Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 78 in total

  1. Abdul-Hamid NA, Abas F, Ismail IS, Shaari K, Lajis NH
    J Food Sci, 2015 Nov;80(11):H2603-11.
    PMID: 26457883 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13084
    This study aimed to examine the variation in the metabolite profiles and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity of Ajwa dates that were subjected to 2 drying treatments and different extraction solvents. (1)H NMR coupled with multivariate data analysis was employed. A Griess assay was used to determine the inhibition of the production of NO in RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and interferon-γ. The oven dried (OD) samples demonstrated the absence of asparagine and ascorbic acid as compared to the freeze dried (FD) dates. The principal component analysis showed distinct clusters between the OD and FD dates by the second principal component. In respect of extraction solvents, chloroform extracts can be distinguished by the absence of arginine, glycine and asparagine compared to the methanol and 50% methanol extracts. The chloroform extracts can be clearly distinguished from the methanol and 50% methanol extracts by first principal component. Meanwhile, the loading score plot of partial least squares analysis suggested that beta glucose, alpha glucose, choline, ascorbic acid and glycine were among the metabolites that were contributing to higher biological activity displayed by FD and methanol extracts of Ajwa. The results highlight an alternative method of metabolomics approach for determination of the metabolites that contribute to NO inhibitory activity.
  2. Al-Sheraji SH, Ismail A, Manap MY, Mustafa S, Yusof RM
    J Food Sci, 2012 Nov;77(11):M624-30.
    PMID: 23106104 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02955.x
    The viability and activity of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4, B. longum BB 536 and yoghurt cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) were studied in yoghurt containing 0.75% Mangefira pajang fibrous polysaccharides (MPFP) and inulin. Growth of probiotic organisms, their proteolytic activities, the production of short chain fatty acids (lactic, acetic and propionic) and the pH of the yoghurt samples were determined during refrigerated storage at 4 °C for 28 d. B. pseudocatenulatum G4 and B. longum BB 536 showed better growth and activity in the presence of MPFP and inulin, which significantly increased the production of short chain fatty acids as well as the proteolytic activity of these organisms.
  3. Al-Zuaidy MH, Hamid AA, Ismail A, Mohamed S, Abdul Razis AF, Mumtaz MW, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2016 May;81(5):C1080-90.
    PMID: 27074520 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13293
    Diabetes mellitus is normally characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with disturbances in the fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism. There is an increasing trend of using natural products instead of synthetic agents as alternative therapy for disorders due to their fewer side effects. In this study, antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of different Melicope lunu-ankenda (ML) ethanolic extracts were evaluated using inhibition of α-glucosidase and 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, respectively; whereas, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) techniques were used for metabolite profiling of ML leaf extracts at different concentrations of ethanol and water. Sixty percent of ethanolic ML extract showed highest inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC50 of 37 μg/mL) and DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 of 48 μg/mL). Antidiabetic effect of ML extracts was also evaluated in vivo and it was found that the high doses (400 mg/Kg BW) of ML extract exhibited high suppression in fasting blood glucose level by 62.75%. The metabolites responsible for variation among ML samples with variable ethanolic levels have been evaluated successfully using (1) H-NMR-based metabolomics. The principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares(PLS) analysis scores depicted clear and distinct separations into 4 clusters representing the 4 ethanolic concentrations by PC1 and PC2, with an eigenvalue of 69.9%. Various (1) H-NMR chemical shifts related to the metabolites responsible for sample difference were also ascribed. The main bioactive compounds identified attributing toward the separation included: isorhamnetin, skimmianine, scopoletin, and melicarpinone. Hence, ML may be used as promising medicinal plant for the development of new functional foods, new generation antidiabetic drugs, as a single entity phytomedicine or in combinational therapy.
  4. Alrosan M, Tan TC, Easa AM, Gammoh S, Alu'datt MH
    J Food Sci, 2021 Dec;86(12):5282-5294.
