Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 58 in total

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  1. Zong Z, Wang X, Deng Y, Zhou T
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2012 Oct;61(Pt 10):1483-1484.
    PMID: 22820689 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.041525-0
    A previously healthy Chinese male returned from working in the Malaysian jungle with a fever. A blood culture grew Gram-negative bacilli that were initially identified as Burkholderia cepacia by the VITEK 2 system but were subsequently found to be Burkholderia pseudomallei by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The identification of B. pseudomallei using commercially available automated systems is problematic and clinicians in non-endemic areas should be aware of the possibility of melioidosis in patients with a relevant travel history and blood cultures growing Burkholderia spp.
  2. Wu H, Nakano T, Daikoku E, Morita C, Kohno T, Lian HH, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2005 Dec;54(Pt 12):1117-1125.
    PMID: 16278423 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.46158-0
    Helicobacter pylori CagA modifies the signalling of host cells and causes gastric diseases. Although CagA is injected into gastric epithelial cells through the type IV secretion machinery, it remains unclear how CagA is transported towards the machinery in the bacterial cytoplasm. In this study, it was determined that the proton-dependent intracytoplasmic transport system correlates with the priming of CagA secretion from H. pylori. The cytotoxicity of neutral-pH- and acidic-pH-treated H. pylori was examined in the AGS cell line. The amount of phosphorylated CagA in AGS cells incubated with acidic-pH- and neutral-pH-treated H. pylori was determined by enzyme immunoassay and Western blot. The production of CagA and adherence of the treated bacteria were examined by enzyme immunoassay and light microscopy, respectively. To clarify how CagA is transported towards the inner membrane of the treated bacteria, the localization of CagA was analysed by immunoelectron microscopy. The proportion of hummingbird cells in the AGS cell line rapidly increased following the inoculation of acidic-pH-treated H. pylori but increased more slowly with neutral-pH-treated H. pylori, and the phenomenon correlated with the amount of phosphorylated CagA in AGS cells. CagA was densely localized near the inner membrane in the acidic-pH-treated bacterial cytoplasm, but this localization was not observed in the neutral-pH-treated bacterial cytoplasm, suggesting that CagA shifts from the centre to the peripheral portion of the cytoplasm as a result of an extracellular decrease in pH. This phenomenon depended on the presence of UreI, a proton-dependent urea channel, but not on the presence of urea. The pH treatments did not enhance CagA production or the adherence of the bacterium to AGS cells. The authors propose that H. pylori possesses a proton-dependent intracytoplasmic transport system that probably accelerates priming for CagA injection.
  3. Winstanley C, Hales BA, Morgan JAW, Gallagher MJ, Puthucheary SD, CISSé MF, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 1999 Jul;48(7):657-662.
    PMID: 10403416 DOI: 10.1099/00222615-48-7-657
    PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of flagellin genes (fliC) from 57 clinical isolates of Burkholderia cepacia indicated that only type 11 flagellins were present. Twenty-two isolates previously identified as the epidemic UK cystic fibrosis strain were indistinguishable by this method, as were 11 isolates from a pseudo-outbreak in Senegal. Other clinical isolates, including 19 from disparate sources in Malaysia, were separated into nine fliC RFLP groups, exhibiting a large degree of divergence. When isolates were indistinguishable by fliC genotyping, their similarity was confirmed by whole genome macro-restriction analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis following XbaI digestion. The variation in fliC sequences of B. cepacia was far greater than that with B. pseudomallei, supporting the view that 'B. cepacia', as currently defined, may comprise several different genomic species.
  4. VasanthaKumari N, Alshrari ASD, Rad EG, Moghaddam HG, van Belkum A, Alreshidi MA, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2009 Nov;58(Pt 11):1531-1532.
    PMID: 19589902 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.011692-0
  5. Vadivelu J, Puthucheary SD, Phipps M, Chee YW
    J. Med. Microbiol., 1995 Mar;42(3):171-4.
    PMID: 7884797
    Eighteen strains of Aeromonas hydrophila from patients with bacteraemia were investigated for possible virulence factors. Cytotoxin and haemolysin were produced by all strains, whereas cholera toxin-like factor was produced by 33% of strains only. Enterotoxin production was not detected. Haemagglutination of guinea-pig, fowl and rabbit erythrocytes was demonstrated by 83%, 67% and 61% of strains, respectively. Fucose- and mannose-sensitive haemagglutinins were predominant. None of the strains agglutinated sheep erythrocytes. Extrachromosomal DNA was detected in 17 strains, 16 of which had a plasmid (3.6-5.1 MDa), the majority being between 4.6 and 5.1 MDa.
