Palm kernel cake protein was hydrolyzed with different proteases namely papain, bromelain, subtilisin, flavourzyme, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin to generate different protein hydrolysates. Peptide content and iron-chelating activity of each hydrolysate were evaluated using O-phthaldialdehyde-based spectrophotometric method and ferrozine-based colorimetric assay, respectively. The results revealed a positive correlation between peptide contents and iron-chelating activities of the protein hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain exhibited the highest peptide content of 10.5 mM and highest iron-chelating activity of 64.8% compared with the other hydrolysates. Profiling of the papain-generated hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography fractionation indicated a direct association between peptide content and iron-chelating activity in most of the fractions. Further fractionation using isoelectric focusing also revealed that protein hydrolysate with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI) had the highest iron-chelating activity, although a few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good metal chelating potential. After identification and synthesis of papain-generated peptides, GGIF and YLLLK showed among the highest iron-chelating activities of 56% and 53%, whereas their IC50 were 1.4 and 0.2 μM, respectively.
Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance.
Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea.
Resistant starch type III (RS3 ) was produced from sago (Metroxylon sagu) and evaluated for its characteristics as a prebiotic. Two RS3 samples designated sago RS and HCl-sago RS contained 35.71% and 68.30% RS, respectively, were subjected to hydrolyses by gastric juice and digestive enzymes and to absorption. Both sago RS and HCl-sago RS were resistant to 180 min hydrolysis by gastric acidity at pH 1 to 4 with less than 0.85% hydrolyzed. Both samples were also resistant toward hydrolysis by gastrointestinal tract enzymes and intestinal absorption with 96.75% and 98.69% of RS3 were recovered respectively after 3.5 h digestion and overnight dialysis at 37 °C. Sago RS3 supported the growth of both beneficial (lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) and pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter coli, and Clostridium perfringens) in the range of 2.60 to 3.91 log10 CFU/mL. Hence, prebiotic activity score was applied to describe the extent to which sago RS3 supports selective growth of the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains over pathogenic bacteria. The highest scores were obtained from Bifidobacterium sp. FTDC8943 grown on sago RS (+0.26) and HCl-sago RS (+0.24) followed by L. bulgaricus FTDC1511 grown on sago RS (+0.21). The findings had suggested that sago RS3 has the prebiotic partial characteristics and it is suggested to further assess the suitability of sago RS3 as a prebiotic material.
Scombroid fish poisoning is usually associated with consumption of fish containing high levels of histamine. However, reports indicate that some cases have responded to antihistamine therapy while ingested histamine levels in these cases were low. Potentiation of histamine toxicity by some biogenic amines, and release of endogenous histamine by other compounds such as cis-urocanic acid (UCA) are some hypotheses that have been put forth to explain this anomaly. Very little is known about the effects of storage conditions on the production of both UCA isomers and biogenic amines in tuna. Thus, the production of trans- and cis-UCA, histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine in tuna during 15 d of storage at 0, 3, and 10 °C and 2 d storage at ambient temperature were monitored. The initial trans- and cis-UCA contents in fresh tuna were 2.90 and 1.47 mg/kg, respectively, whereas the levels of putrescine and cadaverine were less than 2 mg/kg, and histamine was not detected. The highest levels of trans- and cis-UCA were obtained during 15 d storage at 3 °C (23.74 and 21.79 mg/kg, respectively) while the highest concentrations of histamine (2796 mg/kg), putrescine (220.32 mg/kg) and cadaverine (1045.20 mg/kg) were obtained during storage at room temperature, 10 and 10 °C, respectively. Histamine content increased considerably during storage at 10 °C whereas trans- and cis-UCA contents changed slightly. The initial trans-UCA content decreased during storage at ambient temperature. Thus, unlike histamine, concentrations of trans- and cis-UCA did not result in elevated levels during storage of tuna.
