MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.
Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.
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METHODS: We analyzed all rectal and colonic biopsies (n=268) for suspected HD identified from the records in the Pathology Department of Al-Sabah Hospital for the period between 1994 and 2004.
RESULTS: One hundred and two patients (87 males and 15 females) had histologically confirmed HD. Fifty-eight (57%) were neonates (<1 month of age), while 21% were more than 4 months old. The diagnosis was based on open biopsy in 11 cases and rectal biopsies in 91 cases. Nine patients with open biopsies presented as intestinal obstruction, necrotizing enterocolitis, or perforation. The extent of the disease was unknown in 13 patients. There were 67 males and 3 females with short segment HD. Nine had long segment, two ultra-short segment and eight total colonic aganglionosis (TCA). Five TCA cases involved the small intestine. A skip area was observed in two cases. Six patients had other anomalies. A positive family history for HD was established in three patients. Two of these were male siblings from a consanguineous marriage and had Waardenburg syndrome.
CONCLUSION: This study has highlighted an exceptionally strong male predominance of short segment and a relatively high frequency (5.6%) of small intestinal involvement in HD in Kuwait. These data call for a more detailed epidemiological study with special emphasis on genetics.
DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This is a case series study conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 2008-2012.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We described three unrelated Saudi children who presented with neonatal hyperparathyroidism, microcephaly, craniosynostosis, coarse facial features, cardiac involvement, and skeletal deformities.
RESULTS: The MLII diagnosis was confirmed by assaying enzyme activities in fibroblasts, which showed a severe reduction in hydrolyzed substrates compared to controls, and by identifying a pathogenic homozygous GNPTAB gene mutation. One of the children died at 2 months of age due to severe pulmonary hypertension, and the other two children were still alive at 12 months and 18 months of age, respectively. Both surviving children had severe global developmental delay at 2 months of age.
CONCLUSION: Clinicians should investigate any child presenting with neonatal hyperparathyroidism, craniosynostosis, skeletal deformities, and coarse facial features for MLII.
DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Prospective randomized placebo-controlled study. Subjects were recruited from an otolaryngology clinic in 2 tertiary referral centers in the East coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The study period ranged from April 2010-April 2011.
METHODS: Forty AR patients were divided equally into a case group and a control group. All the subjects received a daily dose of 10 mg of loratadine for 4 weeks. The case group ingested 1 g/kg body weight of honey daily in separate doses for the 4-week period. The control group ingested the same dose of honey-flavored corn syrup as placebo. AR symptoms were scored at the start, week 4, and week 8 of the study.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the mean total symptom score of the case and the control groups at the start of the study. At week 4, both groups showed progressive improvement in the symptoms; at week 8, only the case group showed a continuous improvement in the symptom score. Only the group that ingested honey showed a significant improvement in individual AR symptoms. The improvement persisted for a month after the cessation of the treatment.
CONCLUSION: Honey ingestion at a high dose improves the overall and individual symptoms of AR, and it could serve as a complementary therapy for AR.
DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This is a retrospective study of all patients who had undergone coronary angioplasty from 2007 to 2009 in 11 hospitals across Malaysia.
METHODS: Data were obtained from the NCVD-PCI Registry, 2007 to 2009. Patients were categorized into 2 groups-young and old, where young was defined as less than 45 years for men and less than 55 years for women and old was defined as more than or equals to 45 years for men and more than or equals to 55 years for women. Patients' baseline characteristics, risk factor profile, extent of coronary disease and outcome on dis.charge, and 30-day and 1-year follow-up were compared between the 2 groups.
RESULTS: We analyzed 10268 patients, and the prevalence of young CAD was 16% (1595 patients). There was a significantly low prevalence of Chinese patients compared to other major ethnic groups. Active smoking (30.2% vs 17.7%) and obesity (20.9% vs 17.3%) were the 2 risk factors more associated with young CAD. There is a preponderance toward single vessel disease in the young CAD group, and they had a favorable clinical outcome in terms of all-cause mortality at discharge (RR 0.49 [CI 0.26-0.94]) and 1-year follow-up (RR 0.47 [CI 0.19-1.15]).
CONCLUSION: We observed distinctive features of young CAD that would serve as a framework in the primary and secondary prevention of the early onset CAD.
DESIGN AND SETTINGS: A prospective cohort study of vaccinated undergraduate students of University Putra Malaysia.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 408 undergraduate students who received infant hepatitis B vaccination volunteered for this study; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from the volunteers. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and core antibodies were tested using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit according to the manufacturer's instructions (DRG international Inc., USA). Molecular detection of hepatitis B viral DNA was performed using nested polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: The prevalence of isolated anti-HBc among the vaccinated cohort was found to be 5.0%, out of which 80% had a hepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs) titer higher than 10 IU/L, while 20% had less than 10 IU/L anti-HBs titer. All the anti-HBc positivesubjects had detectable hepatitis B viral DNA in their serum. Anamnestic response was found to be 100% among isolated anti-HBc with negative antibody.
CONCLUSION: Isolated anti-HBc developed protective levels of anti-HBs after a single dose of recombinant hepatitis B vaccination. HBV DNA was detected in all isolated anti-HBc indicating occult chronic HBV infection with undetectable HBsAg.
DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional study approved by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences ethics committee and took place in Mashhad, Iran, for a period of 3 years from August 2008 till September 2011.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 113 ASD patients participated and they were categorized into 3 groups on the basis of family relationship between their parents: first group-"no relationship," second group- "third degree relationship," and third group- "far relationship."
RESULTS: Among the 54 male and 59 female ASD patients, the most prevalent type of ASD was ASD secundum (85.0%) followed by sinus venosus (8.8%). A total of 56% patients were present in the first group and 15% and 29% in the second group and the third group, respectively." The relationship between consanguinity and type of ASD (P < .001) and gender (P < .001 each) was observed. The relationship between the age of onset of disease and consanguinity (P=.003) was also observed.
CONCLUSION: Considering the fact that there is a high prevalence of ASD and consanguineous marriage in Iran and bearing in mind the results of the present study, we recommend educating couples about the outcomes of consanguineous marriage in pre-marriage counseling.
DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional study to examine the association between OSA parameters and IR using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) on patients who underwent polysomnogram (PSG) in a tertiary center between March 2011 and March 2012 (1 year).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 62 patients underwent PSG within the study period, of which 16 patients were excluded due to abnormal fasting blood sugar. Information on patients' medical illnesses, medications, and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) was obtained. Patients' body mass index (BMI), neck circumference, and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Blood samples were collected after 8 hours of fasting to measure HOMA-IR value. Overnight PSG was performed for all patients. Data was recorded and analyzed using SPSS, version 12.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA).
RESULTS: The prevalence of IR in OSA patients was 64.3%. There was significant correlation between OSA parameters (apnea-hypopnea index, ESS, BMI, and WC) and HOMA-IR with correlation coefficient of 0.529, 0.224, 0.261, and 0.354, respectively.
CONCLUSION: A linear correlation exists between OSA parameters and IR concluding a definite causal link between OSA and IR. IR screening is recommended in severe OSA patients.