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MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Ding C, Lim LL, Xu L, Kong APS
    J Obes Metab Syndr, 2018 Mar 30;27(1):4-24.
    PMID: 31089536 DOI: 10.7570/jomes.2018.27.1.4
    Rising global prevalence and incidence of obesity lead to increased cardiovascular-renal complications and cancers. Epidemiological studies reported a worldwide trend towards suboptimal sleep duration and poor sleep quality in parallel with this obesity epidemic. From rodents and human models, it is highly plausible that abnormalities in sleep, both quantity and quality, impact negatively on energy metabolism. While excess dietary intake and physical inactivity are the known drivers of the obesity epidemic, promotion of healthy sleep habits has emerged as a new target to combat obesity. In this light, present review focuses on the existing literature examining the relationship between sleep physiology and energy homeostasis. Notably, sleep dysregulation perturbs the metabolic milieu via alterations in hormones such as leptin and ghrelin, eating behavior, neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, shift work and trans-meridian air travel may exert a negative influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and trigger circadian misalignment, leading to impaired glucose tolerance and increased fat accumulation. Amassing evidence has also suggested that uncoupling of the circadian clock can increase the risk of adverse metabolic health. Given the importance of sleep in maintaining energy homeostasis and that it is potentially modifiable, promoting good sleep hygiene may create new avenues for obesity prevention and treatment.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Autonomic Nervous System; Eating; Energy Metabolism; Feeding Behavior; Habits; Homeostasis; Humans; Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System; Neoplasms; Obesity; Pituitary-Adrenal System; Rodentia; Sleep; Incidence; Prevalence; Epidemiologic Studies; Meridians; Glucose Intolerance; Leptin; Ghrelin; Circadian Clocks; Air Travel; Sleep Hygiene
  2. Namazi H, Aghasian E, Ala TS
    Technol Health Care, 2019;27(3):233-241.
    PMID: 30829625 DOI: 10.3233/THC-181497
    Brain activity analysis is an important research area in the field of human neuroscience. Moreover, a subcategory in this field is the classification of brain activity in terms of different brain disorders. Since the Electroencephalography (EEG) signal is, in fact, a non-linear time series, employing techniques to investigate its non-linear structure is rather crucial. In this study, we evaluate the non-linear structure of the EEG signal between healthy and schizophrenic adolescents using fractal theory. The results of our analysis revealed that in terms of all recording channels, the EEG signal of healthy subjects is more complex compared to the ones suffering from schizophrenia. The statistical analysis also indicated that there is a significant difference in the complex structure of the EEG signal between these two groups of subjects. We also utilized approximate entropy in our analysis in order to verify the obtained results of the fractal analysis. The result of the entropy analysis suggested that EEG signal for healthy subjects is less random compared to the EEG signal in schizophrenic individuals. In addition, the employed methodology in this research can be further investigated in order to classify the brain activity in terms of other brain disorders, where one can explore how the complex structure of the EEG signal alters between them.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Brain; Brain Diseases; Electroencephalography; Humans; Neurosciences; Schizophrenia; Fractals; Entropy; Healthy Volunteers
  3. Waiho K, Fazhan H, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Li S, Zheng H, et al.
    Mar. Biotechnol., 2019 Jun;21(3):320-334.
    PMID: 30835008 DOI: 10.1007/s10126-019-09882-1
    Although the sexual dimorphism in terms of gonadal development and gametogenesis of mud crab has been described, the internal regulating mechanism and sex differentiation process remain unclear. A comparative gonadal miRNA transcriptomic study was conducted to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed between testes and ovaries, and potentially uncover miRNAs that might be involved in sex differentiation and gonadal maturation mechanisms of mud crabs (Scylla paramamosain). A total of 10 known miRNAs and 130 novel miRNAs were identified, among which 54 were differentially expressed. Target gene prediction revealed a significant enrichment in 30 KEGG pathways, including some reproduction-related pathways, e.g. phosphatidylinositol signalling system and inositol phosphate metabolism pathways. Further analysis on six differentially expressed known miRNAs, six differentially expressed novel miRNAs and their reproduction-related putative target genes shows that both miRNAs and putative target genes showed stage-specific expression during gonadal maturation, suggesting their potential regulatory roles in sex differentiation and reproductive development. This study reveals the sex-biased miRNA profile and establishes a solid foundation for understanding the sex differentiation and gonadal maturation mechanisms of S. paramamosain.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Brachyura; Female; Gametogenesis; Gonads; Inositol Phosphates; Male; Ovary; Phosphatidylinositols; Reproduction; Sex Characteristics; Sex Differentiation; Testis; MicroRNAs; Transcriptome
  4. Li BJ, Zhu ZX, Gu XH, Lin HR, Xia JH
    Mar. Biotechnol., 2019 Jun;21(3):384-395.
    PMID: 30863905 DOI: 10.1007/s10126-019-09888-9
    Body color is an interesting economic trait in fish. Red tilapia with red blotches may decrease its commercial values. Conventional selection of pure red color lines is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To accelerate selection of pure lines through marker-assisted selection, in this study, double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) technology was applied to genotype a full-sib mapping family of Malaysia red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) (N = 192). Genome-wide significant quantitative trait locus (QTL)-controlling red blotches were mapped onto two chromosomes (chrLG5 and chrLG15) explaining 9.7% and 8.2% of phenotypic variances by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and linkage-based QTL mapping. Six SNPs from the chromosome chrLG5 (four), chrLG15 (one), and unplaced supercontig GL831288-1 (one) were significantly associated to the red blotch trait in GWAS analysis. We developed nine microsatellite markers and validated significant correlations between genotypes and blotch data (p 
  5. Fong CY, Hong SY, Ong LC, Lim WK, Lua PL
    Epilepsy Behav, 2019 May;94:52-58.
    PMID: 30884408 DOI: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.02.008
    BACKGROUND: An information technology (IT)-based epilepsy educational program, the Interactive Animated Epilepsy Education Programme (IAEEP), can potentially help improve awareness, knowledge, and attitude (AKA) of parents of children with epilepsy (CWE) enabling CWE to lead a normal life. Our study aimed to assess the following: i) baseline level of epilepsy AKA of Malaysian parents of CWE and explore potential characteristics associated with low levels of AKA; ii) effectiveness of the IAEEP in improving parental AKA, and whether these effects remained stable over time; and iii) effects of the IAEEP on parental mental state and perception of their child's quality of life.