The effects of ultraviolet (UV-C) and medium heat (70 °C) treatments on the quality of fresh-cut Chokanan mango and Josephine pineapple were investigated. Quality attributes included physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids), ascorbic acid content (vitamin C), antioxidant activity, as well as microbial inactivation. Consumers' acceptance was also investigated through sensory evaluation of the attributes (appearance, texture, aroma and taste). Furthermore, shelf-life study of samples stored at 4 ± 1 °C was conducted for 15 d. The fresh-cut fruits were exposed to UV-C for 0, 15, 30, and 60 min while heat treatments were carried out at 70 °C for 0, 5, 10 and 20 min. Both UV-C and medium heat treatments resulted in no significant changes to the physicochemical attributes of both fruits. The ascorbic acid content of UV-C treated fruits was unaffected; however, medium heat treatment resulted in deterioration of ascorbic acids in both fruits. The antioxidants were enhanced with UV-C treatment which could prove invaluable to consumers. Heat treatments on the other hand resulted in decreased antioxidant activities. Microbial count in both fruits was significantly reduced by both treatments. The shelf life of the fresh-cut fruits were also successfully extended to a maximum of 15 d following treatments. As for consumers' acceptance, UV-C treated fruits were the most accepted as compared to their heat-treated counterparts. The results obtained through this study support the use of UV-C treatment for better retention of quality, effective microbial inactivation and enhancement of health promoting compounds for the benefit of consumers.
Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-gel systems containing high oil payloads are of increasing interest for food applications because of the reduction in encapsulation cost, consumption frequency or volume of food products. This study shows a facile approach to prepare stable alginate-based O/W emulsions at high oil loading using a mixture of nonionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 20) as a template to form gelled-emulsions. The synergistic effects of alginate and surfactants on the O/W emulsion properties were evaluated in terms of oil droplet size and emulsion stability. At 2% (w/v) of alginate and 1% (w/v) of surfactants, the size distribution of oil droplets was narrow and monomodal, even at an oil loading of 70% (v/v). The emulsions formed were stable against phase separation. The oil droplet size could be further reduced to below 1 μm using a high-shear homogenizer. The emulsions formed could be easily molded and gelled into solids of different shapes via ionic gelation. The findings of this study create possible avenues for applications in food industries.
Cosmos caudatus, which is known as "Ulam Raja," is an herbal plant used in Malaysia to enhance vitality. This study focused on the evaluation of the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of different ethanolic extracts of C. caudatus. Six series of samples extracted with water, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% ethanol (EtOH) were employed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and orthogonal partial least-squares (OPLS) analysis was used to correlate bioactivity of different extracts to different metabolite profiles of C. caudatus. The obtained OPLS scores indicated a distinct and remarkable separation into 6 clusters, which were indicative of the 6 different ethanol concentrations. GC-MS can be integrated with multivariate data analysis to identify compounds that inhibit α-glucosidase activity. In addition, catechin, α-linolenic acid, α-D-glucopyranoside, and vitamin E compounds were identified and indicate the potential α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of this herb.
Preliminary phytochemical and flavonoid compounds of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 6 aromatic Malaysian herbs were screened and quantified using Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). The herbal extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 10 food-borne pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms using disk diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of herbal extracts were determined. In the phytochemical screening process, both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. hydropiper exhibited presence of all 7 tested phytochemical compounds. Among all herbal extracts, the aqueous P. hydropiper and E. elatior extracts demonstrated the highest antibacterial activity against 7 tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with diameter ranging from 7.0 to 18.5 mm and 6.5 to 19 mm, respectively. The MIC values for aqueous and ethanolic extracts ranged from 18.75 to 175 mg/mL and 0.391 to 200 mg/mL, respectively while the MBC/MFC values for aqueous and ethanolic extracts ranged from 25 to 200 mg/mL and 3.125 to 50 mg/mL, respectively. Major types of bioactive compounds in aqueous P. hydropiper and E. elatior extracts were identified using RP-HPLC instrument. Flavonoids found in these plants were epi-catechin, quercetin, and kaempferol. The ability of aqueous Persicaria hydropiper (L.) H. Gross and Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Sm. extracts to inhibit the growth of bacteria is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial potential. Hence these herbal extracts may be used as natural preservative to improve the safety and shelf-life of food and pharmaceutical products.
To improve textural attributes of puffed corn-fish snack, the effects of 1%, 1.5%, and 2% of calcium carbonate, magnesium silicate (talc), sodium bicarbonate as well as 5% and 10% of wheat bran (as the nucleating materials) on textural attributes were studied. Sensory evaluation, bulk density, expansion ratio, maximum force, and count peaks were measured using the Kramer test. The results showed that all of the additives except bran significantly enhanced the texture. Among them, talc at 0.5% was the best to enhance the density and expansion ratio. Effects of using 0.5% talc on puffed corn-fish snack microstructure were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The average cell diameter of 109 ± 48 μm and cell numbers per square centimeter of 67.4 for talc-treated products were obtained, while for nontalc-treated extrudates, average cell diameter of 798 ± 361 μm and cell numbers per square centimeter of 13.9 were found. Incorporation of 0.5% w/w of magnesium silicate reduced (7-fold) the average cell diameter while increased (4-fold) the cell number.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected.
