MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Norainah Abdul Rahman, Nor Ashikin Ab Manan, Nor Liza Saad, Kamariah Abdullah, Nur Shaffiqa Muhammad Soffian, Aizazi Lutfi Ahmad
    Jurnal Inovasi Malaysia, 2018;1(2):125-144.
    Planning guidelines are important tools in controlling the development of housing projects in urban and rural areas to ensure sustainable development (a development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations in meet their own needs). Planning guidelines are used by local planning authorities (PBPT) to ensure uniformity, comfort and safety in land use activities to achieve effective housing development projects which meet the needs of the communities and create a comfortable living environment. The local planning authorities have developed a set of planning guidelines to be adhered to in all development projects in Malaysia. The main problem of the existing planning guidelines is that they are prepared in the form of reports which are not user friendly. In order to address this problem, a digital version of planning guidelines called the Public Facilities Guidelines Calculator for Sustainable Housing Development is invented. The main objective of this invention is to develop a digital version of planning guidelines which are more user friendly to help the users in accessing the ‘exact’ information ‘easily’ and in an ‘express’ manner (3E’s). The calculator is hoped to be able to provide assistance to town planners, consultants, land developers, and students in preparing the development layout which fulfils the development requirements for planning permission applications. Additionally, the calculator is expected to ease the job of local authorities in determining whether the proposed development layout is aligned with the planning guidelines so that timely planning permission can be issued.
  2. Sulaiman Mahzan, Siti Fairuz Nurr Sadikan, Mohd Ab Malek Md Shah, Mohd Harun Shahudin, Shamsol Shafie, Mohamad Hafidz Rahmat
    Jurnal Inovasi Malaysia, 2018;2(1):1-16.
    Tajweed is one of most important elements in learning of al-Quran recitation accordingly. Long and short or even buzzing (dengung) in quran recitation would give a different meaning. Traditional learning method is still considered as the main option in learning the tajweed but a new requirement that necessarily suits to recent technology and game-based learning method is most preferred among youngsters nowadays. There are a lot of significant relationships between game-based learning with positive impact on learning capabilities. The development of game-based learning or edutainment shows a good potential but perception on tajweed game-based learning or edutainment must be discovered. The methodology of this study is divided into two main components; the development of application of edutainment called as ‘Teroka Tajwid’; and purview study on the perception towardsthe application which has become the main focus of this study. Model of Rapid Application Development (RAD) was chosen as the model of the application development and a quantitative survey was conducted to evaluate the users’ perception on design; audio, video and visual; and navigation and userfriendly. As a result, overall, the survey has shown that the performance of the application is suitable and attractive in learning basic tajweed.
  3. Hasan SS, Kow CS, Dawoud D, Mohamed O, Baines D, Babar ZU
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2018 Nov 06;18:18-23.
    PMID: 30414506 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2018.08.007
    Medicine price directly affects affordability and access to medicines particularly in countries where a major portion of pharmaceutical spending is through out-of-pocket payment, such as in the Asia Pacific region. We have undertaken a detailed appraisal of the pharmaceutical policy reforms to regulate drug prices in 3 developed (Australia, New Zealand, and South Korea) and 3 emerging (China, India, and Malaysia) economies of the Asia Pacific region. Despite continuous efforts by the authorities in adopting a wide range of reformatory pharmaceutical pricing policies to ensure affordability of medicines, these policies may not be optimal where drug prices were not lowered as expected (eg, in Korea). On the contrary, considerable price reductions of various pharmaceuticals have been observed in New Zealand and India because of the reform in pharmaceutical pricing policy. This review of pharmaceutical pricing reforms reinforces the need for constant monitoring by policy makers in Asia Pacific countries to regulate drug prices and to undertake reform in pharmaceutical pricing policies when necessary to ensure affordability and access to medicines.
    MeSH terms: Asia; Australia; China; Costs and Cost Analysis; Drug and Narcotic Control; Health Expenditures; India; Malaysia; New Zealand; Republic of Korea
  4. Jannoo Z, Mamode Khan N
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2018 Nov 08;18:30-35.
    PMID: 30419448 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2018.06.003
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing at an alarming rate in developing countries. The accompanying complications of T2DM can be reduced by maintaining a good adherence to medication and self-care activities.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate medication adherence and self-care behaviors among patients with T2DM.

