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MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Mire CE, Versteeg KM, Cross RW, Agans KN, Fenton KA, Whitt MA, et al.
    Virol. J., 2013 Dec 13;10:353.
    PMID: 24330654 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-10-353
    BACKGROUND: Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic agent in the family Paramyxoviridae that is maintained in nature by bats. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India, and Bangladesh and have been associated with 40 to 75% case fatality rates. There are currently no vaccines or postexposure treatments licensed for combating human NiV infection.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Four groups of ferrets received a single vaccination with different recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors expressing: Group 1, control with no glycoprotein; Group 2, the NiV fusion protein (F); Group 3, the NiV attachment protein (G); and Group 4, a combination of the NiV F and G proteins. Animals were challenged intranasally with NiV 28 days after vaccination. Control ferrets in Group 1 showed characteristic clinical signs of NiV disease including respiratory distress, neurological disorders, viral load in blood and tissues, and gross lesions and antigen in target tissues; all animals in this group succumbed to infection by day 8. Importantly, all specifically vaccinated ferrets in Groups 2-4 showed no evidence of clinical illness and survived challenged. All animals in these groups developed anti-NiV F and/or G IgG and neutralizing antibody titers. While NiV RNA was detected in blood at day 6 post challenge in animals from Groups 2-4, the levels were orders of magnitude lower than animals from control Group 1.

    CONCLUSIONS: These data show protective efficacy against NiV in a relevant model of human infection. Further development of this technology has the potential to yield effective single injection vaccines for NiV infection.

    MeSH terms: Animals; Antibodies, Viral/blood; Disease Models, Animal; Drug Carriers*; Female; Ferrets; Genetic Vectors*; Immunoglobulin G/blood; Vaccination/methods*; Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage; Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics; Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology; Viral Proteins/genetics; Viral Proteins/immunology; Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage; Viral Vaccines/genetics; Viral Vaccines/immunology*; Survival Analysis; Vesiculovirus/genetics*; Nipah Virus/genetics; Nipah Virus/immunology*; Henipavirus Infections/prevention & control*; Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood
  2. Zakaria R, Wan Yaacob WM, Othman Z, Long I, Ahmad AH, Al-Rahbi B
    Physiol Res, 2017 09 22;66(4):553-565.
    PMID: 28406691
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary cause of dementia in the middle-aged and elderly worldwide. Animal models for AD are widely used to study the disease mechanisms as well as to test potential therapeutic agents for disease modification. Among the non-genetically manipulated neuroinflammation models for AD, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced animal model is commonly used. This review paper aims to discuss the possible factors that influence rats' response following LPS injection. Factors such as dose of LPS, route of administration, nature and duration of exposure as well as age and gender of animal used should be taken into account when designing a study using LPS-induced memory impairment as model for AD.
    MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/chemically induced*; Alzheimer Disease/metabolism*; Alzheimer Disease/pathology; Animals; Disease Models, Animal*; Humans; Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity*; Memory Disorders/chemically induced*; Memory Disorders/metabolism*; Memory Disorders/pathology; Inflammation Mediators/metabolism; Rats
  3. Vijayasingham L, Viswanathan S
    Mult. Scler., 2019 01;25(1):130-131.
    PMID: 30132396 DOI: 10.1177/1352458518797290
    MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern; Congresses as Topic; Delivery of Health Care*; Health Services Accessibility; Humans; Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use*; Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy*; Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology; Patient Advocacy; Internationality; Intersectoral Collaboration*
  4. Ludin SM, Rohaizat M, Arbon P
    Health Soc Care Community, 2019 05;27(3):621-631.
    PMID: 30345603 DOI: 10.1111/hsc.12674
    A cross-sectional study design was created, using the Index of Perceived Community Resilience (IPCR) and Buckner's Index of Cohesion (BIC) to survey 386 flood evacuees from six communities in Kelantan, Malaysia, in 2015. The respondents were mostly female (54.7%); lived in basic housing (95.6%); average income (55.9%); secondary level schooling (81.1%); not involved with community organisations (95.1%), volunteering activities (91.2%), or emergency teams (96.9%); inexperience with injury during flooding (94%); experienced the emergency disaster (61.6%); and their mean age was 49 years old. Overall, respondents scored a high level of community disaster resilience (CDR) (mean 3.9) and social cohesion (mean 3.79). Also, respondents' housing type, event of injury during disaster, volunteering in post-disaster activities, and emergency team participation were significantly associated with CDR (p = 0.001-0.002), organisational involvement (p = 0.016), and emergency disaster experience (p = 0.028) were significantly associated with social cohesion. The Pearson correlation coefficient results mostly showing a moderate, weak, and one with a strong relationship. There is a strong relationship between community participation (CDR) in events and BIC variables (r = 0.529, p = 0.001). Other analysis shows a moderate but significant relationship with BIC; is open to ideas (r = 0.332, p = 0.001); community has similar values/ideas (r = 0.421, p = 0.001); sense of pride (r = 0.389, p = 0.001); strong leadership (r = 0.339, p = 0.001); positive change (r = 0.484, p = 0.001); and able to handle problems (r = 0.454, p = 0.001). Overall, the results show that respondents had high levels of CDR and social cohesion, while the demographic characteristics show the impact of CDR and social cohesion. In conclusion, the data gives original insight into the level of association between social cohesion and disaster resilience, which could be used as a building block in sustainable disaster recovery. There is a need to explore this further on programmes designed to improve social cohesion across communities.
  5. Ram M R, Teh X, Rajakumar T, Goh KL, Leow AHR, Poh BH, et al.
    J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 2019 01 01;74(1):11-16.
    PMID: 30403784 DOI: 10.1093/jac/dky401
    Objectives: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori is influenced by susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, elevated bacterial load and degree of acid inhibition, which can be affected by genotypes of drug-metabolizing enzymes [cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 polymorphism]. Theoretically, the choice and dose of proton pump inhibitor may also influence the suppression of H. pylori infection. The CYP2C19 genotype has recently been found to have an impact on peptic ulcer healing, H. pylori eradication and therapeutic efficacy of proton pump inhibitors.