    PMID: 34796499 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15974
    Poor solubility is a substantial factor that restricts the production of high value-added lentil proteins (LPs). In this study, whey protein isolates (WPIs), which have high solubility and are used in various food industries, were mixed with LPs at pH 12 to create LP-WPI protein complexes with improved water solubility properties using pH-recycling approach (maintained at pH 12.0 for 60 min and then readjusting to pH 7.0). LP-WPI protein complexes produced in this study have gained high surface charge, increased in the solubilization of protein complexes to ≈92%, as well as improved resistance against protein aggregation. The ratio of LPs to WPIs has a significant effect on the generation of unique tertiary and secondary protein structures based on the protein-protein interaction (PPI) technique via pH-recycling. The protein interaction between LPs and WPIs resulted in alteration on the surface morphology of the produced protein complexes. This study showed that electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic force, and hydrogen bond appear as major molecular forces in this PPI. The efficacy of the pH-recycling method used in this research indicates that this approach could be a robust approach to enhance the functional properties of food proteins. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The pH-recycling technique is a proven technique for protein complexation in creating novel protein complexes with improved functional properties. Even though lentils are a rich source of plant-based protein, its utilization by food industries is restricted due to the poor water solubility of lentil proteins (LPs). However, by using complexing lentil proteins with whey protein isolates (WPIs), that is, LP-WPI protein complex, was developed. The water solubility of LP-WPI protein complex was significantly higher than LPs, up to approximately 92%. In addition, this could improve the utilization of lentil seeds in food application as an alternative for animal-based proteins.
  5. Arief II, Afiyah DN, Wulandari Z, Budiman C
    J Food Sci, 2016 Nov;81(11):M2761-M2769.
    PMID: 27712046 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13509
    Probiotics may be used to enhance the functionality and nutritional values of fermented sausages. This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory properties of beef sausages fermented by lactic acid bacteria of Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-2C12 and L. acidophilus IIA-2B4. These strains were isolated from beef cattle and have shown to display probiotic features. While the nutrient contents were not affected by the probiotics, the pH, texture, and color varied among the sausages. Further analysis on fatty acids showed different profiles of saturated (C14:0, C17:0, and C20:0) and unsaturated (C14:1, C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, and C22:6n3) fatty acids in sausages with probiotics. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry further revealed some flavor development compounds including acid, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic, ketones, sulfur, hydrocarbons and terpenes, varied among the sausages. Hedonic test showed no difference in the preference toward aroma, texture, and color for untrained panelists.
  6. Aween MM, Hassan Z, Muhialdin BJ, Eljamel YA, Al-Mabrok AS, Lani MN
    J Food Sci, 2012 Jul;77(7):M364-71.
    PMID: 22757710 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02776.x
    A total of 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 13 honey samples commercially marketed in Malaysia, 6 strains identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus by API CHL50. The isolates had antibacterial activities against multiple antibiotic resistant's Staphylococcus aureus (25 to 32 mm), Staphylococcus epidermis (14 to 22 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (12 to 19 mm) in the agar overlay method after 24 h incubation at 30 °C. The crude supernatant was heat stable at 90 °C and 121 °C for 1 h. Treatment with proteinase K and RNase II maintained the antimicrobial activity of all the supernatants except sample H006-A and H010-G. All the supernatants showed antimicrobial activities against target bacteria at pH 3 and pH 5 but not at pH 6 within 72 h incubation at 30 °C. S. aureus was not inhibited by sample H006-A isolated from Libyan honey and sample H008-D isolated from Malaysian honey at pH 5, compared to supernatants from other L. acidophilus isolates. The presence of different strains of L. acidophilus in honey obtained from different sources may contribute to the differences in the antimicrobial properties of honey.
  7. Aziman N, Abdullah N, Noor ZM, Kamarudin WS, Zulkifli KS
    J Food Sci, 2014 Apr;79(4):M583-92.
