Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 114 in total

  1. Ravikumar OV, Marunganathan V, Kumar MSK, Mohan M, Shaik MR, Shaik B, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2024 Feb 24;51(1):352.
    PMID: 38400866 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-024-09289-9
    BACKGROUND: Oral diseases are often attributed to dental pathogens such as S. aureus, S. mutans, E. faecalis, and C. albicans. In this research work, a novel approach was employed to combat these pathogens by preparing zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) capped with cinnamic acid (CA) plant compounds.

    METHODS: The synthesized ZnO-CA NPs were characterized using SEM, FTIR, and XRD to validate their composition and structural features. The antioxidant activity of ZnO-CA NPs was confirmed using DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays. The antimicrobial effects of ZnO-CA NPs were validated using a zone of inhibition assay against dental pathogens. Autodock tool was used to identify the interaction of cinnamic acid with dental pathogen receptors.

    RESULTS: ZnO-CA NPs exhibited potent antioxidant activity in both DPPH and ABTS assays, suggesting their potential as powerful antioxidants. The minimal inhibitory concentration of ZnO-CA NPs against dental pathogens was found 25 µg/mL, indicating their effective antimicrobial properties. Further, ZnO-CA NPs showed better binding affinity and amino acid interaction with dental pathogen receptors. Also, the ZnO-CA NPs exhibited dose-dependent (5 µg/mL, 15 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, and 50 µg/mL) anticancer activity against Human Oral Epidermal Carcinoma KB cells. The mechanism of action of apoptotic activity of ZnO-CA NPs on the KB cells was identified through the upregulation of BCL-2, BAX, and P53 genes.

    CONCLUSIONS: This research establishes the potential utility of ZnO-CA NPs as a promising candidate for dental applications. The potent antioxidant, anticancer, and effective antimicrobial properties of ZnO-CA NPs make them a valuable option for combating dental pathogens.

  2. Oyewusi HA, Wahab RA, Huyop F
    Mol Biol Rep, 2021 Mar;48(3):2687-2701.
    PMID: 33650078 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-021-06239-7
    An integral approach to decoding both culturable and uncultured microorganisms' metabolic activity involves the whole genome sequencing (WGS) of individual/complex microbial communities. WGS of culturable microbes, amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and single-cell genome analysis are selective techniques integrating genetic information and biochemical mechanisms. These approaches transform microbial biotechnology into a quick and high-throughput culture-independent evaluation and exploit pollutant-degrading microbes. They are windows into enzyme regulatory bioremediation pathways (i.e., dehalogenase) and the complete bioremediation process of organohalide pollutants. While the genome sequencing technique is gaining the scientific community's interest, it is still in its infancy in the field of pollutant bioremediation. The techniques are becoming increasingly helpful in unraveling and predicting the enzyme structure and explore metabolic and biodegradation capabilities.
  3. Kwok LS, Yian SS, Ismael LQ, Bee YTG, Harn GL, Yin KB
    Mol Biol Rep, 2024 Feb 21;51(1):317.
    PMID: 38381204 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-024-09269-z
    BACKGROUND: Our previous study investigated the levels of soluble growth factors in the conditioned media of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) pre-treated with thiazolidinedione solutions. The present study aimed to investigate the complex intracellular proteins extracted from BMSCs pre-treated with pioglitazone and/or rosiglitazone using proteomics.

    METHODS: The proliferative effect of the identified protein on MCF-7 cells that interacted non-adhesively with BMSCs pre-treated with pioglitazone and/or rosiglitazone was evaluated using cell culture inserts and conditioned media. The mRNA expression of proliferation and lipid accumulation markers was also evaluated in the interacted MCF-7 cells by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Finally, the correlation between the identified protein and fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF-4) protein in the conditioned media of the pre-treated BMSCs was evaluated by ELISA.

