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MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Othman N, Nagoor NH
    Int J Oncol, 2019 01;54(1):306-314.
    PMID: 30365047 DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2018.4602
    The silencing of Bcl‑xL in the non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, A549, downregulates miR‑361‑5p expression. This study aimed to determine the biological effects of miR‑361‑5p on NSCLC, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which apoptosis is regulated. MicroRNA (miRNA or miR) functional analyses were performed via transfection of miR‑361‑5p mimics and inhibitors, demonstrating that the inhibition of miR‑361‑5p induced the apoptosis of NSCLC cells. To elucidate the function of miR‑361‑5p in vivo, cells transfected with miR‑361‑5p inhibitors were microinjected into zebrafish embryos, and immunostained using antibodies to detect the active form of caspase‑3. Co-transfection with siBcl‑xL and miR‑361‑5p mimics illustrated the association between Bcl‑xL, miR‑361‑5p and apoptosis; miR‑361‑5p mimics blocked the apoptosis initiated by siBcl‑xL. Luciferase reporter assays identified mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (SMAD2) as a novel target of miR‑361‑5p and the reduction of its protein level was validated by western blot analysis. To confirm the molecular mechanisms through which apoptosis is regulated, gene rescue experiments revealed that the ectopic expression of SMAD2 attenuated the inhibitory effects on apoptosis induced by miR‑361‑5p. In this study, to the best of our knowledge, we provide the first evidence that miR‑361‑5p functions as an oncomiR in A549 and SK‑LU‑1 cells through the regulation of SMAD2, suggesting that miR‑361‑5p may be employed as a potential therapeutic target for the miRNA-based therapy of NSCLC.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics*; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism; Humans; Lung Neoplasms/genetics*; Lung Neoplasms/metabolism; Transfection; Zebrafish/embryology; Down-Regulation; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic; 3' Untranslated Regions; MicroRNAs/genetics*; Cell Line, Tumor; bcl-X Protein/genetics; Smad2 Protein/genetics*; Smad2 Protein/metabolism*; A549 Cells
  2. Chan SJ, Niu W, Hayakawa K, Hamanaka G, Wang X, Cheah PS, et al.
    Stem Cells Transl Med, 2019 12;8(12):1242-1248.
    PMID: 31483567 DOI: 10.1002/sctm.19-0159
    Biomaterials provide novel platforms to deliver stem cell and growth factor therapies for central nervous system (CNS) repair. The majority of these approaches have focused on the promotion of neural progenitor cells and neurogenesis. However, it is now increasingly recognized that glial responses are critical for recovery in the entire neurovascular unit. In this study, we investigated the cellular effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) containing hydrogels on primary astrocyte cultures. Both EGF alone and EGF-hydrogel equally promoted astrocyte proliferation, but EGF-hydrogels further enhanced astrocyte activation, as evidenced by a significantly elevated Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene expression. Thereafter, conditioned media from astrocytes activated by EGF-hydrogel protected neurons against injury and promoted synaptic plasticity after oxygen-glucose deprivation. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGF-hydrogels can shift astrocytes into neuro-supportive phenotypes. Consistent with this idea, quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) demonstrated that EGF-hydrogels shifted astrocytes in part by downregulating potentially negative A1-like genes (Fbln5 and Rt1-S3) and upregulating potentially beneficial A2-like genes (Clcf1, Tgm1, and Ptgs2). Further studies are warranted to explore the idea of using biomaterials to modify astrocyte behavior and thus indirectly augment neuroprotection and neuroplasticity in the context of stem cell and growth factor therapies for the CNS. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:1242&1248.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Astrocytes/cytology*; Astrocytes/drug effects; Cell Differentiation; Cells, Cultured; Epidermal Growth Factor/pharmacology*; Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology*; Hydrogels/chemistry*; Rats; Neural Stem Cells/cytology*; Neural Stem Cells/drug effects
  3. Klionsky DJ, Abdel-Aziz AK, Abdelfatah S, Abdellatif M, Abdoli A, Abel S, et al.
    Autophagy, 2021 Jan;17(1):1-382.
    PMID: 33634751 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280
    In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
  4. Packirisamy V, Sadacharan CM
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2021 Dec;20(12):3991-4000.
    PMID: 33706422 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.14062
    BACKGROUND: Eyebrows are an important esthetic feature of the face. In cosmetic surgery, knowledge about the patient's preference of eyebrow apex position is important to achieve agreeable esthetic results.

    AIM: To study the preference of eyebrow apex positions on the different facial shapes in the Malaysian population.

    METHODS: A frontal view photograph of a female model was morphed into oval, square, round, and long facial shapes. Four types of brow apex were created on each facial shape, A. above the midpupil (A-MP), B. above the lateral limbus (A-LL), C. halfway between the lateral limbus and lateral canthus (A-HF) and D. above the lateral canthus (A-LC). Out of the four brow apexes, the respondent selected one esthetically appealing brow apex for each facial shape. A total of 441 Malaysians completed the survey questionnaire. Differences in preference between the ethnic groups were analyzed by the chi-square test.