  6. Vadivelu J, Puthucheary SD, Navaratnam P
    J. Med. Microbiol., 1991 Jun;34(6):363-7.
    PMID: 2056519
    Eighty-six clinical isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila were studied for their ability to produce four exotoxins: a haemolysin active against rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxin and enterotoxin detectable with Vero cell cultures, and the cholera toxin-like factor detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At least one exotoxin was produced by 80% of enteric and 96% of non-enteric isolates. The exotoxin profiles of non-enteric isolates were more restricted than those of enteric isolates, with haemolysin and cytotoxin producers preponderant. Although haemolysin and cytotoxin were produced by isolates from all sources, the enterotoxin and cholera toxin-like factor were more common amongst enteric isolates. The production of haemolysin and cytotoxin were closely related but the association between the enterotoxin and the cholera toxin-like factor was not significant.
  7. Underwood AP, Kaakoush NO, Sodhi N, Merif J, Seah Lee W, Riordan SM, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2016 Mar;65(3):219-226.
    PMID: 26698172 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000216
    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae.
  8. Thong KL, Ling GY, Kong LW, Theam LC, Ngeow YF
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2004 Oct;53(Pt 10):991-997.
    PMID: 15358821 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.05384-0
    Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococci (GBS) often colonize the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts of women, who may transmit these organisms to their offspring during the birth process. Using PFGE analysis, the genetic diversity of GBS was studied for strains isolated from pregnant women and their newborn infants in a teaching hospital. A total of 48 different PFGE profiles were obtained from 123 strains, with one profile (S1) appearing to be predominant among both groups studied. There was good overall correlation between the profiles obtained for strains from mother-infant pairs and for strains isolated from different body sites in the same individual. Occasional discrepancies seen in related body sites and among mother-infant pairs suggest concurrent carriage of different strains in the same individual as well as the possibility of an environmental source of organism for the neonate. The overall results demonstrated that many variants of GBS strains occur in Malaysia.
  9. Tay ST, Na SL, Chong J
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2009 Feb;58(Pt 2):185-191.
    PMID: 19141735 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.004242-0
    The genetic heterogeneity and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida parapsilosis isolated from blood cultures of patients were investigated in this study. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis generated 5 unique profiles from 42 isolates. Based on the major DNA fragments of the RAPD profiles, the isolates were identified as RAPD type P1 (29 isolates), P2 (6 isolates), P3 (4 isolates), P4 (2 isolates) and P5 (1 isolate). Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene of the isolates identified RAPD type P1 as C. parapsilosis, P2 and P3 as Candida orthopsilosis, P4 as Candida metapsilosis, and P5 as Lodderomyces elongisporus. Nucleotide variations in ITS gene sequences of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were detected. Antifungal susceptibility testing using Etests showed that all isolates tested in this study were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. C. parapsilosis isolates exhibited higher MIC(50) values than those of C. orthopsilosis for all of the drugs tested in this study; however, no significant difference in the MICs for these two Candida species was observed. The fact that C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were responsible for 23.8 and 4.8 % of the cases attributed to C. parapsilosis bloodstream infections, respectively, indicates the clinical relevance of these newly described yeasts. Further investigations of the ecological niche, mode of transmission and virulence of these species are thus essential.
  10. Tay ST, Devi S, Puthucheary SD, Kautner IM
    J. Med. Microbiol., 1995 Mar;42(3):175-80.
    PMID: 7884798
    There are several methods for the detection of haemolytic activity in campylobacters. However, we found the haemolytic effect of campylobacters on conventional blood agar plates to be variable, inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Blood agarose plates showed campylobacter haemolytic activity more clearly. The incubation conditions (temperature and gaseous) appear to be important for the expression of this activity. Ninety four percent of the Campylobacter isolates examined were found to be haemolytic by the microplate assay with minimal haemolytic units that ranged from 1 to 64. Haemolytic activity was detected only from live bacterial cultures and not from any of the 50 bacterial culture supernates, which suggests that campylobacters may possess a cell-associated haemolysin. The identification of such haemolytic activity in a large number of campylobacters (94%) suggests its potential role as a virulence factor in campylobacter gastroenteritis.