    RESULTS: The present study identified vimentin as the specific protein among the complex intracellular proteins that likely plays a role in MCF-7 cell proliferation when the breast cancer cells interacted non-adhesively with BMSCs pre-treated with a combination of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. The inhibition of this protein promoted the proliferation of MCF-7 cells when the breast cancer cells interacted with pre-treated BMSCs. Gene expression analysis indicated that pre-treatment of BMSCs with a combination of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone decreased the mRNA expression of Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in MCF-7 cells. The pre-treatment did not induce mRNA expression of PPARγ, which is a sign of lipid accumulation. The level of vimentin protein was also associated with the FGF-4 protein expression level in the conditioned media of the pre-treated BMSCs. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that vimentin regulated the expression of FGF-4 through its interaction with SRY-box 2 and POU class 5 homeobox 1.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified a novel intracellular protein that may represent the promising target in pre-treated BMSCs to decrease the proliferation of breast cancer MCF-7 cells for human health and wellness.

  4. Malik JA, Yaseen Z, Thotapalli L, Ahmed S, Shaikh MF, Anwar S
    Mol Biol Rep, 2023 Apr;50(4):3767-3785.
    PMID: 36692676 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-023-08241-7
    Schizophrenia affects millions of people worldwide and is a major challenge for the scientific community. Like most psychotic diseases, it is also considered a complicated mental disorder caused by an imbalance in neurotransmitters. Due to the complexity of neuropathology, it is always a complicated disorder. The lack of proper understanding of the pathophysiology makes the disorder unmanageable in clinical settings. However, due to recent advances in animal models, we hope we can have better therapeutic approaches with more success in clinical settings. Dopamine, glutamate, GABA, and serotonin are the neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Various animal models have been put forward based on these neurotransmitters, including pharmacological, neurodevelopmental, and genetic models. Polymorphism of genes such as dysbindin, DICS1, and NRG1 has also been reported in schizophrenia. Hypothesis based on dopamine, glutamate, and serotonin are considered successful models of schizophrenia on which drug therapies have been designed to date. New targets like the orexin system, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, and cannabinoid receptors have been approached to alleviate the negative and cognitive symptoms. The non-pharmacological models like the post-weaning social isolation model (maternal deprivation), the isolation rearing model etc. have been also developed to mimic the symptoms of schizophrenia and to create and test new approaches of drug therapy which is a breakthrough at present in psychiatric disorders. Different behavioral tests have been evaluated in these specific models. This review will highlight the currently available animal models and behavioral tests in psychic disorders concerning schizophrenia.
  5. Lawson T, Lycett GW, Mayes S, Ho WK, Chin CF
    Mol Biol Rep, 2020 Jun;47(6):4183-4197.
    PMID: 32444976 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-020-05519-y
    The Rab GTPase family plays a vital role in several plant physiological processes including fruit ripening. Fruit softening during ripening involves trafficking of cell wall polymers and enzymes between cellular compartments. Mango, an economically important fruit crop, is known for its delicious taste, exotic flavour and nutritional value. So far, there is a paucity of information on the mango Rab GTPase family. In this study, 23 genes encoding Rab proteins were identified in mango by a comprehensive in silico approach. Sequence alignment and similarity tree analysis with the model plant Arabidopsis as a reference enabled the bona fide assignment of the deduced mango proteins to classify into eight subfamilies. Expression analysis by RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) showed that the Rab genes were differentially expressed in ripe and unripe mangoes suggesting the involvement of vesicle trafficking during ripening. Interaction analysis showed that the proteins involved in vesicle trafficking and cell wall softening were interconnected providing further evidence of the involvement of the Rab GTPases in fruit softening. Correlation analyses showed a significant relationship between the expression level of the RabA3 and RabA4 genes and fruit firmness at the unripe stage of the mango varieties suggesting that the differences in gene expression level might be associated with the contrasting firmness of these varieties. This study will not only provide new insights into the complexity of the ripening-regulated molecular mechanism but also facilitate the identification of potential Rab GTPases to address excessive fruit softening.
  6. Ee SF, Oh JM, Mohd Noor N, Kwon TR, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Ismail I, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2013 Mar;40(3):2231-41.
    PMID: 23187733 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-012-2286-4
    The importance of plant secondary metabolites for both mankind and the plant itself has long been established. However, despite extensive research on plant secondary metabolites, plant secondary metabolism and its regulation still remained poorly characterized. In this present study, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) transcript profiling was applied to generate the expression profiles of Polygonum minus in response to salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitations. This study reveals two different sets of genes induced by SA and MeJA, respectively where stress-related genes were proved to lead to the expression of genes involved in plant secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways. A total of 98 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were up-regulated, including 46 from SA-treated and 52 from MeJA-treated samples. The cDNA-AFLP transcripts generated using 64 different Mse1/Taq1 primer combinations showed that treatments with SA and MeJA induced genes mostly involved in scavenging reactive oxygen species, including zeaxanthin epoxidase, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 and peroxidase. Of these stress-related genes, 15 % of other annotated TDFs are involved mainly in secondary metabolic processes where among these, two genes encoding (+)-delta cadinene synthase and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase were highlighted.
  7. Nagappan J, Ooi SE, Chan KL, Kadri F, Nurazah Z, Halim MAA, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2024 Jan 25;51(1):212.
    PMID: 38273212 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-023-09054-4
    BACKGROUND: Ganoderma boninense is a phytopathogen of oil palm, causing basal and upper stem rot diseases.