Edible bird nests (EBNs) are important ethnomedicinal commodity in the Chinese community. Recently, But and others showed that the white EBNs could turn red by vapors from sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in acidic condition or from bird soil, but this color-changing agent remained elusive. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nitrite and nitrate contents and its affects on EBN's color. EBNs were collected from swiftlet houses or caves in Southeast Asia. White EBNs were exposed to vapor from NaNO2 in 2% HCl, or bird soil. The levels of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) in EBNs were determined through ion chromatography analysis. Vapors from NaNO2 in 2% HCl or bird soil stained white bird nests to brown/red colors, which correlated with increase nitrite and nitrate levels. Moreover, naturally formed cave-EBNs (darker in color) also contained higher nitrite and nitrate levels compared to white house-EBNs, suggesting a relationship between nitrite and nitrate with EBN's color. Of note, we detected no presence of hemoglobin in red "blood" nest. Using infrared spectra analysis, we demonstrated that red/brown cave-EBNs contained higher intensities of C-N and N-O bonds compared to white house-EBNs. Together, our study suggested that the color of EBNs was associated with the prevalence of the nitrite and nitrate contents.
Free radicals trigger chain reaction and inflict damage to the cells and its components, which in turn ultimately interrupts their biological activities. To prevent free radical damage, together with an endogenous antioxidant system, an exogenous supply of antioxidant components to the body in the form of functional food or nutritional diet helps undeniably. Research conducted by the Natl. Inst. of Health claimed that Moringa oleifera Lam possess the highest antioxidant content among various natural food sources based on an oxygen radical absorbent capacity assay. In this study, a 90% (ethanol:distilled water--90:10) gradient solvent was identified as one of the best gradient solvents for the effectual extraction of bioactive components from M. oleifera leaves. This finding was confirmed by various antioxidant assays, including radical scavenging activity (that is, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H(2)O(2), and NO radical scavenging assay) and total antioxidant capacity (that is, ferric reducing antioxidant power and molybdenum assay). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of the 90% gradient extract visually showed few specific peaks, which on further analysis, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, were identified as flavonoids and their derivatives. Despite commonly reported flavonoids, that is, kaempferol and quercetin, we report here for the 1st time the presence of multiflorin-B and apigenin in M. oleifera leaves. These findings might help researchers to further scrutinize this high activity exhibiting gradient extract and its bio-active candidates for fruitful clinical/translational investigations.
Medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT) is a modified lipid containing medium- chain (C6-C12) and long-chain fatty acids (C14-C24) in the same triacylglycerol (TAG) molecule. It can be produced either through enzymatic (with 1,3 specific or nonspecific enzyme) or chemical methods. The specialty of this structured lipid is that it is metabolized differently compared to conventional fats and oils, which can lead to a reduction of fat accumulation in the body. Therefore, it can be used for obesity management. It also contains nutritional properties that can be used to treat metabolic problems. This review will discuss on the health benefits of MLCT, its production methods especially via enzymatic processes and its applications in food industries.
The phenolic acid and flavonoid contents of Malaysian Tualang, Gelam, and Borneo tropical honeys were compared to those of Manuka honey. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities were also quantified. All honey extracts exhibited high phenolic contents (15.21 ± 0.51- 42.23 ± 0.64 mg/kg), flavonoid contents (11.52 ± 0.27- 25.31 ± 0.37 mg/kg), FRAP values (892.15 ± 4.97- 363.38 ± 10.57 μM Fe[II]/kg), and high IC₅₀ of DPPH radical-scavenging activities (5.24 ± 0.40- 17.51 ± 0.51 mg/mL). Total of 6 phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, benzoic, trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids) and 5 flavonoids (catechin, kaempferol, naringenin, luteolin, and apigenin) were identified. Among the Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey had the highest contents of phenolics, and flavonoids, and DPPH radical-scavenging activities. We conclude that among Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey is the richest in phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds, which have strong free radical-scavenging activities.
