MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail, Emilia Zainal Abidin, Irniza Rasdi
    Introduction: This paper provides an overview of chemical toxic pollution in Pasir Gudang industrial area Johor
    Malaysia. It discussed the health symptoms, argument of the psychology manifestation among children and the
    application of biomarkers and monitoring systems in chemical detection. Methods: The systematic search was
    conducted for four digital scientific journal databases: Science Direct, SCOPUS, PubMed and Google Scholar
    with a specified keyword. Results: Seven (7) chemicals were related to this incident namely; Methane,
    Hydrogen chloride, Acrylonitrile, Acrolein, Benzene, Xylene, and Methyl mercaptan. These chemicals are
    mainly generated from industrial activity and easily breakdown through interaction with other chemicals
    and sunlight. Inhalation is the major route of exposure and the major symptoms of these chemicals are headache,
    nausea, vomiting, breathing difficulties, eye irritation, chest tightness, and wheezing. There is no clear
    evidence to indicate that the victims in this incident are having a psychological manifestation since all chemicals
    involved are proven to cause the reported symptoms. Conclusion: Industrial chemicals are potential
    to produce toxic gas in the air through reaction with other substances or rays and causes acute health symptoms.
    Diagnose all post-emergency illnesses including mental and physical health is needed. Biomarker testing should
    consider a specified period after exposure occurs as the reactivity of some types of chemical and its short half-life,
    rendered limited for use as markers of exposure in the body.
  2. Aziemah Zulkifli, Emilia Zainal Abidin
    Introduction of electronic cigarette (EC) in the global market posed a new challenge to public health experts
    in terms of controlling the widespread use of the device among general population. This systematic review aimed
    to explore the trend of EC use among population of adults reported in literature across multiple regions. Using
    Scopus search engine and several screening strategies, specific keywords were applied in the advanced search
    field and the search have yielded a total of 33 articles. The key findings include i) the existence of dual users of EC
    and conventional cigarette smokers and ii) the emergence of EC users who previously never smoked reported
    among adult populations. The present study suggests that future tobacco control strategies should be strengthen
    in preventing the initiation of nicotine addiction among non-smoking population and established nicotine
    replacement therapy instead of EC should be further promoted smokers as a method to quit smoking.
  3. A. Perakas Rav, S. Sivasankar, Nur Khusairi Razali, K. Karmegam, P.Velu, S. Kulanthayan, et al.
    Air pollution, with a range of health consequences is known to cause major public health issues especially
    to the respiratory system. Unfortunately, for those working in the cement industry, the respiratory system
    is vulnerable to injury following airborne or hematogenous exposure to toxicants. This study was undertaken
    to identify associated factors of occupational safety and health problems among quarry plant workers.
    Various Universities databases and other databases were searched with specific search such as occupational
    safety and health, quarry plant workers, cement, occupational exposure, respiratory symptoms. In the concrete
    sector, cement dust is the most visible and the pollution of fugitive and stack is mostly throughout two ways.
    The absorption of toxins into the human body and respiratory tract is a common occurrence where the air
    passage narrowness (nose, pharynx, glottis, bronchi are filtered). Previous research has shown that there
    is inadequate work safety procedures in quarry factories where the training and use of acceptable
    PPEs and hazards / safety measures training is grossly deficient. There is an urgent need to redesign processes
    in order to impose a barrier between danger and staff; to adopt safe working practices; to provide
    appropriate training for people, to provide training or information to reduce the risk of adverse
    health effects and/or harmful effects to people; and to implement personal protective equipment (PPE).
