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MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Mohamed G, Vrzalikova K, Cader FZ, Vockerodt M, Nagy E, Flodr P, et al.
    J. Gen. Virol., 2014 Sep;95(Pt 9):1861-1869.
    PMID: 24893782 DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.066712-0
    The relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the germinal centre (GC) of the asymptomatic host remains an enigma. The occasional appearance of EBV-positive germinal centres in some patients, particularly those with a history of immunosuppression, suggests that EBV numbers in the GC are subject to immune control. The relationship, if any, between lymphoid hyperplasia with EBV-positive germinal centres and subsequent or concurrent lymphomagenesis remains to be clarified. As far as the development of EBV-associated Hodgkin's lymphoma is concerned, the suppression of virus replication, mediated by LMP1 on the one hand, and the loss of B-cell receptor signalling on the other, appears to be an important pathogenic mechanism. A further important emerging concept is that alterations in the microenvironment of the EBV-infected B-cell may be important for lymphomagenesis.
    MeSH terms: Adult; B-Lymphocytes/immunology; B-Lymphocytes/virology*; Cell Differentiation/immunology; Herpesvirus 4, Human/immunology*; Female; Hodgkin Disease/immunology; Hodgkin Disease/virology*; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology; Viral Matrix Proteins; Virus Replication/immunology; Germinal Center/immunology*; Germinal Center/virology*; Pseudolymphoma/virology; Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/virology; Young Adult
  2. Saniasiaya J, Mohamad I, Abdul Rahman SK
    Braz J Otorhinolaryngol, 2016 06 22;86(3):389-392.
    PMID: 27388958 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjorl.2016.05.011
  3. Crous PW, Schumacher RK, Wingfield MJ, Akulov A, Denman S, Roux J, et al.
    Fungal Syst Evol, 2018 Jun;1:169-216.
    PMID: 32490366 DOI: 10.3114/fuse.2018.01.08
    This study introduces two new families, one new genus, 22 new species, 10 new combinations, four epitypes, and 16 interesting new host and / or geographical records. Cylindriaceae (based on Cylindrium elongatum) is introduced as new family, with three new combinations. Xyladictyochaetaceae (based on Xyladictyochaeta lusitanica) is introduced to accommodate Xyladictyochaeta. Pseudoanungitea gen. nov. (based on P. syzygii) is described on stems of Vaccinium myrtillus (Germany). New species include: Exophiala eucalypticola on Eucalyptus obliqua leaf litter, Phyllosticta hakeicola on leaves of Hakea sp., Setophaeosphaeria citricola on leaves of Citrus australasica, and Sirastachys cyperacearum on leaves of Cyperaceae (Australia); Polyscytalum chilense on leaves of Eucalyptus urophylla (Chile); Pseudoanungitea vaccinii on Vaccinium myrtillus (Germany); Teichospora quercus on branch tissue of Quercus sp. (France); Fusiconidium lycopodiellae on stems of Lycopodiella inundata, Monochaetia junipericola on twig of Juniperus communis, Myrmecridium sorbicola on branch tissues of Sorbus aucuparia, Parathyridaria philadelphi on twigs of Philadelphus coronarius, and Wettsteinina philadelphi on twigs of Philadelphus coronarius (Germany); Zygosporium pseudogibbum on leaves of Eucalyptus pellita (Malaysia); Pseudoanungitea variabilis on dead wood (Spain); Alfaria acaciae on leaves of Acacia propinqua, Dictyochaeta mimusopis on leaves of Mimusops caffra, and Pseudocercospora breonadiae on leaves of Breonadia microcephala (South Africa); Colletotrichum kniphofiae on leaves of Kniphofia uvaria, Subplenodomus iridicola on Iris sp., and Trochila viburnicola on twig cankers on Viburnum sp. (UK); Polyscytalum neofecundissimum on Quercus robur leaf litter, and Roussoella euonymi on fallen branches of Euonymus europaeus (Ukraine). New combinations include: Cylindrium algarvense on leaves of Eucalyptus sp. (Portugal), Cylindrium purgamentum on leaf litter (USA), Cylindrium syzygii on leaves of Syzygium sp. (Australia), Microdochium musae on leaves of Musa sp. (Malaysia), Polyscytalum eucalyptigenum on Eucalyptus grandis × pellita (Malaysia), P. eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus (Australia), P. grevilleae on leaves of Grevillea (Australia), P. nullicananum on leaves of Eucalyptus (Australia), Pseudoanungitea syzygii on Syzygium cordatum leaf litter (South Africa), and Setophaeosphaeria sidae on leaves of Sida sp. (Brazil). New records include: Sphaerellopsis paraphysata on leaves of Phragmites sp., Vermiculariopsiella dichapetali on leaves of Melaleuca sp. and Eucalyptus regnans, and Xyladictyochaeta lusitanica on leaf litter of Eucalyptus sp. (Australia); Camarosporidiella mackenziei on twigs of Caragana sp. (Finland); Cyclothyriella rubronotata on twigs of Ailanthus altissima, Rhinocladiella quercus on Sorbus aucuparia branches (Germany); Cytospora viticola on stems of Vitis vinifera (Hungary); Echinocatena arthrinioides on leaves of Acacia crassicarpa (Malaysia); Varicosporellopsis aquatilis from garden soil (Netherlands); Pestalotiopsis hollandica on needles of Cupressus sempervirens (Spain), Pseudocamarosporium africanum on twigs of Erica sp. (South Africa), Pseudocamarosporium brabeji on branch of Platanus sp. (Switzerland); Neocucurbitaria cava on leaves of Quercus ilex (UK); Chaetosphaeria myriocarpa on decaying wood of Carpinus betulus, Haplograhium delicatum on decaying Carpinus betulus wood (Ukraine). Epitypes are designated for: Elsinoë mimosae on leaves of Mimosa diplotricha (Brazil), Neohendersonia kickxii on Fagus sylvatica twig bark (Italy), Caliciopsis maxima on fronds of Niphidium crassifolium (Brazil), Dictyochaeta septata on leaves of Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla (Chile), and Microdochium musae on leaves of Musa sp. (Malaysia).
  4. Goh HT, Tan MP, Mazlan M, Abdul-Latif L, Subramaniam P
    J Geriatr Phys Ther, 2018 6 1;42(4):E77-E84.
    PMID: 29851747 DOI: 10.1519/JPT.0000000000000196
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Poor quality of life (QoL) is a well-recognized consequence after stroke. Quality of life is influenced by a complex interaction between personal and environmental factors. Most previous investigations of the QoL after stroke have focused on personal factors, for example, physical deficits directly resulting from stroke. The influence of environmental factors, including social participation, is relatively understudied partly due to its high variation across different sociocultural contexts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the determinants of QoL among older adults with stroke living in an urban area of a developing country.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study included 75 older adults who were at least 3 months poststroke and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Depressive symptoms were quantified using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief version (WHOQoL-BREF). Physical function was examined using Functional Ambulation Category, grip strength, 5 times Sit-to-Stand test, and Box and Block tests. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment and visual-manual reaction time were used to index cognitive function. Depressive symptom was quantified using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The Barthel Index and Fatigue Severity Scale were used to quantify activity limitation. Social participation and environmental participation were assessed using the Assessment of Life Habit and Craig Hospital Inventory of Environment Factors, respectively. Linear stepwise regression models were used to determine explanators for WHOQoL-BREF domain scores.