    PMID: 24666004 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12419
    Preliminary phytochemical and flavonoid compounds of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 6 aromatic Malaysian herbs were screened and quantified using Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). The herbal extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 10 food-borne pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms using disk diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of herbal extracts were determined. In the phytochemical screening process, both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. hydropiper exhibited presence of all 7 tested phytochemical compounds. Among all herbal extracts, the aqueous P. hydropiper and E. elatior extracts demonstrated the highest antibacterial activity against 7 tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with diameter ranging from 7.0 to 18.5 mm and 6.5 to 19 mm, respectively. The MIC values for aqueous and ethanolic extracts ranged from 18.75 to 175 mg/mL and 0.391 to 200 mg/mL, respectively while the MBC/MFC values for aqueous and ethanolic extracts ranged from 25 to 200 mg/mL and 3.125 to 50 mg/mL, respectively. Major types of bioactive compounds in aqueous P. hydropiper and E. elatior extracts were identified using RP-HPLC instrument. Flavonoids found in these plants were epi-catechin, quercetin, and kaempferol. The ability of aqueous Persicaria hydropiper (L.) H. Gross and Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Sm. extracts to inhibit the growth of bacteria is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial potential. Hence these herbal extracts may be used as natural preservative to improve the safety and shelf-life of food and pharmaceutical products.
  8. Azman EM, Charalampopoulos D, Chatzifragkou A
    J Food Sci, 2020 Nov;85(11):3745-3755.
    PMID: 32990367 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15466
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different solvent and extraction temperatures on the free and bound phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of dried blackcurrant skins (DBS). Apart from acetic acid buffer solution, different solvent systems, including water, methanol, and mixtures of methanol/water, were also employed and the effects of solvent and temperature (30 and 50 °C) on the free and bound forms of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonols yield were assessed. The results showed that among all solvents, acetic acid buffer resulted in the highest free anthocyanin content (1,712.3 ± 56.1 mg/100 g) (P
  9. Cheong AM, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2018 Jul;83(7):1964-1969.
    PMID: 29802733 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14191
    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by complexation of beta-cyclodextrin with sodium caseinate and Tween 20 have been shown to have higher bioaccessibility of vitamin E and total phenolic content than nonemulsified kenaf seed oil in the previous in vitro gastrointestinal digestion study. However, its oral bioavailability was unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of in vivo oral bioavailability of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions in comparison with nonemulsified kenaf seed oil and kenaf seed oil macroemulsions during the 180 min of gastrointestinal digestion. Kenaf seed oil macroemulsions were produced by using conventional method. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions had shown improvement in the rate of absorption. At 180 min of digestion time, the total α-tocopherol bioavailability of kenaf seed oil nanoemulsions was increased by 1.7- and 1.4-fold, compared to kenaf seed oil and macroemulsion, respectively. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions were stable in considerably wide range of pH (>5 and <3), suggesting that it can be fortified into beverages within this pH range PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The production of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions had provided a delivery system to encapsulate the kenaf seed oil, as well as enhanced the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of kenaf seed oil. Therefore, kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions exhibit a great potential application in nutraceutical fields.
  10. Cheong AM, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2018 Oct;83(10):2457-2465.
    PMID: 30178877 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14332
    Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions (NANO) stabilized by sodium caseinate (SC), beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD), and Tween 20 (T20) have been optimized and shown to improve in vitro bioaccessibility and physicochemical stability in the previous study. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidants in the NANO during storage at different temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C). An evaluation of the antioxidant activities of each emulsifier showed that SC had good scavenging capability with 97.6% ABTS radical scavenging activity. Therefore, SC which was used as one of the main emulsifiers could further enhanced the antioxidant activity of NANO. At week 8 of storage, NANO that stored at 4 °C had maintained the best bioactive compounds stability and antioxidant activities with 90% retention of vitamin E and 65% retention of phytosterols. These results suggested that 4 °C would be the most suitable storage temperature for NANO containing naturally present vitamin E and phytosterols. From the accelerated storage results at 40 °C, NANO containing vitamin E and phytosterols had maintained half of its initial concentration until week 4 and week 2 of storage, which is equivalent to 16 weeks and 8 weeks of storage at room temperature, respectively.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results of this study provide a better understanding on the stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities in oil-in-water nanoemulsions that stabilized by similar ternary emulsifiers during storage at different temperatures. In addition, this study could be used as a predictive model to estimate the shelf life of bioactive compounds encapsulated in the form of nanoemulsions.