  11. Tay ST, Tan HW, Na SL, Lim SL
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2011 Nov;60(Pt 11):1591-1597.
    PMID: 21700741 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.032854-0
    In this study, six clinical isolates (two from blood, two from urine and one each from a bronchoalveolar lavage and a vaginal swab) were identified as Candida rugosa based on carbohydrate assimilation profiles using API 20C AUX and ID32 C kits (bioMérieux). Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the yeasts differentiated the isolates into two subgroups, A and B (three isolates per subgroup), which were closely related (99.1-99.6 % nucleotide similarity) to C. rugosa strain ATCC 10571. Compared with the C. rugosa type strain, the intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) nucleotide similarity for subgroup A was only 89.2 % (29 mismatches and one deletion) and for subgroup B was 93.7 % (20 mismatches). All isolates grew green colonies on Oxoid Chromogenic Candida Agar, with darker pigmentation observed for subgroup A. All isolates were able to grow at 25-42 °C but not at 45 °C. The isolates had identical enzymic profiles, as determined by API ZYM (bioMérieux) analysis, and produced proteinase. High amphotericin MICs (≥1 µg ml(-1)) were noted for two isolates from each subgroup. Dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole (MIC 32 µg ml(-1)) was noted in a blood isolate. The biofilms of the isolates demonstrated increased resistance to amphotericin and fluconazole. The greater ITS sequence variability of subgroup A isolates is in support of this yeast being recognized as a distinct species; however, further verification using more sophisticated molecular approaches is required. A sequence comparison study suggested the association of subgroup A with environmental sources and subgroup B with clinical sources. Accurate identification and antifungal susceptibility testing of C. rugosa are important in view of its decreased susceptibility to amphotericin and fluconazole. The ITS region has been shown to be a valuable region for differentiation of closely related subgroups of C. rugosa.
  12. Swathirajan CR, Vignesh R, Boobalan J, Solomon SS, Saravanan S, Balakrishnan P
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2017 Oct;66(10):1379-1382.
    PMID: 28901908 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000514
    BACKGROUND: Sustainable suppression of HIV replication forms the basis of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) medication. Thus, reliable quantification of HIV viral load has become an essential factor to monitor the effectiveness of the ART. Longer turnaround-time (TAT), batch testing and technical skills are major drawbacks of standard real-time PCR assays.

    METHODS: The performance of the point-of-care Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay was evaluated against the Abbott RealTime PCR m2000rt system. A total of 96 plasma specimens ranging from 2.5 log10 copies ml-1 to 4.99 log10 copies ml-1 and proficiency testing panel specimens were used. Precision and accuracy were checked using the Pearson correlation co-efficient test and Bland-Altman analysis.

    RESULTS: Compared to the Abbott RealTime PCR, the Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay showed a good correlation (Pearson r=0.81; P<0.0001) with a mean difference of 0.27 log10 copies ml-1 (95 % CI, -0.41 to 0.96 log10 copies ml-1; sd, 0.35 log10 copies ml-1).

    CONCLUSION: Reliable and ease of testing individual specimens could make the Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay an efficient alternative method for ART monitoring in clinical management of HIV disease in resource-limited settings. The rapid test results (less than 2 h) could help in making an immediate clinical decision, which further strengthens patient care.

  13. Subakir H, Chong YM, Chan YF, Hasan MS, Jamaluddin MFH, Pang YK, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2020 Jan;69(1):49-51.