    RESULTS: Individuals with stroke demonstrated significantly worse QoL on all WHOQoL-BREF domains compared with healthy controls. Stroke was a strong determinant for QoL and explained 16% to 43% of variances. Adding other outcome measures significantly improved the robustness of the models (R change = 12%-32%). The physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains of WHOQoL-BREF were all explained by the LIFE-H scores (β = -10.58, -3.37, 4.24, -5.35, respectively), while psychological, social, and environmental domains were explained by Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores (β = .47, 0.78, 0.54, respectively).

    CONCLUSION: Social participation and cognition were strong determinants of QoL among urban-dwelling older adults with stroke. Social and recreational activities and cognitive rehabilitation should therefore be evaluated as potential strategies to improve the well-being of older adults affected by stroke.

    MeSH terms: Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Cognition/physiology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depression/epidemiology; Depression/psychology; Developing Countries*; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Quality of Life/psychology*; Self Care; Urban Population*; Stroke/epidemiology; Stroke/psychology*; Physical Therapy Modalities; Social Participation/psychology*
  5. Khoo EJ, Parameshwara N, Kutzsche S
    Clin Teach, 2019 10;16(5):497-501.
    PMID: 30421519 DOI: 10.1111/tct.12967
    BACKGROUND: Bedside teaching (BST) in a hospital setting can play an important role during medical students' clinical placements in paediatrics. Parents often feel obliged to allow their child to participate, even if they are reluctant. The aim of this study was to examine the perceptions of parents who, with their children, were involved in medical students' BST.

