MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.
Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.
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METHODS: The interaction between HIFU waves and dentin-surface in terms of structural, mechanical and chemical variations were investigated by SEM, TEM, AFM, nano-indentation and Raman-analysis. The bonding between HIFU-treated dentin and two-step, etch-and-rinse, adhesive was preliminary explored by characterizing dentin-bound proteases activities, resin-dentin interfacial morphology and bond-durability with HIFU exposure at different time-points of 60, 90 and 120 s compared to conventional acid-etching technique.
RESULTS: With the increase in HIFU exposure-time from 60-to-120 s, HIFU waves were able to remove the smear-layer, expose dentinal-tubules and creating textured/rough dentin surface. In addition, dentin surfaces showed a pattern of interlocking ribbon-like minerals-coated collagen-fibrils protruding from the underlaying amorphous dentin-background with HIFU exposure for 90 s and 120 s. This characteristic pattern of dentin-surface showing inorganic-minerals associated/aligned with collagen-fibrils, with 90-to-120 s HIFU-treatment, was confirmed by the Raman-analysis. HIFU-treated specimens showed higher nano-indentation properties and lower concentrations of active MMP-2 and Cathepsin-K compared to the acid-etched specimens. The resin-dentin bonded interface revealed the partial/complete absence of the characteristic hybrid-layer formed with conventional etch-and-rinse bonding strategy. Additionally, resin-infiltration and resin-tags formation were enhanced with the increase in HIFU exposure-time to 120 s. Although, all groups showed significant decrease in bond-strength after 12 months compared to 24 h storage in artificial saliva, groups exposed to HIFU for 90 s and 120 s showed significantly higher μTBS compared to the control acid-etched group.
SIGNIFICANCE: The implementation of HIFU-technology for dental hard-tissues treatment could be of potential significance in adhesive/restorative dentistry owing to its ability of controlled, selective and localised combined tissue alteration/ablation effects.
METHODS: PCL grafts (1mm ID / 10mm long) were implanted into the left common carotid artery in 20 Sprague-Dawley rats and compared to our previously published series of abdominal aortic implants. The animals were followed up to 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. At each time point, in vivo compliance, angiography and histological examination with morphology were performed.
RESULTS: PCL grafts showed good mechanical properties and ease of handling. The average graft compliance was 14.5 ± 1.7%/ mmHg compared to 7.8 ± 0.9% for the abdominal position and 45.1 ± 3.2%/ mmHg for the native carotid artery. The overall patency for the carotid position was 65% as compared to 100% in the abdominal position. Complete endothelialisation was achieved at 3 weeks and cell invasion was more rapid than in the aortic position. In contrast, intimal hyperplasia (IH) and vascular density were less pronounced than in the aortic position CONCLUSION: Our PCL grafts in the carotid position were well endothelialised with early cellular infiltration, higher compliance, lower IH and calcification compared to the similar grafts implanted in the aortic position. However, there was a higher occlusion rate compared to our abdominal aorta series. Anatomical position, compliance mismatch, flow conditions may answer the difference in patency seen.