  11. Cheong AM, Jessica Koh JX, Patrick NO, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2018 Mar;83(3):854-863.
    PMID: 29412455 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14038
    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of kenaf seed oil (KSO), kenaf seed oil-in-water macroemulsion (KSOM), kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions (KSON), and emulsifier mixtures (EM) on serum lipid profile, liver oxidative status, and histopathological changes in high-cholesterol fed rats. Stability and characteristic of KSOM and KSON were carried out prior to in vivo study. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 7 groups (6 rats each) and induced hypercholesterolemia by feeding high cholesterol diet (HCD) for 14 days prior to treatments. Different treatments were introduced on day 15 to 29 while supplemented with HCD and removal of HCD during treatment on day 30 to 43, except for HCD group. Body weight and serum lipid profiles were measured at 3 different points: after hypercholesterolemia was induced, on day 29, and at the end of the experiment. Relative liver weight, atherogenic index, coronary risk index, and fecal total bile acids were also determined at the end of experiment. KSON showed significantly higher stability than KSOM and FTIR exhibited good encapsulation of KSO after 1.5 years of storage. Serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipid peroxidation levels in HCD group without treatment were significantly higher compared to normal control group and all treatment groups. All samples demonstrated hypocholesterolemic effect, but KSON exhibited higher efficiency in cholesterol-lowering properties, weight control and decreased liver fat as confirmed by histopathological evaluation. The overall results revealed that the efficacy of different treatments was in descending order of KSON, KSO, KSOM, and EM.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsion (KSON) has the potential to be used as a natural alternative to the synthetic hypocholesterolemic drug in the future. However, larger sample size and clinical trial are needed to confirm on this potential application. In addition, treatment with KSON was suggested to prevent cardiovascular disease and fatty liver.

  12. Chew SC, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2017 Jul;82(7):1622-1630.
    PMID: 28608553 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13758
    Kenaf seed oil has been suggested to be used as nutritious edible oil due to its unique fatty acid composition and nutritional value. The objective of this study was to optimize the bleaching parameters of the chemical refining process for kenaf seed oil, namely concentration of bleaching earth (0.5 to 2.5% w/w), temperature (30 to 110 °C) and time (5 to 65 min) based on the responses of total oxidation value (TOTOX) and color reduction using response surface methodology. The results indicated that the corresponding response surface models were highly statistical significant (P < 0.0001) and sufficient to describe and predict TOTOX value and color reduction with R2 of 0.9713 and 0.9388, respectively. The optimal parameters in the bleaching stage of kenaf seed oil were: 1.5% w/w of the concentration of bleaching earth, temperature of 70 °C, and time of 40 min. These optimum parameters produced bleached kenaf seed oil with TOTOX value of 8.09 and color reduction of 32.95%. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between experimental and predicted values, indicating the adequacy of the fitted models.