    METHODS: Consenting parents participated in a semi-structured interview assessing their experience of having their child involved in BST. The qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. Parents were assured that their children's treatment would not be negatively affected in the case of withdrawal from the study.

    RESULTS: A total of 54 parents responded and discussed their experience of their children's participation in clinical teaching. The majority of parents were keen to support medical students' learning, and felt that they could develop better insight into their child's health in association with the teaching session. Some parents found the sessions tiring; their interest increased when they were more actively involved in planning the BST sessions.

    DISCUSSION: This study emphasises children's and adolescents' autonomy as a main principle in making decisions about involving them in BST. Clinical teachers often face problems attempting to properly plan and conduct BST sessions. Parents appreciate having an active role in planning the sessions and are supportive of medical student education. Clinical teachers must ensure that they protect the best interests of paediatric patients and their parents. At the same time, they should advocate for the obvious benefits of BST.

    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Attitude to Health; Child; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Male; Middle Aged; Parents/psychology*; Professional-Family Relations; Prospective Studies; Surveys and Questionnaires; Young Adult; Teaching Rounds*
  6. Barkia I, Ketata Bouaziz H, Sellami Boudawara T, Aleya L, Gargouri AF, Saari N
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jun;27(16):19087-19094.
    PMID: 30612348 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-4007-6
    Protein hydrolysates and bioactive peptides from various protein sources have demonstrated their effectiveness for the prevention of illness and the improvement of symptoms from several diseases. In particular, the use of microalgae to generate bioactive peptides has received a growing interest because of their potential to be cultivated on non-arable land and high nutritional value. However, scant research is available on the toxicity of peptide-based preparations. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of microalgal protein hydrolysates (MPH) from one marine species of microalgae (Bellerochea malleus) to determine the feasibility of their use for functional food applications. Results showed that the oral administration of MPH at three doses (D1, 100 mg kg-1 BW; D2, 400 mg kg-1 BW; and D3, 2000 mg kg-1 BW) to male Wistar rats did not induce any adverse effects or mortality up to13 days of treatment. Data analysis of relative organ weights and biochemical and hematological parameters did not show any significant differences between control and treated groups at the three doses investigated. Data from histopathological observations did not reveal any signs of major toxicity at the doses D1 and D2. However, mild signs of inflammation and necrosis were observed in the kidney of rats fed MPH at D3. All together, these results reveal the overall safety of MPH and provide new evidence for advocating their use for functional food or nutraceutical applications.
    MeSH terms: Administration, Oral; Animals; Male; Malleus; Organ Size; Protein Hydrolysates; Rats, Wistar; Toxicity Tests, Acute; Rats; Microalgae*
  7. Boo NY, Chang YF, Leong YX, Tok ZY, Hooi LC, Chee SC, et al.
    Pediatr. Res., 2019 08;86(2):216-220.
    PMID: 30696987 DOI: 10.1038/s41390-019-0304-0
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the accuracy of a point-of-care Bilistick method for measuring total serum bilirubin (TSB) and its turn-around-time (TAT) against hospital laboratory methods.

    METHODS: This prospective study was carried out on 561 term-gestation jaundiced neonates in two Malaysian hospitals. Venous blood sample was collected from each neonate for contemporary measurement of TSB by hospital laboratories and Bilistick. TAT was the time interval between specimen collection and TSB result reported by each method.

    RESULTS: The mean laboratory-measured TSB was 194.85 (±2.844) µmol/L and Bilistick TSB was 169.37 (±2.706) µmol/L. Pearson's correlation coefficient was: r = 0.901 (p 