    PMID: 31750812 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.001108
    Introduction.Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis) is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the tropics. Selective medium is recommended for laboratory diagnosis with non-sterile respiratory samples, while PCR is not routinely used due to variable reported performance. The effectiveness of these diagnostic modalities varies by site.Aim. To compare selective media and real-time PCR (qPCR) with routine media in detecting B. pseudomallei in CAP respiratory samples in a low-incidence setting in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Methodology. Respiratory samples were routinely cultured on blood, chocolate and MacConkey agar (RESP-ROUTINE), and compared to culture on selective Ashdown medium (RESP-SELECTIVE) and qPCR. The gold standard was routine culture of B. pseudomallei from any site (ALL-ROUTINE).Results.B. pseudomallei was detected in 8/204 (3.9 %) samples. Overall sensitivity rates differed (P=0.03) for qPCR (100%), RESP-SELECTIVE (87.5%) and RESP-ROUTINE (50%). There was a trend towards lower median days to positive culture for RESP-SELECTIVE (1 day) compared to RESP-ROUTINE (2 days, P=0.08) and ALL-ROUTINE (2 days, P=0.06). Reagent costs for each additional detection were USD59 for RESP-SELECTIVE and USD354 for PCR.Conclusions. In a low-incidence setting, selective culture of respiratory samples on Ashdown was more sensitive and allowed quicker identification than routine media, at reasonable cost. Blood cultures are critical, confirming four cases missed by routine respiratory culture. Selective medium is useful in early pneumonia (pre-sepsis) and resource-limited settings where blood cultures are infrequently done. Real-time PCR is costly, but highly sensitive and useful for high-risk patients with diabetes, cancer or immunosuppressants, or requiring ventilation or intensive care.
  14. Sosroseno W, Herminajeng E
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2002 Jul;51(7):581-8.
    PMID: 12132775
    The aim of this study was to determine the role of macrophages in the Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-induced murine immune response. BALB/c mice were given carrageenan solution by intraperitoneal injection before immunisation with heat-killed A. actinomycetemcomitans. Mice immunised with antigens and phosphate-buffered saline served as positive and negative controls, respectively. One week after the last immunisation, the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response was assessed by measurement of footpad swelling. Serum IgG and IgM anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans antibody levels and culture supernate levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma were determined by ELISA. The diameter of abscess formation was determined every 5 days. Sham-immunised spleen cells were transferred to carrageenan-untreated recipients (groups A and B) and to carrageenan-treated recipients (group D). Antigen-immunised spleen cells were transferred to carrageenan-untreated (group C) and carrageenan-treated (group E) recipients. The carrageenan-treated recipients in groups F and G received macrophages from antigen- and sham-immunised mice respectively. All mice except those in group A were immunised with antigen 24 h after cell transfer. After 1 week, a partial suppression of DTH response, reduced levels of IFN-gamma, serum IgG and IgM anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans antibodies and delayed healing were seen in carrageenan-treated mice when compared with the positive control. The immune response to A. actinomycetemcomitans in groups A, B and D was lower than that in groups C and E. Healing of the lesion in the former groups was also delayed when compared with the latter groups. The immune response and the healing of the lesion could be partially restored in carrageenan-treated mice that received antigen-pulsed macrophages (group F) but not in those that received naive macrophages (group G). These results suggest that macrophages play a partial role in the induction of the murine immune response to A. actinomycetemcomitans.
  15. Rao M, Atiqah N, Dasiman M, Amran F
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2020 Mar;69(3):451-456.
    PMID: 31846413 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.001127
    Introduction. Co-infection of leptospirosis-malaria is not uncommon due to their overlapping geographical distribution in the tropics.Aim. This study aimed to describe and compare the demographic, clinical and laboratory features of leptospirosis-malaria co-infection (LMCI) against leptospirosis mono-infection (LMI) in Peninsular Malaysia.Methodology. Data of patients admitted to various hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia from 2011 to 2014 diagnosed with leptospirosis in our laboratory were obtained from their admission records. Co-infections with malaria were identified via blood film for malaria parasites (BFMP). Description with inferential statistics analysis and multiple logistic regressions were used to distinguish features between dual and mono-infections.Results. Of 111 leptospirosis-positive patients, 26 (23.4 %) tested positive for malaria. Co-infections were predominant among male patients with a mean age of 33 years and were prevalent among immigrant populations who had settled in high-density suburban areas. Chills and rigor with splenomegaly were the only significant distinguishing clinical features of LMCI while leukocytosis and raised transaminases were significant laboratory parameters. Only chills and rigor demonstrated a predictive value for LMCI from analysis of multiple logistic regressions. No death was attributed to co-infection in this study, in contrast to LMI (11.8 %, n=10).Conclusion. The significant prevalence of LMCI found in this study with overlapping demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters makes diagnosis of co-infection challenging. It is essential to evaluate co-infection in endemic areas. Strengthened awareness of LMCI, comprehensive diagnostic services and further prospective studies are warranted.
