Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 58 in total

  1. Ng HF, Tan JL, Zin T, Yap SF, Ngeow YF
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2018 Dec;67(12):1676-1681.
    PMID: 30351265 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000857
    In this study, we characterized 7C, a spontaneous mutant selected from tigecycline-susceptible Mycobacterium abscessus ATCC 19977. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to identify possible resistance determinants in this mutant. Compared to the wild-type, 7C demonstrated resistance to tigecycline as well as cross-resistance to imipenem, and had a slightly retarded growth rate. WGS and subsequent biological verifications showed that these phenotypes were caused by a point mutation in MAB_3542c, which encodes an RshA-like protein. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, RshA is an anti-sigma factor that negatively regulates the heat/oxidative stress response mechanisms. The MAB_3542c mutation may represent a novel determinant of tigecycline resistance. We hypothesize that this mutation may dysregulate the stress-response pathways which have been shown to be linked to antibiotic resistance in previous studies.
  2. Ong LY, Pang T, Lim SH, Tan EL, Puthucheary SD
    J. Med. Microbiol., 1989 Jul;29(3):195-8.
    PMID: 2473209
    A simple adherence test to detect IgM antibodies in patients with typhoid is described. The test utilises the IgM-"capture" approach, in which the test serum is applied to microtitration plate wells previously coated with anti-human IgM, followed by application of a stained Salmonella typhi antigen suspension which shows adherence in positive cases. By this test, 58 (95%) of 61 sera from confirmed cases of typhoid possessed IgM antibodies to the H or O or both antigens of S. typhi. In patients for whom a diagnosis of typhoid was based only on a significant Widal-test titre, 31 (41%) of 76 sera had IgM antibodies to the H or O or both antigens of S. typhi. Some cross-reactivity of the IgM antibodies was detected, especially with the O antigens of S. paratyphi A and B. A total of 82 sera from non-typhoidal fevers (leptospirosis, typhus, dengue fever) showed no reactivity in this test. In normal sera there was no detectable IgM to the O antigen of S. typhi and only a small number (3.9%) had low levels of IgM to the H antigen. The significance and potential importance of this simple, sensitive, specific and economical test is discussed.
  3. Ghaznavi-Rad E, Nor Shamsudin M, Sekawi Z, van Belkum A, Neela V
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2010 Oct;59(Pt 10):1135-1139.
    PMID: 20616192 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.021956-0
    A multiplex PCR assay was developed for the identification of major types and subtypes of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. The method uses a novel 9 valent multiplex PCR plus two primer pairs for S. aureus identification and detection of meticillin resistance. All 389 clinical MRSA isolates from Malaysia and 18 European isolates from the Harmony collection harbouring different SCCmec types that we tested were correctly characterized by our PCR assay. SCCmec type III and V were by far the most common types among both hospital- and community-acquired Malaysian MRSA isolates, with an apparent emergence of MRSA harbouring the IVh type.
  4. Fadzilah MN, Faizatul LJ, Hasibah MS, Sam IC, Bador MK, Gan GG, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2009 Jan;58(Pt 1):142-143.
    PMID: 19074667 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.004622-0
    A 17-year-old man with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia had fever and diarrhoea during a febrile neutropenic episode. A spiral-shaped, Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium was isolated from blood, and confirmed as Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens by 16S rRNA sequencing. The patient responded to imipenem.
  5. Winstanley C, Hales BA, Morgan JAW, Gallagher MJ, Puthucheary SD, CISSé MF, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 1999 Jul;48(7):657-662.
    PMID: 10403416 DOI: 10.1099/00222615-48-7-657
    PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of flagellin genes (fliC) from 57 clinical isolates of Burkholderia cepacia indicated that only type 11 flagellins were present. Twenty-two isolates previously identified as the epidemic UK cystic fibrosis strain were indistinguishable by this method, as were 11 isolates from a pseudo-outbreak in Senegal. Other clinical isolates, including 19 from disparate sources in Malaysia, were separated into nine fliC RFLP groups, exhibiting a large degree of divergence. When isolates were indistinguishable by fliC genotyping, their similarity was confirmed by whole genome macro-restriction analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis following XbaI digestion. The variation in fliC sequences of B. cepacia was far greater than that with B. pseudomallei, supporting the view that 'B. cepacia', as currently defined, may comprise several different genomic species.
  6. Khosravi Y, Tay ST, Vadivelu J
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2011 Jul;60(Pt 7):988-994.