Malaysian population widely consumes the cereal-based foods, oilseeds, nuts, and spices in their daily diet. Mycotoxigenic fungi are well known to invade food products under storage conditions and produce mycotoxins that have threat to human and animal health. Therefore, determining toxigenic fungi and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) in foods used for human consumption is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Ninety-five food products marketed in Penang, Malaysia were randomly collected from different supermarkets and were analyzed for presence of Aspergillus spp. by agar plate assay and AFB1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A. flavus was the dominant fungi in all foods followed by A. niger. Fifty-five A. flavus strains were tested for their ability to produce aflatoxins on rice grain substrate. Thirty-six (65.4%) strains out of 55 produced AFB1 ranging from 1700 to 4400 μg/kg and 17 strains (31%) produced AFB2 ranging from 620 to 1670 μg/kg. Natural occurrence of AFB1 could be detected in 72.6% food products ranging from 0.54 to 15.33 μg/kg with a mean of 1.95 μg/kg. Maximum AFB1 levels were detected in peanut products ranging from 1.47 to 15.33 μg/kg. AFB1 levels detected in all food products were below the Malaysian permissible limits (<35 μg/kg). Aspergillus spp. and AFB1 was not detected in any cookies tested. Although this survey was not comprehensive, it provides valuable information on aflatoxin levels in foods marketed in Malaysia.
Candlenut oil was extracted using supercritical CO(2) (SC-CO(2)) with an optimization of parameters, by the response surface methodology. The ground candlenut samples were treated in 2 different ways, that is, dried in either a heat oven (sample moisture content of 2.91%) or dried in a vacuum oven (sample moisture content of 1.98%), before extraction. An untreated sample (moisture content of 4.87%) was used as a control. The maximum percentage of oil was extracted from the heat-oven-dried sample (77.27%), followed by the vacuum-oven-dried sample (74.32%), and the untreated sample (70.12%). At an SC-CO(2) pressure of 48.26 Mpa and 60 min of extraction time, the optimal temperatures for extraction were found to be 76.4 °C, 73.9 °C, and 70.6 °C for the untreated, heat-oven-dried, and vacuum-oven-dried samples, respectively. The heat-oven-dried sample contains the highest percentage of linoleic acid, followed by the untreated and vacuum-oven-dried samples. The antiradical activity of candlenut oil corresponded to an IC(50) value of 30.37 mg/mL.
A total of 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 13 honey samples commercially marketed in Malaysia, 6 strains identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus by API CHL50. The isolates had antibacterial activities against multiple antibiotic resistant's Staphylococcus aureus (25 to 32 mm), Staphylococcus epidermis (14 to 22 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (12 to 19 mm) in the agar overlay method after 24 h incubation at 30 °C. The crude supernatant was heat stable at 90 °C and 121 °C for 1 h. Treatment with proteinase K and RNase II maintained the antimicrobial activity of all the supernatants except sample H006-A and H010-G. All the supernatants showed antimicrobial activities against target bacteria at pH 3 and pH 5 but not at pH 6 within 72 h incubation at 30 °C. S. aureus was not inhibited by sample H006-A isolated from Libyan honey and sample H008-D isolated from Malaysian honey at pH 5, compared to supernatants from other L. acidophilus isolates. The presence of different strains of L. acidophilus in honey obtained from different sources may contribute to the differences in the antimicrobial properties of honey.
The viability and activity of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4, B. longum BB 536 and yoghurt cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) were studied in yoghurt containing 0.75% Mangefira pajang fibrous polysaccharides (MPFP) and inulin. Growth of probiotic organisms, their proteolytic activities, the production of short chain fatty acids (lactic, acetic and propionic) and the pH of the yoghurt samples were determined during refrigerated storage at 4 °C for 28 d. B. pseudocatenulatum G4 and B. longum BB 536 showed better growth and activity in the presence of MPFP and inulin, which significantly increased the production of short chain fatty acids as well as the proteolytic activity of these organisms.
Red dragon fruit or red pitaya is rich in potassium, fiber, and antioxidants. Its nutritional properties and unique flesh color have made it an attractive raw material of various types of food products and beverages including fermented beverages or enzyme drinks. In this study, phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to confirm the identity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) appeared in fermented red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) beverages. A total of 21 isolates of LAB were isolated and characterized. They belonged to the genus of Enterococcus based on their biochemical characteristics. The isolates can be clustered into two groups by using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method. Nucleotide sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA region suggested that they were either Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus durans.