  16. Raja NS, Singh NN
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2005 Jun;54(Pt 6):609-611.
    PMID: 15888472 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.46031-0
    Cellulitis of the orbit is a common cause of proptosis in children, and also frequently arises in the elderly and the immunocompromised. The condition is characterized by infection and swelling of the soft tissues lining the eye socket, pushing the eye ball outwards and causing severe pain, redness, discharge of pus and some degree of blurred vision. There is a small risk of infection spreading to the meninges of the brain and causing meningitis. This paper reports the case of an adult in whom polymicrobial bilateral orbital cellulitis had developed due to Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection. N. gonorrhoeae infections are acquired by sexual contact. Although the infection may disseminate to a variety of tissues, it usually affects the mucous membranes of the urethra in males and the endocervix and urethra in females. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of polymicrobial bilateral orbital cellulitis due to S. aureus and N. gonorrhoeae in medical literature.
  17. Raja NS, Karunakaran R, Ngeow YF, Awang R
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2005 Sep;54(Pt 9):901-903.
    PMID: 16091445 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.46169-0
    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are formidable organisms renowned for their ability to cause infections with limited treatment options and their potential for transferring resistance genes to other Gram-positive bacteria. Usually associated with nosocomial infections, VRE are rarely reported as a cause of community-acquired infection. Presented here is a case of community-acquired infection due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. The patient had been applying herbal leaves topically to his cheek to treat a buccal space abscess, resulting in a burn of the overlying skin. From pus aspirated via the skin a pure culture of E. faecium was grown that was resistant to vancomycin with a MIC of >256 microg ml-1 by the E test and resistant to teicoplanin by disc diffusion, consistent with the VanA phenotype. The organism was suspected of contaminating the leaf and infecting the patient via the burnt skin. This case highlights the need for further studies on the community prevalence of VRE among humans and animals to define unrecognized silent reservoirs for VRE, which may pose a threat to public health.
  18. Puah SM, Khor WC, Kee BP, Tan JAMA, Puthucheary SD, Chua KH
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2018 Sep;67(9):1271-1278.
    PMID: 30024365 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000796
    PURPOSE: The taxonomy of Aeromonas keeps expanding and their identification remains problematic due to their phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. In this study, we aimed to develop a rapid and reliable polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay targeting the rpoD gene to enable the differentiation of aeromonads into 27 distinct species using microfluidic capillary electrophoresis.

    METHODOLOGY: A pair of degenerate primers (Aero F: 5'-YGARATCGAYATCGCCAARCGB-3' and Aero R: 5'-GRCCDATGCTCATRCGRCGGTT-3') was designed that amplified the rpoD gene of 27 Aeromonas species. Subsequently, in silico analysis enabled the differentiation of 25 species using the single restriction endonuclease AluI, while 2 species, A. sanarelli and A. taiwanensis, required an additional restriction endonuclease, HpyCH4IV. Twelve type strains (A. hydrophila ATCC7966T, A. caviae ATCC15468T, A. veronii ATCC9071T, A. media DSM4881T, A. allosaccharophila DSM11576T, A. dhakensis DSM17689T, A. enteropelogens DSM7312T, A. jandaei DSM7311T, A. rivuli DSM22539T, A. salmonicida ATCC33658T, A. taiwanensis DSM24096T and A. sanarelli DSM24094T) were randomly selected from the 27 Aeromonas species for experimental validation.Results/key findings. The twelve type strains demonstrated distinctive RFLP patterns and supported the in silico digestion. Subsequently, 60 clinical and environmental strains from our collection, comprising nine Aeromonas species, were used for screening examinations, and the results were in agreement.

    CONCLUSION: This method provides an alternative method for laboratory identification, surveillance and epidemiological investigations of clinical and environmental specimens.

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