    PMID: 21436370 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.029868-0
    In this study, 90 non-replicate imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IRPA) Malaysian isolates collected between October 2005 and March 2008 were subjected to a screening test for detection of the integron and the gene cassette. Class 1 integrons were detected in 54 IRPA clinical isolates, whilst three isolates contained class 2 integrons. Analysis of the gene cassettes associated with the class 1 integrons showed the detection of accC1 in isolates carrying bla(IMP-7) and aacA7 in isolates carrying bla(VIM-2). aadA6 was detected in two isolates carrying bla(IMP-4). Using random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis, 14 PCR fingerprint patterns were generated from the 32 isolates carrying metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes (35.5 %), whilst 20 patterns were generated from the 58 non-MBL gene isolates (64.4 %). Based on the differences in the fingerprinting patterns, two clusters (A and B) were identified among the MBL-producing isolates. Cluster A comprised 18 isolates (56 %) carrying the bla(VIM) gene, whereas cluster B comprised 14 (44 %) isolates carrying the bla(IMP) gene. The non-MBL isolates were divided into clusters C and D. Cluster C comprised 22 non-MBL isolates harbouring class 1 integrons, whilst cluster D consisted of three isolates carrying class 2 integrons. These findings suggest that the class 1 integron is widespread among P. aeruginosa isolated in Malaysia and that characterization of cassette arrays of integrons will be a useful epidemiological tool to study the evolution of multidrug resistance and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.
  7. Peremalo T, Madhavan P, Hamzah S, Than L, Wong EH, Nasir MDM, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2019 Mar;68(3):346-354.
    PMID: 30724730 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000940
    PURPOSE: Non-albicansCandida species have emerged as fungal pathogens that cause invasive infections, with many of these species displaying resistance to commonly used antifungal agents. This study was confined to studying the characteristics of clinical isolates of the C. rugosa complex and C. pararugosa species.

    METHODOLOGY: Seven isolates of the C. rugosa complex and one isolate of C. pararugosa were obtained from two tertiary referral hospitals in Malaysia. Their antifungal susceptibilities, biofilm, proteinase, phospholipase, esterase and haemolysin activities were characterized. Biofilms were quantified using crystal violet (CV) and tetrazolium (XTT) reduction assays at 1.5, 6, 18, 24, 48 and 72 h.Results/Key findings. The E-test antifungal tests showed that both species have elevated MICs compared to C. albicans and C. tropicalis. The highest biomass was observed in one of the C. rugosa isolates (0.237), followed by C. pararugosa (0.206) at 18 h of incubation. However, the highest bioactivity was observed in the C. rugosa ATCC 10571 strain at 24 h (0.075), followed by C. pararugosa at 48 h (0.048) and the same C. rugosa strain at 24 h (0.046), with P<0.05. All isolates exhibited high proteinase activity (+++) whereas six isolates showed very strong esterase activity (++++). All the isolates were alpha haemolytic producers. None of the isolates exhibited phospholipase activity.

    CONCLUSION: Elevated MICs were shown for the C. rugosa complex and C. pararugosa for commonly used antifungal drugs. Further studies to identify virulence genes involved in the pathogenesis and genes that confer reduced drug susceptibility in these species are proposed.

  8. Noordin A, Sapri HF, Mohamad Sani NA, Leong SK, Tan XE, Tan TL, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2016 Dec;65(12):1476-1481.
    PMID: 27902380 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000387
    The annual prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Malaysia has been estimated to be 30 % to 40 % of all S. aureus infections. Nevertheless, data on the antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Malaysian MRSAs remain few. In 2009, we collected 318 MRSA strains from various wards of our teaching hospital located in Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia, and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing on these strains. The strains were then molecularly characterized via staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec and virulence gene (cna, sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, eta, etb, Panton-Valentine leukocidin and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1) typing; a subset of 49 strains isolated from the intensive care unit was also typed using PFGE. Most strains were found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin (92.5 %), erythromycin (93.4 %) and gentamicin (86.8 %). The majority (72.0 %) of strains were found to harbour SCCmec type III-SCCmercury with the presence of ccrC, and carried the sea+cna gene combination (49.3 %), with cna as the most prevalent virulence gene (94.0 %) detected. We identified four PFGE clusters, with pulsotype C (n=19) as the dominant example in the intensive care unit, where this pulsotype was found to be associated with carriage of SCCmec type III and the sea gene (P=0.05 and P=0.02, respectively). In summary, the dominant MRSA circulating in our hospital in 2009 was a clone that was ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin resistant, carried SCCmec type III-SCCmercury with ccrC and also harboured the sea+cna virulence genes. This clone also appears to be the dominant MRSA circulating in major hospitals in Kuala Lumpur.
  9. Raja NS, Singh NN
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2005 Jun;54(Pt 6):609-611.