    METHODS: The genome sequence was used as a reference to study gene expression during growth in a starved carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) environment with minimal sugar and sawdust as initial energy sources. This study was conducted to mimic possible limitations of the C-N nutrient sources during the growth of G. boninense in oil palm plantations.

    RESULTS: Genome sequencing of an isolate collected from a palm tree in West Malaysia generated an assembly of 67.12 Mb encoding 19,851 predicted genes. Transcriptomic analysis from a time course experiment during growth in this starvation media identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were found to be associated with 29 metabolic pathways. During the active growth phase, 26 DEGs were related to four pathways, including secondary metabolite biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, glycan metabolism and mycotoxin biosynthesis. G. boninense genes involved in the carbohydrate metabolism pathway that contribute to the degradation of plant cell walls were up-regulated. Interestingly, several genes associated with the mycotoxin biosynthesis pathway were identified as playing a possible role in pathogen-host interaction. In addition, metabolomics analysis revealed six metabolites, maltose, xylobiose, glucooligosaccharide, glycylproline, dimethylfumaric acid and arabitol that were up-regulated on Day2 of the time course experiment.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides information on genes expressed by G. boninense in metabolic pathways that may play a role in the initial infection of the host.

  8. Aliza D, Tey CL, Ismail IS, Kuah MK, Shu-Chien AC, Muhammad TS
    Mol Biol Rep, 2012 Apr;39(4):4823-9.
    PMID: 21956757 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-011-1275-3
    Teleosts are useful vertebrate model species for understanding copper toxicity due to the dual entry route for copper intake via the gills and intestine. In this present study, we utilized the differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to isolate potential novel hepatic genes induced by sublethal copper exposure in the freshwater swordtail fish, Xiphophorus helleri. Full length cloning of a cDNA fragment induced by copper exposure to 1 μg/ml during 24 h resulted in the positive identification of a hepatic ribosomal protein L19 (RPL19) gene. Further characterization of this gene revealed that its transcriptional expression was dependent on dosage and time of copper exposure. This study describes for the first time the involvement of RPL19 in copper toxicity, probably as a result of increase in ribosome synthesis rate to support activities such as cellular protein translation, transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization during sublethal copper exposure.
  9. Azman AA, Siok-Fong C, Rajab NF, Md Zin RR, Ahmad Daud NN, Mohamad Hanif EA
    Mol Biol Rep, 2023 Sep;50(9):7909-7917.
    PMID: 37442895 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-023-08661-5
    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive intrinsic breast cancer subtype characterized by the lack of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and low levels of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The complex nature of TNBC has resulted in little therapeutic progress for the past several decades. The standard of care remains the FEC cocktail (5-fluorouracil (5-FU), epirubicin and cyclophosphamide). However, early relapse and metastasis in TNBC patients persists in causing dismal clinical outcomes. Due to complex heterogeneity features of TNBC, identifying the biomarker associated to the chemoresistance remains a challenge. The emergence of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) as a potential signature may have proven to be a new deterrent to diagnostic and treatment options. Previous studies unveiled the associations of lncRNA in the development of TNBCs whereby the aggressiveness and response to therapies may be associated by the abrogation of the molecular mechanism lncRNA. Terminal differentiation induced ncRNA (TINCR) is a lncRNA which have been linked with many cancers including TNBC. The expression and behavior of TINCR may exert unfavorable outcome in TNBCs. Nevertheless, the underlying molecular mechanism of TINCR in driving chemoresistance in TNBC is not well understood. This review will highlight the potential molecular mechanisms of TINCR in TNBC chemoresistance and how it can serve as a future potential prognostic and therapeutic target for a better treatment intervention.
