Seven single locus microsatellite markers were characterized in Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii from an enriched genomic library Primer pairs were designed to flank the repeat sequences and the loci characterized for this species. The bands resulting from the PCR amplifications of these eight microsatellite loci were polymorphic with the number of alleles ranging from 8 to 26 alleles per locus, whereas the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.0641 to 0.6564. These newly developed microsatellite markers should prove to be useful for population studies and in the management of genetic variations in broodstocks of freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii.
The population structure of Probarbus jullieni from Malaysia and Thailand stocks was based on seven microsatellite primers and truss network measurements. Truss morphometric measurements were made on Temoleh, Probarbus jullieni to demonstrate the degree of speciation that can be induced by both biotic and abiotic conditions and contribute to the definition of different stocks of Probarbus sp. At the momment no relevant information on stock definition has been produced recently concerning Probarbus spp., which is now in IUCN threatened red list. We also summarize the possible discriminant morphological characteristics that shows differentiation between Malaysia and Thailand stocks. We also compare the levels of morphology and genetic differences for Malaysian stocks throughout one year of sampling to determine whether sampling season and possible sexual dimorphism can be detected in this fishes. A total of 25 different alleles were found across the two populations by the seven microsatellites, of which 21 and 19 alleles were detected in Pahang, Malaysia and Thailand, respectively At the population level, the mean number of alleles of Pahang (3.4991) per locus was higher than that (3.1665) of Thailand. From both molecular and morphometric measurements showed that there were two distinct populations. However the differences between these two populations showed that they belong to the same species with least degree of separation
We report on the characterization of 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci in P. viridis, the first set of such markers developed and characterized for this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, whereas the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.0447 to 0.4837. These markers should prove useful as powerful genetic markers for this species.
Twelve single locus trinucleotide microsatellite markers were developed to characterize the Asian river catfish, Mystus nemurus, an important food fish in South East Asia. They were obtained by using a rapid method namely the 5' anchored PCR enrichment protocol. The specific primers were designed to flank the repeat sequences and these were subsequently used to characterize 90 unrelated fish from Malaysia. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 (MnVj2-281) to 12 (MnBp8-4-43b) while the levels of heterozygosity ranged from 0.0444 (MnVj2-1-19) to 0.7458 (MnVj2-291).
Seven single locus dinucleotide microsatellite markers were developed to characterize an economically important sport fish and food fish in Malaysia and in Southeast Asia. They were obtained by using a rapid method namely the 5' anchored PCR enrichment protocol. The specific primers were designed to flank the repeat sequences and these were subsequently used to characterize 120 unrelated fish from Malaysia and 30 fishes from Indonesia. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 (SYKVJ1-11) to 6 (SYKVJ1-4) while the levels of heterozygosity ranged from 0.0472 (SYKVJ1-11) to 0.7745 (SYKVJ1-2).
Genetic variation due to heavy metal contamination has always been an interesting topic of study. Because of the numerous contaminants being found in coastal and intertidal waters, there is always much discussion and argument as to which contaminant(s) caused the variations in the genetic structures of biomonitors. This study used a Single Primer Amplification Reaction (SPAR) technique namely Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to determine the genetic diversity of the populations of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis collected from a metal-contaminated site at Kg. Pasir Puteh and those from four relatively' uncontaminated sites (reference sites). Heavy metal levels (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) were also measured in the soft tissues and byssus of the mussels from all the sites. Cluster analyses employing UPGMA done based on the RAPD makers grouped the populations into two major clusters; the Bagan Tiang, Pantai Lido, Pontian and Kg. Pasir Puteh populations were in one cluster, while the Sg. Belungkor population clustered by itself. This indicated that the genetic diversity based on bands resulting from the use of all four RAPD primers on P. viridis did not indicate its potential use as a biomarker of heavy metal pollution in coastal waters. However, based on a correlation analysis between a particular metal and a band resulting from a specific RAPD primer revealed some significant (P < 0.01) correlations between the primers and the heavy metal concentrations in the byssus and soft tissues. Thus, the correlation between a particular metal and the bands resulting from the use of a specific RAPD primer on P. viridis could be used as biomonitoring tool of heavy metal pollution.
Shell morphological characters and allozyme electrophoresis were used to study the relationships among six geographical populations of land snails collected from Peninsular Malaysia. Allozyme electrophoresis was used to study the genetic variations to complement the morphological features studied that included shell lengths, numbers of whorls and shell colour. Ten loci coding for six enzymes (MDH, LAP, ALP, PGM, G6PDH and EST) could be reliably scored in samples from the six populations studied. The dendrogram showed two major clusters with one cluster comprising Subulinidae populations from Perak, Selangor, Johor, Terengganu and Pahang while the other cluster included only the Streptaxidae Huttonella bicolor (red) population. The Subulinidae populations were grouped into two subclusters: one subcluster included the Subulina sp. populations from Perak, Selangor an Johor while the other subcluster included the Opeas sp. populations from Terengganu and Pahang. Morphological features can identify the different families and therefore they can complement the allozyme genetic studies on the land snail populations. Like other reports in the literature, our results also underline the importance of a genetic approach in conjunction with a morphological approach, for discriminating land snail species. The present results suggest that small land snails, which were similar in colour but different in sizes, were not of the same family/genus.