Alloxan; Animals; Blood Glucose; Chromatography, Liquid; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Fasting; Fatty Acids, Nonesterified; Injections, Intraperitoneal; Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; Phytosterols; Plant Extracts; Streptozocin; Sugar Acids; Sugar Alcohols; Zebrafish; Plant Leaves; Psychotria; Tandem Mass Spectrometry; Cyclitols
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