    METHODS: A total of 497 subjects with T2DM were recruited from three hospitals and a government clinic in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Previously validated scales were used to measure medication adherence (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale) and diabetes self-care activities (Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities). Pearson correlation coefficient was used to investigate the relationship between the risk factors and medication adherence. Pearson χ2 test of association was used to test significant association.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 55.5 years. The mean Morisky Medication Adherence Scale score was 5.65 ± 1.97, indicating a moderate adherence level to medication. Among the subjects who had low adherence level, 50.9% were Malays, followed by 34.2% Indians. The Pearson χ2 test of association indicated a significant association (P = 0.000) between ethnicity and medication adherence. The subjects had better self-care behaviors in their general diet (mean 5.04 ± 1.88) and poor self-care behaviors in blood sugar testing (mean 2.13 ± 2.34).

    CONCLUSIONS: The Malaysians had a moderate medication adherence level, whereas they were nonadherent to blood glucose testing. Emphasis on self-care activities and medication adherence is relevant to improve outcomes in the management of T2DM.

  5. Pakalapati H, Arumugasamy SK, Jewaratnam J, Wong YJ, Khalid M
    Biopolymers, 2018 Dec;109(12):e23240.
    PMID: 30489632 DOI: 10.1002/bip.23240
    A statistical approach with D-optimal design was used to optimize the process parameters for polycaprolactone (PCL) synthesis. The variables selected were temperature (50°C-110°C), time (1-7 h), mixing speed (50-500 rpm) and monomer/solvent ratio (1:1-1:6). Molecular weight was chosen as response and was determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI TOF). Using the D-optimal method in design of experiments, the interactions between parameters and responses were analysed and validated. The results show a good agreement with a minimum error between the actual and predicted values.
    MeSH terms: Algorithms; Candida/enzymology*; Fungal Proteins/metabolism*; Kinetics; Lipase/metabolism*; Models, Chemical; Molecular Weight; Polyesters/metabolism*; Polyesters/chemistry; Temperature; Time Factors; Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization; Biocatalysis
  6. Abunama T, Othman F, Ansari M, El-Shafie A
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Feb;26(4):3368-3381.
    PMID: 30511225 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3749-5
    Leachate is one of the main surface water pollution sources in Selangor State (SS), Malaysia. The prediction of leachate amounts is elementary in sustainable waste management and leachate treatment processes, before discharging to surrounding environment. In developing countries, the accurate evaluation of leachate generation rates has often considered a challenge due to the lack of reliable data and high measurement costs. Leachate generation is related to several factors, including meteorological data, waste generation rates, and landfill design conditions. The high variations in these factors lead to complicating leachate modeling processes. This study aims at identifying the key elements contributing to leachate production and developing various AI-based models to predict leachate generation rates. These models included Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-Multi-linear perceptron (MLP) with single and double hidden layers, and support vector machine (SVM) regression time series algorithms. Various performance measures were applied to evaluate the developed model's accuracy. In this study, input optimization process showed that three inputs were acceptable for modeling the leachate generation rates, namely dumped waste quantity, rainfall level, and emanated gases. The initial performance analysis showed that ANN-MLP2 model-which applies two hidden layers-achieved the best performance, then followed by ANN-MLP1 model-which applies one hidden layer and three inputs-while SVM model gave the lowest performance. Ranges and frequency of relative error (RE%) also demonstrate that ANN-MLP models outperformed SVM models. Furthermore, low and peak flow criterion (LFC and PFC) assessment of leachate inflow values in ANN-MLP model with two hidden layers made more accurate values than other models. Since minimizing data collection and processing efforts as well as minimizing modeling complexity are critical in the hydrological modeling process, the applied input optimization process and the developed models in this study were able to provide a good performance in the modeling of leachate generation efficiently.
    MeSH terms: Algorithms; Artificial Intelligence*; Gases; Malaysia; Models, Theoretical*; Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*; Water Pollution, Chemical/analysis; Water Pollution, Chemical/prevention & control; Waste Management/methods; Support Vector Machine; Hydrology/methods; Waste Disposal Facilities*
  7. Lim PF, Leong KH, Sim LC, Abd Aziz A, Saravanan P
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Feb;26(4):3455-3464.
    PMID: 30515688 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3821-1
    In this work, a sunlight-sensitive photocatalyst of nanocubic-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) and N-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) is developed through a simple hydrothermal and physical mixing method. The successful amalgamation composite photocatalyst characteristics were comprehensively scrutinized through various physical and chemical analyses. A complete removal of bisphenol A (BPA) is attained by a synthesized composite after 30 min of sunlight irradiation as compared to pure TiO2. This clearly proved the unique contribution of N-GQDs that enhanced the ability of light harvesting especially under visible light and near-infrared region. This superior characteristic enables it to maximize the absorbance in the entire solar spectrum. However, the increase of N-GQDs weight percentage has created massive oxygen vacancies that suppress the generation of active radicals. This resulted in a longer duration for a complete removal of BPA as compared to lower weight percentage of N-GQDs. Hence, this finding can offer a new insight in developing effective sunlight-sensitive photocatalysts for various complex organic pollutants degradation.
    MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/chemistry*; Catalysis; Environmental Pollutants/chemistry; Graphite/chemistry*; Phenols/chemistry*; Sunlight; Titanium/chemistry*; Quantum Dots/chemistry*; Photochemical Processes
  8. Buang SN, Ja'afar S, Pathmanathan I, Saint V
    BMJ, 2018 Dec 07;363:k4602.
    PMID: 30530626 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.k4602
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control; Cooperative Behavior; Female; Government; Humans; Malaysia; Preventive Health Services/methods*; Vaccination*; Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control*; Papillomavirus Vaccines*; Public-Private Sector Partnerships
  9. Dawaki S, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Ithoi I
    Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2019 Apr 01;113(4):169-182.
    PMID: 30551211 DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/try128
    BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem worldwide, particularly among underprivileged communities in developing countries including Nigeria. The present study aimed to determine the epidemiology of polyparasitism (multiple parasitic infections) among rural communities in Kano State, North Central Nigeria.