  13. Chew SC, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2018 Sep;83(9):2288-2294.
    PMID: 30074623 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14291
    Kenaf seed oil is prone to undergo oxidation due to its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, thus microencapsulation stands as an alternative to protect kenaf seed oil from the adverse environment. This study primarily aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability of microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil (MRKSO) by the use of gum arabic, β-cyclodextrin, and sodium caseinate as the wall materials by spray drying. Bulk refined kenaf seed oil (BRKSO) and MRKSO were kept at 65 °C for 24 days to evaluate its oxidative stability, changes of tocopherol and tocotrienol contents, phytosterol content, and fatty acid profile. The results showed that the peroxide value, p-Anisidine value, and total oxidation value of BRKSO were significantly higher than the MRKSO at day 24. The total tocopherol and tocotrienol contents were reduced 66.1% and 56.8% in BRKSO and MRKSO, respectively, upon the storage. There was a reduction of 71.7% and 23.5% of phytosterol content in BRKSO and MRKSO, respectively, upon the storage. The degradation rate of polyunsaturated fatty acids in BRKSO was higher than that of MRKSO. This study showed that the current microencapsulation technique is a feasible way to retard the oxidation of kenaf seed oil.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: There is increasing research on the functional properties of crude kenaf seed oil, but the crude kenaf seed oil is not edible. This study offered in developing of microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil by spray drying, which is suitable for food application. The microencapsulation of refined kenaf seed oil with healthier wall materials is beneficial in developing a diversity of functional food products and supplements.

  14. Dianawati D, Mishra V, Shah NP
    J Food Sci, 2016 Jun;81(6):M1472-9.
    PMID: 27145163 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13313
    Production of probiotic food supplements that are shelf-stable at room temperature has been developed for consumer's convenience, but information on the stability in acid and bile environment is still scarce. Viability and acid and bile tolerance of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplements were evaluated. Bifidobacterium and L. acidophilus were encapsulated with casein-based emulsion using spray drying. Water activity (aw ) of the microspheres containing Bifidobacterium or L. acidophilus (SD GM product) was adjusted to 0.07 followed by storage at 25 °C for 10 wk. Encapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplement products (AL, GH, RE, and BM) were tested. Since commercial probiotic products contained mixed bacteria, selective media MRS-LP (containing L-cysteine and Na-propionate) and MRS-clindamycin agar were used to grow Bifidobacterium spp. or L. acidophilus, respectively, and to inhibit the growth of other strains. The results showed that aw had a strong negative correlation with the viability of dehydrated probiotics of the 6 products. Viable counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and L. acidophilus of SD GM, AL, and GH were between 8.3 and 9.2 log CFU/g, whereas that of BM and RE were between 6.7 and 7.3 log CFU/g. Bifidobacterium in SD GM, in AL, and in GH products and L. acidophilus in SD GM, in AL, and in BM products demonstrated high tolerance to acid. Most of dehydrated probiotic bacteria were able to survive in bile environment except L. acidophilus in RE product. Exposure to gastric juice influenced bacterial survivability in subsequent bile environment.
  15. Dianawati D, Lim SF, Ooi YBH, Shah NP
    J Food Sci, 2017 Sep;82(9):2134-2141.
    PMID: 28843042 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13820
    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of types of protein-based microcapsules and storage at various ambient temperatures on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus during exposure to simulated gastrointestinal tract and on the change in thermo-tolerance during heating treatment. The encapsulating materials were prepared using emulsions of protein (sodium caseinate, soy protein isolate, or pea protein), vegetable oil, and glucose, with maltodextrin was used as a wall material. The formulations were heated at 90 °C for 30 min to develop Maillard substances prior to being incorporated with L. acidophilus. The mixtures were then spray dried. The microspheres were stored at 25, 30, and 35 °C for 8 wk and examined every 4 wk. The addition of proteins as encapsulating materials demonstrated a significant protective effect (P < 0.05) as compared to the control sample. Sodium caseinate and soy protein isolate appeared more effective than pea protein in protecting the bacteria after spray drying and during the storage at different room temperatures. Storage at 35 °C resulted in a significant decrease in survival at end of storage period regardless the type of encapsulating materials. The addition of protein-based materials also enhanced the survival of L. acidophilus during exposure to simulated gastrointestinal condition as compared to the control. After spray drying and after 0th wk storage, casein, soy protein isolate, and pea protein-based formulations protected the bacteria during heat treatment. In fact, a significant decrease in thermal tolerance was inevitable after 2 wk of storage at 25 °C.