  10. Cheng S, Mat-Isa MN, Sapian IS, Ishak SF
    Mol Biol Rep, 2021 Feb;48(2):1281-1290.
    PMID: 33582950 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-021-06189-0
    The estuarine firefly, Pteroptyx tener, aggregates in the thousands in mangrove trees lining tidal rivers in Southeast Asia where they engage one another in a nocturnal, pre-mating ritual of synchronised courtship flashes. Unfortunately, populations of the species by virtue of being restricted to isolated estuarine rivers systems in the region, are at risk of genetic isolation. Because of this concern we undertook the task of sequencing and characterising the mitochondrial DNA genome of P. tener, as the first step towards helping us to characterise and better understand their genetic diversity. We sequenced and assembled the mitochondrial DNA genome of P. tener from two male and female specimens from the district of Kuala Selangor in Peninsular Malaysia and announce the molecules in this publication. We also reconstructed the phylogenetic trees of all available lampyrids mitogenomes and suggest the need to re-examine our current understanding of their classification which have largely been based on morphological data and the cox1 gene. Separately, our analysis of codon usage patterns among lampyrid mitogenomes showed that the codon usage in a majority of the protein-coding genes were non-neutral. Codon usage patterns between mitogenome sequences of P. tener were, however, largely neutral. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness of mitochondrial genes/mitogenomes for analysing both inter- and intra- specific variation in the Lampyridae to aid in species discovery in this highly variable genus; and elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of Pteroptyx spp. from the region.
  11. Syed-Shabthar SM, Rosli MK, Mohd-Zin NA, Romaino SM, Fazly-Ann ZA, Mahani MC, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2013 Aug;40(8):5165-76.
    PMID: 23686165 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-013-2619-y
    Bali cattle is a domestic cattle breed that can be found in Malaysia. It is a domestic cattle that was purely derived from a domestication event in Banteng (Bos javanicus) around 3,500 BC in Indonesia. This research was conducted to portray the phylogenetic relationships of the Bali cattle with other cattle species in Malaysia based on maternal and paternal lineage. We analyzed the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene and SRY of Y chromosome obtained from five species of the Bos genus (B. javanicus, Bos gaurus, Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Bos grunniens). The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was used as an outgroup. The phylogenetic relationships were observed by employing several algorithms: Neighbor-Joining (PAUP version 4.0), Maximum parsimony (PAUP version 4.0) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes 3.1). Results from the maternal data showed that the Bali cattle formed a monophyletic clade, and together with the B. gaurus clade formed a wild cattle clade. Results were supported by high bootstrap and posterior probability values together with genetic distance data. For the paternal lineage, the sequence variation is low (with parsimony informative characters: 2/660) resulting an unresolved Neighbor-Joining tree. However, Bali cattle and other domestic cattle appear in two monophyletic clades distinct from yak, gaur and selembu. This study expresses the potential of the COI gene in portraying the phylogenetic relationships between several Bos species which is important for conservation efforts especially in decision making since cattle is highly bred and hybrid breeds are often formed. Genetic conservation for this high quality beef cattle breed is important by maintaining its genetic characters to prevent extinction or even decreased the genetic quality.
  12. Abu-Bakar SB, Razali NM, Naggs F, Wade C, Mohd-Nor SA, Aileen-Tan SH
    Mol Biol Rep, 2014 Mar;41(3):1799-805.
    PMID: 24443224 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-014-3029-5
