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MyMedR (Malaysian Medical Repository) is an open access collection of Malaysian health and biomedical research. The materials are imported from PubMed and MyJurnal. We gratefully acknowledge the permission to reuse the materials from the National Library of Medicine of the United States and the Malaysian Citation Centre. This project is funded by Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. The project team members are: CL Teng, CJ Ng, EM Khoo, Mastura Ismail, Abrizah Abdullah, TK Chiew, Thanaletchumi Dharmalingam.

Please note that some citations are non-Malaysian publications. Common reasons are: (1) One or more authors had a Malaysian affiliation; (2) The article abstract mentioned Malaysia; (3) The study subjects included Malay ethnic group.

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  1. Brosius JP
    Am Anthropol, 1999;101(1):36-57.
    PMID: 19280759
    MeSH terms: Economics/history; Economics/legislation & jurisprudence; Employment/economics; Employment/history; Employment/legislation & jurisprudence; Employment/psychology; Environment; Humans; Jurisprudence/history; Malaysia/ethnology; Social Change/history; Social Conditions/economics; Social Conditions/history; Social Conditions/legislation & jurisprudence; Socioeconomic Factors*; Tropical Climate*; Forestry/economics; Forestry/education; Forestry/history; Forestry/legislation & jurisprudence; History, 20th Century
  2. Lim LH, Justine JL
    Folia Parasitol., 2007 Sep;54(3):203-7.
    PMID: 19245191
    Sixteen labrid species, including four Bodianus spp., were examined in New Caledonia (South Pacific) and monogeneans were found only on Bodianus perditio (Quoy et Gaimard). This species, Haliotrema banana sp. n., is the second Haliotrema species to be described from the labrids, the first being Haliotrema bodiani Yamaguti, 1968 from Bodianus albotaeniatus (Valenciennes), previously designated as B. bilunulatus (Lacépède). The new species is similar to H. bodiani in soft reproductive parts but differs from it in the morphologies of the hard haptoral parts, mainly in the shape of the dorsal bar (bar-shaped vs V-shaped in H. bodiani) and ventral bar. It is similar to Haliotrema spirale Yamaguti, 1968 and Haliotrema minutospirale Yamaguti, 1968 in the shape of the anchors and bars but differs from them in the detailed structures of the copulatory organ and vaginal system.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Fish Diseases/parasitology*; New Caledonia; Perciformes/parasitology*; Trematoda/classification*; Trematoda/ultrastructure; Trematode Infections/parasitology; Trematode Infections/veterinary*
  3. Kumari N, Navaratnam P, Sekaran SD
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2008 Jun 01;2(3):193-9.
    PMID: 19738350
    BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen. The emergence of penicillin resistant strains since the 1970s has been life threatening and the evolution of the bacteria have enabled itself to develop resistance to many other antibiotics such as the macrolides and the fluoroquinolones. This study aims to characterize S. pneumoniae isolates for the presence of penicillin and macrolide resistance genes.

    METHODOLOGY: One hundred and twenty clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae were obtained from patients of University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). The strains were screened using a multiplex real-time PCR method for the presence of alterations in the genes encoding the penicillin binding proteins: pbp2b, macrolide resistance determinant ermB and the pneumolysin gene, ply. Dual-labelled Taqman probes were used in the real-time detection method comprising three different genes labeled with individual fluorophores at different wavelengths. One hundred and twenty isolates from bacterial cultures and isolates directly from blood cultures samples were analyzed using this assay.

    RESULTS: A multiplex PCR comprising the antibiotic resistance genes, ermB and and pneumolysin gene (ply), a S. pneumoniae species specific gene, was developed to characterize strains of S. pneumoniae. Out of the 120 pneumococcal isolates, 58 strains were categorized as Penicillin Sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP), 36 as Penicillin Intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae (PISP) and 26 as Penicillin Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP). All the 58 PSSP strains harboured the pbp2b gene while the 36 PISP and 26 PRSP strains did not harbour this gene, thus suggesting reduced susceptibility to penicillin. Resistance to erythromycin was observed in 47 of the pneumococcal strains while 15 and 58 were intermediate and sensitive to this drug respectively. Susceptibility testing to other beta-lactams (CTX and CRO) also showed reduced susceptibility among the strains within the PISP and PRSP groups but most PSSP strains were sensitive to other antibiotics.

    CONCLUSION: The characterization of pneumococcal isolates for penicillin and erythromycin resistance genes could be useful to predict the susceptibility of these isolates to other antibiotics, especially beta-lactams drugs. We have developed an assay with a shorter turnaround time to determine the species and resistance profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae with respect to penicillin and macrolides using the Real Time PCR format with fluorescent labeled Taqman probes, hence facilitating earlier and more definitive antimicrobial therapy which may lead to better patient management.

    MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; Bacterial Proteins/genetics; Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification; DNA, Bacterial/genetics; Erythromycin/pharmacology; Genes, Bacterial; Humans; Malaysia/epidemiology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods; Penicillins/pharmacology; Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology*; Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology; Sensitivity and Specificity; Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects; Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics*; Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification; Streptolysins/genetics; Streptolysins/isolation & purification; Time Factors; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Aminoacyltransferases/genetics*; Aminoacyltransferases/isolation & purification; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics; Penicillin-Binding Proteins/genetics*; Penicillin-Binding Proteins/isolation & purification
  4. Yuen HL, Shamala D, Thong KL
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2008 Aug 30;2(4):313-23.
    PMID: 19741295
    BACKGROUND: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever. The objective of this study was to apply a phage display library to identify mimotopes of two HSPs, HSP90 and DnaK in S. Typhi.

    METHODOLOGY: A 12-mer random peptide library expressed on the surface of the filamentous phage, M13, was used to select the mimotopes of two S. Typhi heat shock proteins by biopanning with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), DnaK and HSP90. The immunogenicity of the selected peptides was determined through binding affinity with polyclonal antibodies from pooled typhoid-confirmed patients' sera and purified HSPs mAb using Western blotting and ELISA.

    RESULTS: Five rounds of biopanning resulted in enrichment of phage clones expressing the binding motifs TDxSTRP and FPSHYWLYPPPT, respectively. The selected peptides showed strong immunoreactivity with patients' sera. Thus, monoclonal antibodies against HSP and patient sera can select common mimotopes from the random peptide library.

    CONCLUSION: These findings may provide fundamental information for further studies on diagnostic application or vaccine design against this aetiologic agent of typhoid fever.

    MeSH terms: Humans; Salmonella typhi/immunology*; Blotting, Western; HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/immunology*; HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/isolation & purification*; Peptide Library
  5. Katherason SG, Naing L, Jaalam K, Ismail A
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2008 Oct 01;2(5):364-8.
    PMID: 19745504
    BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections (NIs) have a serious impact on patient outcomes in Intensive Care Units (ICUs).

    METHOD: A prospective cohort-targeted comprehensive surveillance study on NI associated with usage of devices was conducted in three ICUs in Malaysia using a developed NI surveillance form. Patients who developed infection outside an ICU were excluded from the study.

    RESULTS: The device associated NI was 21.1%. The mean duration for development of NI was 10.0 +/- 7.44 days in ICU. The major device-associated infections were nosocomial pneumonia (18.7%) followed by bacteremia (8.5%) and urinary tract infections (4.7%) respectively. NI incidence density rate was 20.6 per 1,000 patient-days. Bacteremia, urinary tract infection (UTI) and nosocomial pneumonia (NP) rates were 8.9, 4.7 and 20.5 per 1,000 patient-days, respectively. Acinetobacter species, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant pathogens isolated from the NIs subjects during the study period in the three ICUs.

    CONCLUSION: Analysis of the rate of the NIs associated with usage of devices in the three ICUs showed that it is highly correlated with the use of mechanical ventilation devices, followed by intravascular devices and usage of indwelling urinary catheters.

    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Bacterial Infections/microbiology; Bacterial Infections/epidemiology; Cross Infection/microbiology; Cross Infection/epidemiology*; Data Collection; Equipment Contamination; Female; Humans; Intensive Care Units*; Malaysia/epidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Cohort Studies
  6. Elsherbieny E, Choo P, Alzoubi A
    Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther, 2008 4 1;1(2):124-9.
    PMID: 20063540
    MeSH terms: Adult; Aged; Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage*; Cisplatin/administration & dosage*; Combined Modality Therapy; Female; Humans; Malaysia; Male; Middle Aged; Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology; Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/therapy*; Neoplasm Staging; Radiotherapy*; Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  7. Suvarna BS
    Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ), 2008 7 1;6(23):406-11.
    PMID: 20071830
    MeSH terms: Adult; Feeding and Eating Disorders/diet therapy; Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diet therapy; Asthma/diet therapy; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diet therapy; Bipolar Disorder/diet therapy; Burns/diet therapy; Cardiovascular Diseases/diet therapy; Child; Diabetes Mellitus/diet therapy; Drug Interactions; Dysmenorrhea/diet therapy; Female; Humans; Macular Degeneration/diet therapy; Male; Neoplasms/diet therapy; Obesity/diet therapy; Osteoporosis/diet therapy; Skin Diseases/diet therapy; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diet therapy; Treatment Outcome; Dietary Supplements*; Fatty Acids, Omega-6/therapeutic use*
  8. Mokhtar S, Azizi ZA, Govindarajanthran N
    Asian J Surg, 2008 Jul;31(3):124-9.
    PMID: 18658010
    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of posture and also intermittent foot and calf compression on peak systolic flow of the popliteal artery in a normal population.