  4. Haryati Anuar, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Halim Gafor, Mohd Ihsani Mahmood, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi
    Introduction: The Health Belief Model has gained widespread popularity and acceptance in the community,
    yet little is known about its effectiveness as a basis for health behavior intervention. The purpose of this
    study is to systematically review the evidence on the use of the model in health behavior for
    Chronic Kidney Disease and the effectiveness of Health Belief Model as a model intervention for
    facilitating health-related behavioral changes. Methods: The databases were manually searched
    for references and gray literature. Overall, the methodological quality of trials was variable, and there
    was limited evidence for the effectiveness of Health Belief Model in improving health
    behavior. Results: There are few new trials published that describe the application of
    Health Belief Model. Limited evidence supports any benefits of Health Belief Model for improving
    health behavior. Conclusion: Studies on the usage of Health Belief Model need to be explored in depth
    to assess the importance of Health Belief Model.
  5. Siti Nur Sara Mamat, Faridah Naim
    Introduction: Rapid ongoing industrialisation particularly in developing countries has triggered an
    increased risk of occupational noise-related disease occurrence. Machinery and work tasks in metal fabrication
    processes may produce high noise levels that can be harmful to hearing. This study aimed to investigate the
    workers’ exposure to noise at a fabrication plant and their perceptions toward hearing loss symptoms and its association.
    Methods: This study was conducted at a Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning fabrication plant in Johor.
    With a 31% response rate, 50 respondents who were selected using purposive sampling answered a
    questionnaire regarding demographic background, noise exposure and perceived hearing loss symptoms. Noise
    measurements were also conducted among 30 of them based on the concept of sampling the maximum
    risky workers. The noise was measured using a sound level meter IEC 60651 Class 2. Minimum (Lmin)
    and maximum (Lmax) sound pressure levels were measured for 5-minute and repeated for three exposure
    periods (morning, afternoon, evening). Results: 68% and 32% of the workers were 20-30 years old and had
    been employed for 3-5 years, respectively. Average noise exposure level observed was 63.3-101.5 dBA. 25%
    of the workers reported that they were sometimes experienced the symptoms of hearing loss. These include
    difficulty in understanding conversation and ringing in the ear. However, noise exposure and hearing loss
    symptoms were not significantly associated. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that the workers have a risk
    of developing hearing loss. Intervention programme and enforcement on hearing protection of the workforce
    are highly recommended.
  6. Aziemah Zulkifli, Najihah Zainol Abidin, Noor Hassim Ismail, Emilia Zainal Abidin
    Introduction: Discrepancies of nicotine content labelling of e-liquid products has been reported and it may
    have existed to circumvent legal requirements that imposes restrictions on the sale of nicotine-containing
    products in the market. Mandatory labelling requirement of e-liquid products is still pending in Malaysia.
    This case study aimed to examine labelling discrepancies of e-liquid refill products declared as nicotine-free
    sold in e-commerce platform in Malaysia. Methods: A total of 10 Malaysian-made e-liquid refill samples
    were purchased via a popular e-commerce platform available to Malaysian. The e-liquid refills were
    specifically chosen because it was declared to contain zero-nicotine. Nicotine concentrations were
    measured using a Gas-chromatography with flame-ionisation detector (GC-FID). Results: About 80% (n = 8)
    of the purchased e-liquid samples were contained nicotine despite being declared as nicotine-free.
    The average nicotine levels were 1.092 (0.989) mg/mL. Conclusion: This case study confirmed the
    presence of labelling discrepancies which non-comply with the existing Malaysian Poison Act.
    Such non-compliance will contribute to the sale of unrestricted nicotine products. As a result, it will increase
    addiction among novice smokers because e-liquid refills declared as “nicotine free” contained nicotine.
    Implementation of stringent legal requirement on the nicotine content of local e-liquid products is
    urgently needed as it will support the accomplishment of Malaysian Tobacco Endgame.