    Methods: Here, we investigated the impact of the CYP2C19 genotype polymorphism and the success of triple therapy (fluoroquinolones/metronidazole/clarithromycin) on antibiotic-resistant strains in eradicating H. pylori in human subjects with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), in human subjects with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and in asymptomatic human subjects (positive and negative for H. pylori infection).

    Results: Based on the CYP2C19 genotypes, determined by Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) analysis, we found 11.2%, 62.5% and 26.3% corresponding to rapid metabolizers, intermediate metabolizers and poor metabolizers, respectively. However, we did not find any significant effect for homozygous ABCB1 or CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 alleles. We detected several participants heterozygous for both ABCB1 and CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 and CYP2C19*17 loci. The participants heterozygous for both ABCB1 and CYP2C19*2 and *3 loci should be defined as intermediate and poor metabolizers according to the haplotype analysis in the NUD, PUD and asymptomatic subjects.

    Conclusions: Consequently, fluoroquinolones/metronidazole/clarithromycin-based triple therapies can be used to eradicate H. pylori infection, if one does not know the CYP2C19 genotype of the patient.

    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use*; Drug Resistance, Microbial*; Drug Therapy, Combination/methods; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Polymorphism, Genetic*; Helicobacter pylori/drug effects*; Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy*; Helicobacter Infections/genetics; Helicobacter Infections/microbiology; Treatment Outcome; Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use*; Young Adult; Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19/genetics*
  6. Patar A, Dockery P, Howard L, McMahon SS
    J. Anat., 2019 02;234(2):244-251.
    PMID: 30417349 DOI: 10.1111/joa.12909
    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disorder that has a poor prognosis of recovery. Animal models of SCI are useful to understand the pathophysiology of SCI and the potential use of therapeutic strategies for human SCI. Ex vivo models of central nervous system (CNS) trauma, particularly mechanical trauma, have become important tools to complement in vivo models of injury in order to reproduce the sequelae of human CNS injury. Ex vivo organotypic slice cultures (OSCs) provide a reliable model platform for the study of cell dynamics and therapeutic intervention following SCI. In addition, these ex vivo models support the 3R concept of animal use in SCI research - replacement, reduction and refinement. Ex vivo models cannot be used to monitor functional recovery, nor do they have the intact blood supply of the in vivo model systems. However, the ex vivo models appear to reproduce many of the post traumatic events including acute and secondary injury mechanisms. Several well-established OSC models have been developed over the past few years for experimental spinal injuries ex vivo in order to understand the biological response to injury. In this study, we investigated cell viability in three ex vivo OSC models of SCI: stab injury, transection injury and contusion injury. Injury was inflicted in postnatal day 4 rat spinal cord slices. Stab injury was performed using a needle on transverse slices of spinal cord. Transection injury was performed on longitudinal slices of spinal cord using a double blade technique. Contusion injury was performed on longitudinal slices of spinal cord using an Infinite Horizon impactor device. At days 3 and 10 post-injury, viability was measured using dual staining for propidium iodide and fluorescein diacetate. In all ex vivo SCI models, the slices showed more live cells than dead cells over 10 days in culture, with higher cell viability in control slices compared with injured slices. Although no change in cell viability was observed between time-points in stab- and contusion-injured OSCs, a reduction in cell viability was observed over time in transection-injured OSCs. Taken together, ex vivo SCI models are a useful and reliable research tool that reduces the cost and time involved in carrying out animal studies. The use of OSC models provides a simple way to study the cellular consequences following SCI, and they can also be used to investigate potential therapeutics regimes for the treatment of SCI.