    METHODS: This was a prospective study carried out in normal subjects at the Vascular Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, from March 2006 to September 2006. The study compared the popliteal artery blood flow during change of posture from the horizontal (supine) to the sitting position and the effect of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) of the foot and calf on popliteal artery blood flow immediately and 10 minutes after cessation of compression.

    RESULTS: A total of 15 subjects involving 30 limbs were examined in this study. On comparing flows between the horizontal and sitting position, there was a mean reduction in blood flow of 23% (p < 0.005). Immediately after compression of the foot and calf, there was an increase in blood flow of between 4% and 35% with a mean of 15% (p < 0.05). Peak systolic flows at 10 minutes postcompression were 536 +/- 95 mL/min, which was still significantly higher than precompression measurements.

    CONCLUSION: There is a significant reduction in popliteal artery blood flow on changing from the supine to the sitting position. Popliteal artery blood flow is higher than baseline after 15 minutes of intermittent pneumatic foot and calf compression. The increase in popliteal artery blood flow is still present 10 minutes after cessation of IPC.

    MeSH terms: Adult; Female; Foot/physiology*; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Popliteal Artery/physiology*; Posture/physiology*; Prospective Studies; Regional Blood Flow; Systole; Time Factors; Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices*
  9. Ismail NA, Saharan WS, Zaleha MA, Jaafar R, Muhammad JA, Razi ZR
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2008 Jun;34(3):350-3.
    PMID: 18686348
    AIM: To compare the success, clinical outcomes, and maternal and neonatal complications between the Kiwi Omnicup and the Malmstrom metal cup in vacuum assisted delivery.

    METHODS: This was a prospective randomized comparative trial. Women who required vacuum assisted vaginal delivery were randomized into the Kiwi Omnicup (KO) group and the Malmstrom metal cup (MM) group. The vacuum assisted deliveries were conducted according to hospital protocol. Details of the procedure and delivery outcomes including success and complications were analyzed.

    RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-four women were recruited - 85 were assigned to vacuum assisted delivery using the KO and 79 the MM. One hundred percent delivery success was achieved with no significant differences between the two instruments in terms of maternal morbidity (P = 0.66). Six women in the MM group sustained post delivery complications in comparison to five in the KO group. Three babies were diagnosed with birth asphyxia in each group. More babies in the MM group were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) (10 babies versus 5 babies) and suffered complications (14 versus 12 babies), compared to the KO group, although the difference was not statistically significant. There were no intrapartum or neonatal deaths and of those admitted to the NICU, all were discharged within a week without any serious consequences.

    CONCLUSION: Kiwi Omnicup is an effective alternative to the currently available Malmstrom metal cup for vacuum assisted delivery with no increase in maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality.

    MeSH terms: Adult; Birth Injuries/epidemiology; Female; Postpartum Hemorrhage/epidemiology; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Perineum/injuries; Pregnancy; Prospective Studies; Vacuum Extraction, Obstetrical/adverse effects; Vacuum Extraction, Obstetrical/instrumentation*; Intensive Care, Neonatal; Treatment Outcome
  10. Joshi SC, Pant I, Shukla AN, Anshari MA
    J Cancer Res Ther, 2008 8 9;4(2):99-101.
    PMID: 18688130
    Follow-up of colorectal carcinoma after therapy is based on symptoms, tumor markers, and imaging studies. Clinicians sometimes face diagnostic dilemmas because of unusual presentations on the imaging modalities coupled with rising serum markers. We report a case of colorectal carcinoma that presented with gastrointestinal symptoms 14 months after completion of treatment. Investigations showed rise in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Suspecting disease recurrence, complete radioimaging workup was performed; the only abnormality detected was a smooth, hypodense area in the posterior third of the spleen on contrast-enhanced computed tomography abdomen. In view of the previous diagnosis of carcinoma colon, the symptoms reported by the patient, the elevated CEA, and the atypical CECT appearance, a diagnosis of splenic metastasis was made. The patient was subjected to splenectomy as a curative treatment. However, the histopathological report revealed it to be a splenic infarct. The present case reemphasizes the limitations of radiological studies in the follow-up of carcinoma colon.
    MeSH terms: Capecitabine; Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis; Adenocarcinoma/pathology; Adenocarcinoma/surgery; Aged; Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use; Carcinoembryonic Antigen/blood; Colectomy; Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis; Colonic Neoplasms/pathology*; Colonic Neoplasms/surgery; Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives; Deoxycytidine/therapeutic use; Diagnosis, Differential; Drug Administration Schedule; Fluorouracil/analogs & derivatives; Fluorouracil/therapeutic use; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology; Male; Radiography; Splenectomy; Splenic Neoplasms/diagnosis; Splenic Neoplasms/secondary*; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome; Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
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