METHODS: The synthesized ZnO-CA NPs were characterized using SEM, FTIR, and XRD to validate their composition and structural features. The antioxidant activity of ZnO-CA NPs was confirmed using DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays. The antimicrobial effects of ZnO-CA NPs were validated using a zone of inhibition assay against dental pathogens. Autodock tool was used to identify the interaction of cinnamic acid with dental pathogen receptors.
RESULTS: ZnO-CA NPs exhibited potent antioxidant activity in both DPPH and ABTS assays, suggesting their potential as powerful antioxidants. The minimal inhibitory concentration of ZnO-CA NPs against dental pathogens was found 25 µg/mL, indicating their effective antimicrobial properties. Further, ZnO-CA NPs showed better binding affinity and amino acid interaction with dental pathogen receptors. Also, the ZnO-CA NPs exhibited dose-dependent (5 µg/mL, 15 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, and 50 µg/mL) anticancer activity against Human Oral Epidermal Carcinoma KB cells. The mechanism of action of apoptotic activity of ZnO-CA NPs on the KB cells was identified through the upregulation of BCL-2, BAX, and P53 genes.
CONCLUSIONS: This research establishes the potential utility of ZnO-CA NPs as a promising candidate for dental applications. The potent antioxidant, anticancer, and effective antimicrobial properties of ZnO-CA NPs make them a valuable option for combating dental pathogens.
METHODS: The proliferative effect of the identified protein on MCF-7 cells that interacted non-adhesively with BMSCs pre-treated with pioglitazone and/or rosiglitazone was evaluated using cell culture inserts and conditioned media. The mRNA expression of proliferation and lipid accumulation markers was also evaluated in the interacted MCF-7 cells by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Finally, the correlation between the identified protein and fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF-4) protein in the conditioned media of the pre-treated BMSCs was evaluated by ELISA.
RESULTS: The present study identified vimentin as the specific protein among the complex intracellular proteins that likely plays a role in MCF-7 cell proliferation when the breast cancer cells interacted non-adhesively with BMSCs pre-treated with a combination of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. The inhibition of this protein promoted the proliferation of MCF-7 cells when the breast cancer cells interacted with pre-treated BMSCs. Gene expression analysis indicated that pre-treatment of BMSCs with a combination of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone decreased the mRNA expression of Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in MCF-7 cells. The pre-treatment did not induce mRNA expression of PPARγ, which is a sign of lipid accumulation. The level of vimentin protein was also associated with the FGF-4 protein expression level in the conditioned media of the pre-treated BMSCs. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that vimentin regulated the expression of FGF-4 through its interaction with SRY-box 2 and POU class 5 homeobox 1.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified a novel intracellular protein that may represent the promising target in pre-treated BMSCs to decrease the proliferation of breast cancer MCF-7 cells for human health and wellness.
METHODS: The genome sequence was used as a reference to study gene expression during growth in a starved carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) environment with minimal sugar and sawdust as initial energy sources. This study was conducted to mimic possible limitations of the C-N nutrient sources during the growth of G. boninense in oil palm plantations.
RESULTS: Genome sequencing of an isolate collected from a palm tree in West Malaysia generated an assembly of 67.12 Mb encoding 19,851 predicted genes. Transcriptomic analysis from a time course experiment during growth in this starvation media identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were found to be associated with 29 metabolic pathways. During the active growth phase, 26 DEGs were related to four pathways, including secondary metabolite biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, glycan metabolism and mycotoxin biosynthesis. G. boninense genes involved in the carbohydrate metabolism pathway that contribute to the degradation of plant cell walls were up-regulated. Interestingly, several genes associated with the mycotoxin biosynthesis pathway were identified as playing a possible role in pathogen-host interaction. In addition, metabolomics analysis revealed six metabolites, maltose, xylobiose, glucooligosaccharide, glycylproline, dimethylfumaric acid and arabitol that were up-regulated on Day2 of the time course experiment.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides information on genes expressed by G. boninense in metabolic pathways that may play a role in the initial infection of the host.
METHODS: SPF grade 4-6-week-old Kunming rats were randomly divided into 5 groups including a blank group, sham-operated group, model group, acupuncture, and moxibustion (AnM) group, and positive group. A total of 10 rats were included in each group. The model group, the AnM group, and the positive group were prepared by ligating the left sciatic nerve. AnM group was used for acupuncture and moxibustion therapy intervention, and the positive group was rendered to quick-acting sciatica pills once a day for 7 days (3 courses of treatment). The blank group, sham-operated group, and model group were not treated. The changes in thermal and mechanical pain thresholds were observed before and after the operation, and the morphological changes of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in the lumbosacral region of the rats in each group were observed by HE staining after the courses of treatment finished. The contents of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α were measured by ELISA and the expressions of NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, and NLRP3 genes were detected by RT-qPCR while the protein expressions of NOX1, NOX2, NOX4 and NLRP3 were analyzed by Western blotting.
RESULTS: The AnM and positive group showed a significant increase in thermal and mechanical pain thresholds after treatment, while there was no significant change in the model group. As compared to the control group, the contents of IL- 1β, IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α, as well as the relative expressions of NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, and NLRP3 genes were significantly increased in the model group (P