    METHODS: This prospective study includes parents of CWE aged 8-18 years old with no comorbidities. Epilepsy education was delivered using the IAEEP. Parents completed an AKA questionnaire before (time point 1 [TP1]), immediately after (TP2), and 4-6 months (TP3) after the provision of IAEEP. Parent proxy report of Health-Related Quality of Life Measurement for Children with Epilepsy (CHEQOL)-25 questionnaire and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS)-21 questionnaire was completed at TP1 and TP3.

    RESULTS: A total of 78 parents participated in the study. At baseline (TP1), parental responses were rated as "moderate" for awareness domain, "high" for knowledge domain, "very positive" for attitude domain, and "good" for total AKA score domain. No epilepsy or parental characteristics were associated with the low baseline parental AKA levels. After IAEEP intervention, there was a significant increase in all AKA subdomain scores. Post-IAEEP, the AKA of parents were rated as "very high" for awareness domain, "very high" for knowledge domain, "very positive" for attitude domain, and "excellent" for total AKA domain at both TP2 and TP3. Parent proxy CHEQOL-25 report showed significant increments in interpersonal/social and secrecy scale scores between TP1 and TP3. There were no significant differences in the DASS-21 scores between TP1 and TP3.

    CONCLUSION: The IAEEP is an effective epilepsy educational tool to increase the levels of AKA among parents of CWE. Following the use of the IAEEP, parents of CWE also reported an improvement of their child's quality of life in the interpersonal/social and epilepsy secrecy CHEQOL-25 domains. There was no impact on parental mental health following exposure to the IAEEP.