  7. Irfan M, Irfan M, Idris A, Baig N, Saleh TA, Nasiri R, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2019 03;107(3):513-525.
    PMID: 30484939 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36566
    This study focused to optimize the performance of polyethersulfone (PES) hemodialysis (HD) membrane using carboxylic functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) and lower molecular weight grade of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-k30). Initially, MWCNT were chemically functionalized by acid treatment and nanocomposites (NCs) of PVP-k30 and c-MWCNT were formed and subsequently blended with PES polymer. The spectra of FTIR of the HD membranes revealed that NCs has strong hydrogen bonding and their addition to PES polymer improved the capillary system of membranes as confirmed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and leaching of the additive decreased to 2% and hydrophilicity improved to 22%. The pore size and porosity of NCs were also enhanced and rejection rate was achieved in the establish dialysis range (<60 kDa). The antifouling studies had shown that NCs membrane exhibited 30% less adhesion of protein with 80% flux recovery ratio. The blood compatibility assessment disclosed that NCs based membranes showed prolonged thrombin and prothrombin clotting times, lessened production of fibrinogen cluster, and greatly suppressed adhesion of blood plasma than a pristine PES membrane. The results also unveiled that PVP-k30/NCs improved the surface properties of the membrane and the urea and creatinine removal increased to 72% and 75% than pure PES membranes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 107A: 513-525, 2019.
  8. Oh L, Hafsi H, Hainaut P, Ariffin H
    Curr Opin Oncol, 2019 03;31(2):84-91.
    PMID: 30585860 DOI: 10.1097/CCO.0000000000000504
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Childhood blastomas, unlike adult cancers, originate from developing organs in which molecular and cellular features exhibit differentiation arrest and embryonic characteristics. Conventional cancer therapies, which rely on the generalized cytotoxic effect on rapidly dividing cells, may damage delicate organs in young children, leading to multiple late effects. Deep understanding of the biology of embryonal cancers is crucial in reshaping the cancer treatment paradigm for children.

    RECENT FINDINGS: p53 plays a major physiological role in embryonic development, by controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and responses to cellular stress. Tumor suppressor function of p53 is commonly lost in adult cancers through genetic alterations. However, both somatic and germline p53 mutations are rare in childhood blastomas, suggesting that in these cancers, p53 may be inactivated through other mechanisms than mutation. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about p53 pathway inactivation in childhood blastomas (specifically neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma and Wilms' tumor) through various upstream mechanisms. Laboratory evidence and clinical trials of targeted therapies specific to exploiting p53 upstream regulators are discussed.

    SUMMARY: Despite the low rate of inherent TP53 mutations, p53 pathway inactivation is a common denominator in childhood blastomas. Exploiting p53 and its regulators is likely to translate into more effective targeted therapies with minimal late effects for children. (see Video Abstract, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/COON/A23).