    RESULTS: The majority of Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Indians (MI) subjects found A-LL as attractive on the oval (MC-73%, MI-52%), square (MC-42%, MI-42%), round (MC-45%, MI-40%) and long (MC-39%, MI-44%) shape, but the Malaysian Malays preferred more the A-HF on long (42%) and round (42%) face. While the Malaysian Indians least preferred the A-MP on the oval (4%), square (5%), round (6%), and long (5%). A significant difference in preference of apex position was observed between MC versus MI and MC versus MM in both oval and square faces. On the round face, the difference was noted between all the ethnic groups. However, on the long face, a significant difference was noted only between MI and MM.

    CONCLUSIONS: Significant interethnic differences exist in the preference of eyebrow apex position on the facial shapes.

  5. Ponnuvelu K, Saniasiaya J, Abdul Gani N
    Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis, 2021 Dec;138(6):505-507.
    PMID: 33712397 DOI: 10.1016/j.anorl.2020.09.015
  6. Saha P, Mukherjee D, Singh PK, Ahmadian A, Ferrara M, Sarkar R
    Sci Rep, 2021 04 15;11(1):8304.
    PMID: 33859222 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-87523-1
    COVID-19, a viral infection originated from Wuhan, China has spread across the world and it has currently affected over 115 million people. Although vaccination process has already started, reaching sufficient availability will take time. Considering the impact of this widespread disease, many research attempts have been made by the computer scientists to screen the COVID-19 from Chest X-Rays (CXRs) or Computed Tomography (CT) scans. To this end, we have proposed GraphCovidNet, a Graph Isomorphic Network (GIN) based model which is used to detect COVID-19 from CT-scans and CXRs of the affected patients. Our proposed model only accepts input data in the form of graph as we follow a GIN based architecture. Initially, pre-processing is performed to convert an image data into an undirected graph to consider only the edges instead of the whole image. Our proposed GraphCovidNet model is evaluated on four standard datasets: SARS-COV-2 Ct-Scan dataset, COVID-CT dataset, combination of covid-chestxray-dataset, Chest X-Ray Images (Pneumonia) dataset and CMSC-678-ML-Project dataset. The model shows an impressive accuracy of 99% for all the datasets and its prediction capability becomes 100% accurate for the binary classification problem of detecting COVID-19 scans. Source code of this work can be found at GitHub-link .
    MeSH terms: Humans; Radiography, Thoracic/methods*; Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods*; Neural Networks (Computer)*; Datasets as Topic
  7. Bongiovanni T, Yin MOL, Heaney L
    Int J Sports Med, 2021 Dec;42(13):1143-1158.
    PMID: 34256388 DOI: 10.1055/a-1524-2095
    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites produced in the gut via microbial fermentation of dietary fibers referred to as microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs). Acetate, propionate, and butyrate have been observed to regulate host dietary nutrient metabolism, energy balance, and local and systemic immune functions. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown links between the presence of bacteria-derived SCFAs and host health through the blunting of inflammatory processes, as well as purported protection from the development of illness associated with respiratory infections. This bank of evidence suggests that SCFAs could be beneficial to enhance the athlete's immunity, as well as act to improve exercise recovery via anti-inflammatory activity and to provide additional energy substrates for exercise performance. However, the mechanistic basis and applied evidence for these relationships in humans have yet to be fully established. In this narrative review, we explore the existing knowledge of SCFA synthesis and the functional importance of the gut microbiome composition to induce SCFA production. Further, changes in gut microbiota associated with exercise and various dietary MACs are described. Finally, we provide suggestions for future research and practical applications, including how these metabolites could be manipulated through dietary fiber intake to optimize immunity and energy metabolism.
  8. Abdul Rashid N, Lee K, Jamil NA
    Nurs Health Sci, 2021 Dec;23(4):967-973.
    PMID: 34370379 DOI: 10.1111/nhs.12872
    The COVID-19 pandemic has considerably hampered research practices, putting many research activities on hold. Researchers may experience difficulties arising from the unprecedented challenge, specifically during the data collection process. The main difficulties include delayed projects due to the movement control order imposed by the government. However, the advancement of information technology and the broad use of smartphones have favorable implications on qualitative research during the pandemic. This article is based on two qualitative researchers' experience doing fieldwork, specifically the difficulties encountered by the research teams and the strategies adopted to ensure the success of the projects. Both research projects used in-depth interviews as the main method for data collection. Reflective journals and field notes were used to enhance the quality of information obtained in both studies. It is hoped that this article may benefit other qualitative researchers by facilitating a successful data collection process during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  9. Goh GB, Chan WK, Wong VW
    Hepatology, 2021 Dec;74(6):2939-2941.
    PMID: 34374110 DOI: 10.1002/hep.32095
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