  6. Kwan TJM, Zilany MSA, Davies-Venn E, Abdul Wahab AK
    Exp Brain Res, 2019 Jun;237(6):1479-1491.
    PMID: 30903206 DOI: 10.1007/s00221-019-05511-4
    Various studies on medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents have implicated it in multiple roles in the auditory system (e.g., dynamic range adaptation, masking reduction, and selective attention). This study presents a systematic simulation of inferior colliculus (IC) responses with and without electrical stimulation of the MOC. Phenomenological models of the responses of auditory nerve (AN) fibers and IC neurons were used to this end. The simulated responses were highly consistent with physiological data (replicated 3 of the 4 known rate-level responses all MOC effects-shifts, high stimulus level reduction and enhancement). Complex MOC efferent effects which were previously thought to require integration from different characteristic frequency (CF) neurons were simulated using the same frequency inhibition excitation circuitry. MOC-induced enhancing effects were found only in neurons with a CF range from 750 Hz to 2 kHz. This limited effect is indicative of the role of MOC activation on the AN responses at the stimulus offset.
  7. Amal MNA, Ismail A, Saad MZ, Md Yasin IS, Nasruddin NS, Mastor SS, et al.
    Microb. Pathog., 2019 Mar 30;131:47-52.
    PMID: 30940607 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.03.034
    This study determines the median lethal dose, and describes the clinico-pathological changes and disease development following Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Javanese medaka model. Javanese medakas were infected with S. agalactiae via intraperitoneal (IP) from 104 to 108 CFU/mL, and immersion (IM) route from 103 to 107 CFU/mL. The LD50-240h and clinico-pathological changes of the fish was determined until 240 h post infection (hpi). Next, the disease development was determined for 96 hpi in the fish following IP and IM infection at 103 CFU/mL and 104 CFU/mL, respectively. The LD50-240h of S. agalactiae in Javanese medaka was lower following IP injection (4.5 × 102 CFU/mL), compared to IM route (3.5 × 103 CFU/mL). The clinical signs included separating from the schooling group, swimming at the surface of water column, lethargy, erratic swimming pattern, corneal opacity and exophthalmia. Histopathological examinations revealed generalized congestion in almost all internal organs, particularly in liver and brain, while the kidney displayed tubular necrosis. Both IP and IM routes showed significant positive correlation (p 
  8. Akkerman O, Aleksa A, Alffenaar JW, Al-Marzouqi NH, Arias-Guillén M, Belilovski E, et al.
    Int. J. Infect. Dis., 2019 Apr 03;83:72-76.
    PMID: 30953827 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.03.036
    The World Health Organization launched a global initiative, known as aDSM (active TB drug safety monitoring and management) to better describe the safety profile of new treatment regimens for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in real-world settings. However, comprehensive surveillance is difficult to implement in several countries. The aim of the aDSM project is to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing national aDSM registers and to describe the type and the frequency of adverse events (AEs) associated with exposure to the new anti-TB drugs. Following a pilot study carried out in 2016, official involvement of TB reference centres/countries into the project was sought and cases treated with bedaquiline- and/or delamanid-containing regimens were consecutively recruited. AEs were prospectively collected ensuring potential attribution of the AE to a specific drug based on its known safety profile. A total of 309 cases were fully reported from 41 centres in 27 countries (65% males; 268 treated with bedaquiline, 20 with delamanid, and 21 with both drugs) out of an estimated 781 cases the participating countries had committed to report by the first quarter of 2019.
    MeSH terms: Male; Nitroimidazoles; Oxazoles; Pilot Projects; Tuberculosis; Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant; Diarylquinolines
  9. Puspitasari Y, Annas S, Adza-Rina MN, Zamri-Saad M
    Microb. Pathog., 2019 Apr 10;131:170-174.
    PMID: 30978429 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.04.012
    Pasteurella multocida B:2 is a Gram-negative organism causing haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in buffaloes. It causes severe pulmonary infection, leading to infiltration of numerous macrophages and neutrophils. Despite the inflammatory response, buffaloes succumb to HS. This study aims to evaluate the in-vitro efficacy of macrophages and neutrophils of buffalo following exposure to P. multocida B:2. In-vitro infections were done using 107 cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2 for Group 1, Escherichia coli for Group 2 and Mannhaemia haemolytica A:2 for Group 3 cells. The inoculated cell cultures were harvested at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min post-exposure and the phagocytic, killing and cell death rates were determined. Both phagocytosis and killing rates of all bacteria increased over time. Phagocytosis involved between 71% and 73% neutrophils and between 60% and 64% macrophages at 120 min. Killing rate of all bacteria involved between 76% and 79% for neutrophils and between 70% and 74% for macrophages at 120 min. Death rate of neutrophils ranged between 67% in Group 3, and 88% in Group 1 at 120 min, significantly (p  0.05) than Group 2. Similar pattern was observed for death rate of macrophages. The phagocytosis and killing rates of P. multocida B:2 were similar to other bacterial species used in this study but more neutrophils and macrophages were dead following infection by P. multocida B:2 than M. haemolytica A:2.
  10. Jikal M, Riduan T, Aarifin R, Jeffree MS, Ahmed K
    Int. J. Infect. Dis., 2019 Apr 13;83:83-85.
    PMID: 30986543 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.04.008
    OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigated an outbreak of Vibrio cholera O1 Ogawa serotype, occurred during December 2014 in Kudat district, situated in Sabah state of the Malaysian part of Borneo.

    METHODS: Active case detection and contact tracing were done at respective localities by house to house survey. Passive case detection was done among acute gastroenteritis patients attended at various health facilities. To determine the source, samples from food, water and environment were taken. A case control study was also done to determine the risk factors.

    RESULTS: A total of 44 symptomatic and 34 asymptomatic cases from 19 localities were investigated. 39 cases were detected through passive case detection. Median age of cases was 23 years. All cases belonged to serogroup O1 and Ogawa serotype. The epidemiological investigation of time, place, and person identified that V. cholerae cross-transmission might have occurred in two fish markets and the fish-loading port. Circumstantial evidences indicated that cholera was possibly transmitted through contaminated sea foods.

    CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the life-style of Sea Gypsies is a challenge in cholera control; therefore vaccination might be an effective way to mitigate cholera in an outbreak prone area like Kudat.

    MeSH terms: Adult; Animals; Borneo; Cholera; Disease Outbreaks; Gastroenteritis; Roma; Health Facilities; Humans; Malaysia; Surveys and Questionnaires; Risk Factors; Vaccination; Vibrio cholerae; Water; Case-Control Studies; Contact Tracing; Seafood; Young Adult; Serogroup
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