    MeSH terms: Bilirubin/blood*; Female; Gestational Age; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Jaundice, Neonatal/blood*; Jaundice, Neonatal/diagnosis*; Malaysia; Male; Prospective Studies; Sensitivity and Specificity; Reproducibility of Results; Neonatal Screening/instrumentation*; Neonatal Screening/methods; Linear Models; Treatment Outcome; Point-of-Care Systems/standards*; Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal
  8. Wu Q, Wu W, Fu B, Shi L, Wang X, Kuca K
    Med Res Rev, 2019 11;39(6):2082-2104.
    PMID: 30912203 DOI: 10.1002/med.21574
    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is involved in cancer cell apoptosis; however, emerging evidence indicates that this Janus signaling promotes cancer cell survival. JNK acts synergistically with NF-κB, JAK/STAT, and other signaling molecules to exert a survival function. JNK positively regulates autophagy to counteract apoptosis, and its effect on autophagy is related to the development of chemotherapeutic resistance. The prosurvival effect of JNK may involve an immune evasion mechanism mediated by transforming growth factor-β, toll-like receptors, interferon-γ, and autophagy, as well as compensatory JNK-dependent cell proliferation. The present review focuses on recent advances in understanding the prosurvival function of JNK and its role in tumor development and chemoresistance, including a comprehensive analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying JNK-mediated cancer cell survival. There is a focus on the specific "Yin and Yang" functions of JNK1 and JNK2 in the regulation of cancer cell survival. We highlight recent advances in our knowledge of the roles of JNK in cancer cell survival, which may provide insight into the distinct functions of JNK in cancer and its potential for cancer therapy.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Autophagy; Cell Survival; Humans; Neoplasms/enzymology*; Neoplasms/pathology*; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm; MAP Kinase Signaling System*; JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism*
  9. Kamimura Y, Yang CS, Lee CY
    J. Evol. Biol., 2019 08;32(8):844-855.
    PMID: 31081978 DOI: 10.1111/jeb.13486
    The evolution of laterality, that is the biased use of laterally paired, morphologically symmetrical organs, has attracted the interest of researchers from a variety of disciplines. It is, however, difficult to quantify the fitness benefits of laterality because many organs, such as human hands, possess multimodal functions. Males of the earwig Labidura riparia (Insecta: Dermaptera: Labiduridae) have morphologically similar laterally paired penises, only one of which is used for inseminating the female during a single copulation bout, and thus provide a rare opportunity to address how selection pressure may shape the evolution of population-level laterality. Our population studies revealed that in 10 populations, located at 2.23-43.3° north, the right penis is predominantly used for copulating (88.6%). A damaged penis was found in 23% of rare left-handers, suggesting that the left penis can function as a spare when the right one is damaged. By pairing L. riparia females with surgically manipulated males, we found that males forced to use the right penis outperformed left-handed males in copulation (the probability of establishing genital coupling during the 1-hr observation period: odds ratio [OR] of 3.50) and insemination (probability of transferring a detectable amount of sperm: OR of 2.94). This right-handed advantage may be due to the coiled morphology of the sperm storage organ with a right-facing opening. Thus, female genital morphology may play a significant role in the evolution of handedness and may have acted as a driving force to reduce penis number in related taxa.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Copulation; Insects/anatomy & histology*; Insects/genetics*; Male; Penis/anatomy & histology*; Sexual Behavior, Animal; Genetic Fitness*
  10. Chahal S, Kumar A, Hussian FSJ
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2019 10;30(14):1308-1355.
    PMID: 31181982 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2019.1630699
    Electrospinning is a promising and versatile technique that is used to fabricate polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Ideal scaffolds should be biocompatible and bioactive with appropriate surface chemistry, good mechanical properties and should mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone. Selection of the most appropriate material to produce a scaffold is an important step towards the construction of a tissue engineered product. Bone tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field, where the principles of engineering are applied on bone-related biochemical reactions. Scaffolds, cells, growth factors, and their interrelation in microenvironment are the major concerns in bone tissue engineering. This review covers the latest development of biomimetic electrospun polymeric biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. It includes the brief details to bone tissue engineering along with bone structure and ideal bone scaffolds requirements. Details about various engineered materials and methodologies used for bone scaffolds development were discussed. Description of electrospinning technique and its parameters relating their fabrication, advantages, and applications in bone tissue engineering were also presented. The use of synthetic and natural polymers based electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and their biomineralization processes were discussed and reviewed comprehensively. Finally, we give conclusion along with perspectives and challenges of biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering based on electrospun nanofibers.
    MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*; Bone and Bones/cytology*; Bone and Bones/drug effects*; Electricity*; Humans; Polymers/pharmacology*; Tissue Engineering/methods*; Biomimetic Materials/pharmacology*
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