MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.
Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.
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METHODS: In a trial with 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 12,705 participants at intermediate risk who did not have cardiovascular disease to rosuvastatin (10 mg per day) or placebo and to candesartan (16 mg per day) plus hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg per day) or placebo. In the analyses reported here, we compared the 3180 participants assigned to combined therapy (with rosuvastatin and the two antihypertensive agents) with the 3168 participants assigned to dual placebo. The first coprimary outcome was the composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, and the second coprimary outcome additionally included heart failure, cardiac arrest, or revascularization. The median follow-up was 5.6 years.
RESULTS: The decrease in the LDL cholesterol level was 33.7 mg per deciliter (0.87 mmol per liter) greater in the combined-therapy group than in the dual-placebo group, and the decrease in systolic blood pressure was 6.2 mm Hg greater with combined therapy than with dual placebo. The first coprimary outcome occurred in 113 participants (3.6%) in the combined-therapy group and in 157 (5.0%) in the dual-placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 0.90; P=0.005). The second coprimary outcome occurred in 136 participants (4.3%) and 187 participants (5.9%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.89; P=0.003). Muscle weakness and dizziness were more common in the combined-therapy group than in the dual-placebo group, but the overall rate of discontinuation of the trial regimen was similar in the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of rosuvastatin (10 mg per day), candesartan (16 mg per day), and hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg per day) was associated with a significantly lower rate of cardiovascular events than dual placebo among persons at intermediate risk who did not have cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and AstraZeneca; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00468923.).
Objective: To determine whether fish oil supplementation (primary objective) or aspirin use (secondary objective) is effective in reducing arteriovenous fistula failure.
Design, Setting, and Participants: The Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Fish Oils) and Aspirin in Vascular Access Outcomes in Renal Disease (FAVOURED) study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial that recruited participants with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease from 2008 to 2014 at 35 dialysis centers in Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Participants were observed for 12 months after arteriovenous fistula creation.
Interventions: Participants were randomly allocated to receive fish oil (4 g/d) or matching placebo. A subset (n = 406) was also randomized to receive aspirin (100 mg/d) or matching placebo. Treatment started 1 day prior to surgery and continued for 12 weeks.
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was fistula failure, a composite of fistula thrombosis and/or abandonment and/or cannulation failure, at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome.
Results: Of 1415 eligible participants, 567 were randomized (359 [63%] male, 298 [53%] white, 264 [47%] with diabetes; mean [SD] age, 54.8 [14.3] y). The same proportion of fistula failures occurred in the fish oil and placebo arms (128 of 270 [47%] vs 125 of 266 [47%]; relative risk [RR] adjusted for aspirin use, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.86-1.23; P = .78). Fish oil did not reduce fistula thrombosis (60 [22%] vs 61 [23%]; RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.72-1.34; P = .90), abandonment (51 [19%] vs 58 [22%]; RR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.62-1.22; P = .43), or cannulation failure (108 [40%] vs 104 [39%]; RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.83-1.26; P = .81). The risk of fistula failure was similar between the aspirin and placebo arms (87 of 194 [45%] vs 83 of 194 [43%]; RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.84-1.31; P = .68).
Conclusions and Relevance: Neither fish oil supplementation nor aspirin use reduced failure of new arteriovenous fistulae within 12 months of surgery.
Trial Registration: anzctr.org.au Identifier: CTRN12607000569404.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 77 female RA patients and 29 controls was performed. Serum 25(OH)D was measured using the Elecsys® Vitamin D total assay. Serum VDBP was measured using a Quantikine® enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. BMD was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).
RESULTS: Overall, mean 25(OH)D levels were 42.66 ± 21.75 nmol/L with no significant difference between RA patients and controls. 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher in Chinese, compared to Malay/Indian subjects. In RA patients, menopausal status and body mass index (BMI) were significantly associated with BMD but not 25(OH)D or RA Disease Activity Score of 28 joints (DAS28). There was no significant correlation between 25(OH)D and DAS28, even after correction for menopausal status and BMI. VDBP levels were not significantly different between the races and did not significantly correlate with BMD, 25(OH)D overall, or DAS28 in RA patients.
CONCLUSIONS: In Malaysian RA patients, menopausal status and BMI were more important influences on BMD than 25(OH)D or RA disease activity. The utility of measuring VDBP levels in this population remains uncertain.
METHODS: Patients entered their concerns into a website (Values In Shared Interactions Tool (VISIT)). Doctors accessed this information via the electronic medical records before consultations. Individual in-depth interviews were then conducted with patients and doctors on the website's impact on consultations. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically.
RESULTS: The average age (years) was 65.7 for patients (n = 8) and 35.7 for doctors (n = 7). Patients in the study entered between 1 to 6 items in the website. From postconsultation interviews, we found that the website impacted the consultation in 5 ways: (1) It facilitated patients to communicate their full agenda to doctors; (2) it helped address unmet patient needs as it gave them opportunity to raise other issues besides their chronic condition; (3) it facilitated rapport between doctor and patient; (4) it facilitated doctors to organize their consultation around the concerns the patient had listed; and (5) it disrupted the doctor's usual consultation style if the list of concerns was lengthy.
CONCLUSIONS: Integrating patient concerns into electronic health records helped to facilitate patient-centred consultations. Doctors found this information useful but felt uneasy if the agenda list was too long or too complex. Areas for future studies include training doctors to manage complex agendas and formal evaluation of the VISIT tool.