    PMID: 15888472 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.46031-0
    Cellulitis of the orbit is a common cause of proptosis in children, and also frequently arises in the elderly and the immunocompromised. The condition is characterized by infection and swelling of the soft tissues lining the eye socket, pushing the eye ball outwards and causing severe pain, redness, discharge of pus and some degree of blurred vision. There is a small risk of infection spreading to the meninges of the brain and causing meningitis. This paper reports the case of an adult in whom polymicrobial bilateral orbital cellulitis had developed due to Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection. N. gonorrhoeae infections are acquired by sexual contact. Although the infection may disseminate to a variety of tissues, it usually affects the mucous membranes of the urethra in males and the endocervix and urethra in females. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of polymicrobial bilateral orbital cellulitis due to S. aureus and N. gonorrhoeae in medical literature.
  10. Underwood AP, Kaakoush NO, Sodhi N, Merif J, Seah Lee W, Riordan SM, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2016 Mar;65(3):219-226.
    PMID: 26698172 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000216
    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae.
  11. Ahmad N, Ruzan IN, Abd Ghani MK, Hussin A, Nawi S, Aziz MN, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2009 Sep;58(Pt 9):1213-1218.
    PMID: 19528158 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.011353-0
    Community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) occurring among hospital isolates in Malaysia has not been reported previously. As CA-MRSA reported worldwide has been shown to carry SCCmec types IV and V, the aim of this study was to determine the SCCmec types of MRSA strains collected in Malaysia from November 2006 to June 2008. From a total of 628 MRSA isolates, 20 were SCCmec type IV, whilst the rest were type III. Further characterization of SCCmec type IV strains revealed 11 sequence types (STs), including ST22, with the majority being ST30/Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive. Eight out of nine CA-MRSA were ST30, one was ST80, and all were sensitive to co-trimoxazole and gentamicin. Five new STs designated ST1284, ST1285, ST1286, ST1287 and ST1288 were discovered, suggesting the emergence of novel clones of MRSA circulating in Malaysian hospitals. The discovery of the ST22 strain is a cause for concern because of its ability to replace existing predominant clones in certain geographical regions.
  12. Lim KT, Yeo CC, Md Yasin R, Balan G, Thong KL
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2009 Nov;58(Pt 11):1463-1469.
    PMID: 19589908 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.011114-0
    The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a serious antibiotic management problem as resistance genes are easily transferred from one organism to another. Fifty-one strains of K. pneumoniae isolated from sporadic cases in various hospitals throughout Malaysia were analysed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR detection of ESBL-encoding genes and DNA fingerprinting. Although 27 of the 51 K. pneumoniae strains were MDR (i.e. resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics), the majority of the strains (98 %) were sensitive to imipenem. PCR detection using ESBL gene-specific primers showed that 46 of the K. pneumoniae strains harboured bla(SHV), 19 harboured bla(CTX-M), 5 harboured bla(OXA-1) and 4 harboured bla(TEM-1). Class 1 integron-encoded intI1 integrase was detected in 21 of the 51 K. pneumoniae strains and amplification of the integron 5'CS region showed the presence of several known antibiotic resistance gene cassettes of various sizes. Results of conjugation and transformation experiments indicated that some of the ESBL-encoding genes (i.e. bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M) and bla(TEM-1)) were transmissible and were likely plasmid-encoded. DNA fingerprinting using PFGE and PCR-based methods indicated that the 51 K. pneumoniae strains were genetically diverse and heterogeneous.
  13. Raja NS, Karunakaran R, Ngeow YF, Awang R
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2005 Sep;54(Pt 9):901-903.
    PMID: 16091445 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.46169-0
    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are formidable organisms renowned for their ability to cause infections with limited treatment options and their potential for transferring resistance genes to other Gram-positive bacteria. Usually associated with nosocomial infections, VRE are rarely reported as a cause of community-acquired infection. Presented here is a case of community-acquired infection due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. The patient had been applying herbal leaves topically to his cheek to treat a buccal space abscess, resulting in a burn of the overlying skin. From pus aspirated via the skin a pure culture of E. faecium was grown that was resistant to vancomycin with a MIC of >256 microg ml-1 by the E test and resistant to teicoplanin by disc diffusion, consistent with the VanA phenotype. The organism was suspected of contaminating the leaf and infecting the patient via the burnt skin. This case highlights the need for further studies on the community prevalence of VRE among humans and animals to define unrecognized silent reservoirs for VRE, which may pose a threat to public health.
  14. Hii SYF, Ali NA, Ahmad N, Amran F
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2017 Nov;66(11):1623-1627.