  16. Gan CY, Cheng LH, Easa AM
    J Food Sci, 2009 Mar;74(2):C141-6.
    PMID: 19323728 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01053.x
    Soy protein isolate (SPI) gels were produced using single cross-linking agents (SCLA) of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) via incubation for 5 or 24 h (SCLA-MTG). When powdered SCLA-MTG gels were heated for 2 h with ribose (R2) (2 g/100 mL), dark brown gels were formed, and these were designated as combined cross-linking agent (CCLA) gels: MTG5(R2) and MTG24(R2). The results showed that the levels of Maillard-derived browning and cross-links of MTG5(R2) and MTG24(R2) gels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than a control gel produced without MTG (SCLA-R2) even though the percentage of ribose remaining after heating of these gels was similar, indicating that a similar amount of ribose was consumed during heating. epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine bonds formed during incubation of SPI with MTG may have reduced the free amino group of SPI to take part in the Maillard reaction; nevertheless, ribose took part in the Maillard reaction and initiated the Maillard cross-linkings within the CCLA gels.
  17. Gao X, Yanan J, Santhanam RK, Wang Y, Lu Y, Zhang M, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2021 Feb;86(2):366-375.
    PMID: 33448034 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15599
    Liver damage is a common liver disorder, which could induce liver cancer. Oral antioxidant is one of the effective treatments to prevent and alleviate liver damage. In this study, three flavonoids namely myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin were isolated and identified from Laba garlic. The isolated compounds were investigated on the protective effects against H2 O2 -induced oxidative damages in hepatic L02 cells and apoptosis inducing mechanism in hepatic cancer cells HepG2 by using MTT assay, flow cytometry and western blotting analysis. Myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin showed proliferation inhibition on HepG2 cells with IC50 value of 44.32 ± 0.213 µM, 49.68 ± 0.192 µM, and 54.32 ± 0.176 µM, respectively. While they showed low toxicity on normal cell lines L02. They could significantly alleviate the oxidative damage towards L02 cells (P < 0.05), via inhibiting the morphological changes in mitochondria and upholding the integrity of mitochondrial structure and function. The fluorescence intensity of L02 cells pre-treated with myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin (100 µM) was 89.23 ± 1.26%, 89.35 ± 1.43% and 88.97 ± 0.79%, respectively. Moreover, the flavonoids could induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells via Bcl-2/Caspase pathways, where it could up-regulate the expression of Bax and down-regulate the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, pro-Caspase-3, and pro-Caspase-9 proteins in a dose dependent manner. Overall, the results suggested that the flavonoids from Laba garlic might be a promising candidate for the treatment of various liver disorders. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Flavonoids from Laba garlic showed selective toxicity towards HepG2 cells in comparison to L02 cells via regulating Bcl-2/caspase pathway. Additionally, the isolated flavonoids expressively barred the oxidative damage induced by H2 O2 in L02 cells. These results suggested that the flavonoids from laba garlic could be a promising agent towards the development of functional foods.
  18. Gao X, Santhanam RK, Xue Z, Jia Y, Wang Y, Lu Y, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2020 Apr;85(4):1060-1069.