  7. Anis Asyila Marzlan, Belal J Muhialdin, Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin
    Introduction: Banana is a perishable fruit and rapidly overripe which can cause food waste problems to
    occur if not used to prepare other foods. Drying would be useful to overcome this problem by converting
    the overripe banana into a value-added product. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of different
    temperatures for foam mat drying on overripe banana puree. Besides, the sensory attributes and acceptability of banana cakes produced will be evaluated. Methods: The overripe banana puree was subjected to
    foam mat drying and the dried powder was subjected to banana cake production. Physical analysis,
    chemical analysis, and sensory evaluation were carried out for the banana cakes. Results: A significant
    different (p
  8. Nur Fatin Najihah Ismail, Siti Marwanis Anua, Nurul Izzah Abdul Samad, Nurul Ainun Hamzah, Nurzafirah Mazlan
    Introduction: Soil pollution with heavy metals inadvertent to food contamination resulting from root-soil
    heavy metal uptake is of great concern. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of
    heavy metals such as lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), in soil and vegetables.
    Methods: Using systematic grid sampling, 54 soil samples and 18 vegetable samples were collected from
    Kampung Binjai Manis, Kota Bharu and Kampung Aman, Kandis, Bachok, Kelantan. Soil and vegetables samples
    were dried, extracted by acid digestion process and analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.
    Results: The overall mean concentration of heavy metal in soil measured in descending order in
    Kampung Binjai Manis was Fe (958.53 mg/kg) > Pb (26.07 mg/kg) > Cu (11.83 mg/kg) > Cd (0.66 mg/kg).
    Whereas, the overall mean concentration of heavy metal measured in descending order in Kampung Aman
    was Fe (461.18 mg/kg) > Cu (8.25 mg/kg) > Pb (2.48 mg/kg) > Cd (0.27 mg/kg). There were significant different
    in the mean concentration of Pb, Fe and Cd between Kampung Binjai Manis and Kampung Aman.
    In vegetables, only Cu shows significant different between Kampung Binjai Manis and Kampung Aman.
    Significant correlations were found between soil and vegetables in Kampung Binjai Manis for
    Cu (r= 0.861, p= 0.003) and Cd (r= 0.933, p= 0.001). Conclusion: The mean concentration of heavy
    metal in soil and vegetables at Kampung Binjai Manis and Kampung Aman were above the permissible
    limit as set by the Department of Environment and World Health Organisation.
  9. Siti Sarah Shahimi, Marniza Aziz, Nur Ezrin Ilham, Rukman Awang Hamat
    Malaria and dengue are among the most important public health threats in Malaysia. These two-arthropod borne diseases have overlapping mosquito biotopes and clinical manifestations, and co-infections have been associated with increased severity notably on the haematological abnormalities. Dengue caused by four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes has been highly endemic in Malaysia. However, malaria due to Plasmodium ovale (P. ovale) has been rarely reported among Malaysian population. Nonetheless, climate change and increased influx of international travellers and migrants have shifted the parasite boundaries to non-endemic countries. Thus, diagnosis and management of imported malarial infections should rely on the geographical knowledge on the origin of potential Plasmodium species, prompt laboratory testing and public health intervention. Moreover, it would be difficult to clinically differentiate dengue fever (DF) with a potential relapse or partially treat- ed case of P. ovale, and there is absolutely no transmission of this Plasmodium species in our country. Hence, we believed that this case deserved to be reported.
  10. Syarifah Mohd Rahim, Amizatul Aini Salleh, Ikmal Hisyam Bakrin, Tengku Zetty Maztura Tengku Jamaluddin, Siti Norbaya Masri
    Despite pulmonary cryptococcosis showing good response to antifungal treatment, making accurate diagnosis in a timely manner remains a challenge. Tissue for fungal culture is less sensitive, nonspecific, and time-consuming to allow for prompt diagnosis. We herein report a case of 31-year-old woman with no known medical illness but presented with history of cough and haemoptysis for two months. The chest X-ray and bronchoscopy revealed left lung mass. While tuberculosis showed negative result and no growth observed in the tissue culture, the histopathological examination (HPE) finding was suggestive of fungal infection. The formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue was sent for molecular testing, which revealed Cryptococcus neoformans. This report emphasises on the advantages and limitations of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as an alternative method to confirm the diagnosis in cases of culture-negative fungal infection.

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