    PMID: 29048275 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000611
    Melioidosis is an endemic infectious disease in Southeast Asia and northern Australia, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. However, the incidence rate in Malaysia is not well documented. The high mortality rate and broad range of clinical presentations require rapid and accurate diagnosis for appropriate treatment. This study compared the efficacy of in-house IgM and IgG ELISA methods using a local B. pseudomallei strain. The diagnostic accuracy of the in-house IgG ELISA was better than that of the IgM ELISA: sensitivity (IgG: 84.71 %, IgM: 76.14 %) and specificity (IgG: 93.64 %, IgM: 90.17 %); positive predictive value (IgG: 86.75 %, IgM: 79.76 %) and negative predictive value (IgG: 92.57 %, IgM: 89.66 %); likelihood ratio (LR) [IgG: 13.32, IgM: 7.75 (LR+); IgG: 0.16, IgM: 0.26 (LR-)], and was supported by the observation of the absorbance value in comparisons between culture and serology sampling. In-house IgG ELISA was shown to be useful as an early diagnostic tool for melioidosis.
  15. Hishamshah M, Ahmad N, Mohd Ibrahim H, Nur Halim NA, Nawi S, Amran F
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2018 Jun;67(6):806-813.
    PMID: 29724267 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000750
    Purpose. In this study, we aim to describe and compare the demographical, clinical and laboratory features of leptospirosis and dengue co-infections (LDCI) against single leptospirosis infections in Malaysia.Methodology. Data of patients admitted to various hospitals in Malaysia from 2011 to 2015 diagnosed with leptospirosis in our laboratory were obtained from their admission records. Co-infection with dengue was determined by collecting dengue serology results. Multivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression were used to differentiate features between single leptospirosis infection and confirmed LDCI.Results/Key findings. Only 602 (29.11 %) out of 2068 leptospira-positive patients were concurrently tested for dengue during their admission in which 44 (7.31 %) patients had positive non-structural protein 1 (confirmed LDCI) while 140 (23.26 %) were positive for dengue IgM (probable LDCI) with the highest number of cases recorded in high-density suburban districts. Myalgia and arthralgia were the only significant distinguishing clinical feature of LDCI while significant laboratory features were thrombocytopenia and high levels of alanine and aspartate transaminases. Only thrombocytopenia displayed a predictive value for LDCI from analysis of multiple logistic regression. Death occurred in 19 (3.16 %) patients in this dataset studied but only three (0.50 %) were attributed to LDCI.Conclusion. There is a considerable prevalence of LDCI in this country of which overlapping demographic, clinical and laboratory presentations pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Efforts to raise awareness regarding LDCI, better access to diagnostic services and further prospective studies are warranted.
  16. Rao M, Atiqah N, Dasiman M, Amran F
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2020 Mar;69(3):451-456.
    PMID: 31846413 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.001127
    Introduction. Co-infection of leptospirosis-malaria is not uncommon due to their overlapping geographical distribution in the tropics.Aim. This study aimed to describe and compare the demographic, clinical and laboratory features of leptospirosis-malaria co-infection (LMCI) against leptospirosis mono-infection (LMI) in Peninsular Malaysia.Methodology. Data of patients admitted to various hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia from 2011 to 2014 diagnosed with leptospirosis in our laboratory were obtained from their admission records. Co-infections with malaria were identified via blood film for malaria parasites (BFMP). Description with inferential statistics analysis and multiple logistic regressions were used to distinguish features between dual and mono-infections.Results. Of 111 leptospirosis-positive patients, 26 (23.4 %) tested positive for malaria. Co-infections were predominant among male patients with a mean age of 33 years and were prevalent among immigrant populations who had settled in high-density suburban areas. Chills and rigor with splenomegaly were the only significant distinguishing clinical features of LMCI while leukocytosis and raised transaminases were significant laboratory parameters. Only chills and rigor demonstrated a predictive value for LMCI from analysis of multiple logistic regressions. No death was attributed to co-infection in this study, in contrast to LMI (11.8 %, n=10).Conclusion. The significant prevalence of LMCI found in this study with overlapping demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters makes diagnosis of co-infection challenging. It is essential to evaluate co-infection in endemic areas. Strengthened awareness of LMCI, comprehensive diagnostic services and further prospective studies are warranted.
  17. Tay ST, Devi S, Puthucheary SD, Kautner IM
    J. Med. Microbiol., 1995 Mar;42(3):175-80.
    PMID: 7884798
    There are several methods for the detection of haemolytic activity in campylobacters. However, we found the haemolytic effect of campylobacters on conventional blood agar plates to be variable, inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Blood agarose plates showed campylobacter haemolytic activity more clearly. The incubation conditions (temperature and gaseous) appear to be important for the expression of this activity. Ninety four percent of the Campylobacter isolates examined were found to be haemolytic by the microplate assay with minimal haemolytic units that ranged from 1 to 64. Haemolytic activity was detected only from live bacterial cultures and not from any of the 50 bacterial culture supernates, which suggests that campylobacters may possess a cell-associated haemolysin. The identification of such haemolytic activity in a large number of campylobacters (94%) suggests its potential role as a virulence factor in campylobacter gastroenteritis.
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