    PMID: 32147838 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15084
    Inonotus obliquus is a traditional mushroom well known for its therapeutic value. In this study, various solvent fractions of I. obliquus were preliminarily screened for their antioxidant, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition properties. To improve the drug delivery, the active fraction (ethyl acetate fraction) of I. obliquus was synthesized into fungisome (ethyl acetate phophotidyl choline complex, EAPC) and its physical parameters were assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and ς potential analysis. Then normal human hepatic L02 cells was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of EAPC. The results showed that EA fraction possesses significant free radical scavenging, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition properties. FTIR, SEM, and HPLC analysis confirmed the fungisome formation. The particle size of EAPC was 102.80 ± 0.42 nm and the ς potential was -54.30 ± 0.61 mV. The percentage of drug entrapment efficiency was 97.13% and the drug release rates of EAPC in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid were 75.04 ± 0.29% and 93.03 ± 0.36%, respectively. EAPC was nontoxic to L02 cells, however it could selectively fight against the H2 O2 induced oxidative damage in L02 cells. This is the first study to provide scientific information to utilize the active fraction of I. obliquus as fungisome. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Inonotus obliquus (IO) is a traditional medicinal fungus. The extracts of IO have obvious antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of IO was encapsulated in liposomes to form EAPC. EAPC has a sustained-release effect. It has nontoxic to L02 cells and could protect L02 cells from oxidative damage caused by hydrogen peroxide. This study could provide new ideas for the treatment of diabetes.
  19. George DS, Razali Z, Santhirasegaram V, Somasundram C
    J Food Sci, 2015 Feb;80(2):S426-34.
    PMID: 25586772 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12762
    The effects of ultraviolet (UV-C) and medium heat (70 °C) treatments on the quality of fresh-cut Chokanan mango and Josephine pineapple were investigated. Quality attributes included physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids), ascorbic acid content (vitamin C), antioxidant activity, as well as microbial inactivation. Consumers' acceptance was also investigated through sensory evaluation of the attributes (appearance, texture, aroma and taste). Furthermore, shelf-life study of samples stored at 4 ± 1 °C was conducted for 15 d. The fresh-cut fruits were exposed to UV-C for 0, 15, 30, and 60 min while heat treatments were carried out at 70 °C for 0, 5, 10 and 20 min. Both UV-C and medium heat treatments resulted in no significant changes to the physicochemical attributes of both fruits. The ascorbic acid content of UV-C treated fruits was unaffected; however, medium heat treatment resulted in deterioration of ascorbic acids in both fruits. The antioxidants were enhanced with UV-C treatment which could prove invaluable to consumers. Heat treatments on the other hand resulted in decreased antioxidant activities. Microbial count in both fruits was significantly reduced by both treatments. The shelf life of the fresh-cut fruits were also successfully extended to a maximum of 15 d following treatments. As for consumers' acceptance, UV-C treated fruits were the most accepted as compared to their heat-treated counterparts. The results obtained through this study support the use of UV-C treatment for better retention of quality, effective microbial inactivation and enhancement of health promoting compounds for the benefit of consumers.
  20. Giwa Ibrahim S, Karim R, Saari N, Wan Abdullah WZ, Zawawi N, Ab Razak AF, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2019 Aug;84(8):2015-2023.
    PMID: 31364175 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14714
    Kenaf belongs to the family Malvaceae noted for their economic and horticultural importance. Kenaf seed is a valuable component of kenaf plant. For several years, it has been primarily used as a cordage crop and secondarily as a livestock feed. The potential for using kenaf seeds as a source of food-based products has not been fully exploited. Consumers are becoming more interested in naturally healthy plant-based food products. Kenaf seed, the future crop with a rich source of essential nutrients and an excellent source of phytocompounds, might serve suitable roles in the production of value-added plant-based foods. At present kenaf seed and its value-added components have not been effectively utilized for both their nutritional and functional properties as either ingredient or major constituent of food products. This review focuses on the possible food applications of kenaf seed and its value-added components based on their nutritional composition and functional properties available in literature, with the purpose of providing an overview on the possible food applications of this underutilized seed. The review focuses on a brief introduction on kenaf plant, nutritional function, lipids and proteins composition and food applications of the seed. The review elaborately discusses the seed in terms of; bioactive components, antioxidants enrichment of wheat bread, antimicrobial agents, as edible flour, as edible oil and a source of protein in food system. The review closes with discussion on other possible food applications of kenaf seed. The need for food scientists and technologists to exploit this natural agricultural product as a value-added food ingredient is of great significance and is emphasized.
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