  9. Mohamad N, Mustafa M, Amal MNA, Saad MZ, Md Yasin IS, Al-Saari N
    J. Aquat. Anim. Health, 2019 06;31(2):154-167.
    PMID: 30653742 DOI: 10.1002/aah.10062
    This study investigated the environmental factors associated with the presence of Vibrionaceae in economically important cage-cultured tropical marine fishes: the Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer, snapper Lutjanus sp., and hybrid grouper Epinephelus sp. Fish sampling was conducted at monthly intervals between December 2016 and August 2017. The body weight and length of individual fish were measured, and the skin, eye, liver, and kidney were sampled for bacterial isolation and identification. Water physicochemical parameters during the sampling activities were determined, and the enumeration of total Vibrionaceae count was also conducted from water and sediment samples. Nine species of Vibrio were identified, including V. alginolyticus, V. diabolicus, V. harveyi, V. campbellii, V. parahaemolyticus, V. rotiferianus, V. furnissii, V. fluvialis, and V. vulnificus. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae was also identified. A total of 73% of the isolated Vibrio belonged to the Harveyi clade, followed by the Vulnificus clade (5.5%) and Cholera clade (0.6%). Highest occurrence of Vibrio spp. and P. damselae subsp. damselae was found in hybrid grouper (72%), followed by Asian Seabass (48%) and snapper (36%). The associations of Vibrio spp. and P. damselae subsp. damselae with the host fish were not species specific. However, fish mortality and fish size showed strong associations with the presence of some Vibrio spp. On average, 60% of the infected cultured fish exhibited at least one clinical sign. Nevertheless, inconsistent associations were observed between the pathogens and water quality. The yearlong occurrence and abundance of Vibrionaceae in the environmental components indicate that they might serve as reservoirs of these pathogens.
  10. Gravely S, Driezen P, Ouimet J, Quah ACK, Cummings KM, Thompson ME, et al.
    Addiction, 2019 06;114(6):1060-1073.
    PMID: 30681215 DOI: 10.1111/add.14558
    AIMS: This paper presents updated prevalence estimates of awareness, ever-use, and current use of nicotine vaping products (NVPs) from 14 International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) countries that have varying regulations governing NVP sales and marketing.

    DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: A cross-sectional analysis of adult (≥ 18 years) current smokers and ex-smokers from 14 countries participating in the ITC Project. Data from the most recent survey questionnaire for each country were included, which spanned the period 2013-17. Countries were categorized into four groups based on regulations governing NVP sales and marketing (allowable or not), and level of enforcement (strict or weak where NVPs are not permitted to be sold): (1) most restrictive policies (MRPs), not legal to be sold or marketed with strict enforcement: Australia, Brazil, Uruguay; (2) restrictive policies (RPs), not approved for sale or marketing with weak enforcement: Canada, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand; (3) less restrictive policies (LRPs), legal to be sold and marketed with regulations: England, the Netherlands, Republic of Korea, United States; and (4) no regulatory policies (NRPs), Bangladesh, China, Zambia. Countries were also grouped by World Bank Income Classifications. Country-specific weighted logistic regression models estimated adjusted NVP prevalence estimates for: awareness, ever/current use, and frequency of use (daily versus non-daily).

    FINDINGS: NVP awareness and use were lowest in NRP countries. Generally, ever- and current use of NVPs were lower in MRP countries (ever-use = 7.1-48.9%; current use = 0.3-3.5%) relative to LRP countries (ever-use = 38.9-66.6%; current use = 5.5-17.2%) and RP countries (ever-use = 10.0-62.4%; current use = 1.4-15.5%). NVP use was highest among high-income countries, followed by upper-middle-income countries, and then by lower-middle-income countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: With a few exceptions, awareness and use of nicotine vaping products varied by the strength of national regulations governing nicotine vaping product sales/marketing, and by country income. In countries with no regulatory policies, use rates were very low, suggesting that there was little availability, marketing and/or interest in nicotine vaping products in these countries where smoking populations are predominantly poorer. The higher awareness and use of nicotine vaping products in high income countries with moderately (e.g. Canada, New Zealand) and less (e.g. England, United States) restrictive policies, is likely due to the greater availability and affordability of nicotine vaping products.

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