    METHODS: A total of 551 individuals were screened for the presence of intestinal, urogenital and blood parasites by using different diagnostic techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, household and behavioural characteristics were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Overall, 84.0% (463/551) of the participants were found to be infected with at least one parasite species, with 51.2% (282/551) of them having polyparasitism. The most prevalent parasites were Plasmodium falciparum (60.6%) followed by Blastocystis sp. (29.2%) and hookworm (15.4%). No significant association was found between malaria and helminth infections (p>0.05). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the presence of other family members who had intestinal polyparasitism (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=4.12; 95% CI=2.72, 6.24), walking barefoot outside (AOR=1.70; 95% CI=1.09, 2.63) and being male (AOR=1.74; 95% CI=1.14, 2.66) were the significant risk factors of intestinal polyparasitism among the population studied.

    CONCLUSION: Polyparasitism is highly prevalent among rural communities in Kano State. Therefore, effective, sustainable and integrated control measures should be identified and implemented to significantly reduce the burden and consequences of these infections in rural Nigeria.

    MeSH terms: Ancylostomatoidea; Animals; Developing Countries; Helminthiasis; Hookworm Infections; Humans; Malaria; Male; Nigeria; Parasites; Plasmodium falciparum; Public Health; Surveys and Questionnaires; Risk Factors; Rural Population; Prevalence; Multivariate Analysis; Odds Ratio; Walking; Blastocystis
  10. Yeap ZX, Sim KS, Tso CP
    Microsc. Res. Tech., 2019 Apr;82(4):402-414.
    PMID: 30575192 DOI: 10.1002/jemt.23181
    Image processing is introduced to remove or reduce the noise and unwanted signal that deteriorate the quality of an image. Here, a single level two-dimensional wavelet transform is applied to the image in order to obtain the wavelet transform sub-band signal of an image. An estimation technique to predict the noise variance in an image is proposed, which is then fed into a Wiener filter to filter away the noise from the sub-band of the image. The proposed filter is called adaptive tuning piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation with Wiener filter in the wavelet domain. The performance of this filter is compared with four existing filters: median filter, Gaussian smoothing filter, two level wavelet transform with Wiener filter and adaptive noise Wiener filter. Based on the results, the adaptive tuning piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation with Wiener filter in wavelet domain has better performance than the other four methods.
    MeSH terms: Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Normal Distribution; Wavelet Analysis
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