    A total of 30 specimens belonging to five species, namely; Cryptozona siamensis, Sarika resplendens and Sarika sp. from the family Ariophantidae as well as Quantula striata and Quantula sp. from the family Dyakiidae were collected from the Langkawi Island in Northern Peninsular Malaysia. All specimens were identified through comparisons of shell morphology and amplification of a 500 bp segment of the 16S rRNA mtDNA gene. To assess phylogenetic insights, the sequences were aligned using ClustalW and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The analyses showed two major lineages in both Maximum Parsimony and Neighbour Joining phylogenetic trees. Each putative taxonomic group formed a monophyletic cluster. Our study revealed low species and intraspecies genetic diversities based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Thus, this study has provided an insight of land snail diversity in populations of an island highly influenced by anthropogenic activities through complementary use of shell morphological and molecular data.
  13. Aroosa M, Malik JA, Ahmed S, Bender O, Ahemad N, Anwar S
    Mol Biol Rep, 2023 Sep;50(9):7667-7680.
    PMID: 37418080 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-023-08568-1
    Antiepileptic drugs are versatile drugs with the potential to be used in functional drug formulations with drug repurposing approaches. In the present review, we investigated the anticancer properties of antiepileptic drugs and interlinked cancer and epileptic pathways. Our focus was primarily on those drugs that have entered clinical trials with positive results and those that provided good results in preclinical studies. Many contributing factors make cancer therapy fail, like drug resistance, tumor heterogeneity, and cost; exploring all alternatives for efficient treatment is important. It is crucial to find new drug targets to find out new antitumor molecules from the already clinically validated and approved drugs utilizing drug repurposing methods. The advancements in genomics, proteomics, and other computational approaches speed up drug repurposing. This review summarizes the potential of antiepileptic drugs in different cancers and tumor progression in the brain. Valproic acid, oxcarbazepine, lacosamide, lamotrigine, and levetiracetam are the drugs that showed potential beneficial outcomes against different cancers. Antiepileptic drugs might be a good option for adjuvant cancer therapy, but there is a need to investigate further their efficacy in cancer therapy clinical trials.
  14. Mohamad J, Masrudin SS, Alias Z, Muhamad NA
    Mol Biol Rep, 2019 Apr;46(2):1855-1871.
    PMID: 30710233 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-019-04638-5
    Pueraria mirifica (PM) is a medicinal plant native to Thailand contained high amount of phytoestrogen and possesses anticancer activity. This study reports the effect of P. mirifica extract, phytoestrogen of diadzein and genistein for its benign prostate hyperplasia properties in testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia in male Sprague Dawley rats. The P. mirifica extract was evaluated for its total phenols, flavonoid and antioxidant activity using DPPH, FRAP and metal chelating assay. The assessment of P. mirifica, diadzein and genistein against benign prostate hyperplasia was determined in testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia in male Sprague Dawley rats. The total phenol was higher than flavonoid but showed low antioxidant activity of DPPH, FRAP and metal chelating. The aqueous PM extract at 1000 mg/kg significantly increased testosterone levels in testosterone-induced rats by 13% while diadzein and genistein increased it by 11% and 17% respectively. However, levels of FSH, LH, triglyceride and HDL are not affected by the oral administration of PM, diadzein and genistein to the rats. Similarly, total protein, albumin, globulin, total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, AST, and G-glutamyltransferase showed no significant difference as compared with negative control rats. The body weight of the rats, testis, kidney and liver showed no toxic effect. The zinc content increased significantly and the zinc transporter gen of ZnT4 and ZIP4 highly expressed suggesting that the PM, diadzein and genistein plays essential role in modulating prostate zinc homeostasis. Similarly, the expression of IL-6, AR and ER was significantly reduced indicating functioning in regulation of prostate growth and acts as anti-inflammatory role in preventing BPH. In conclusion, the results indicated that PM reduced BPH and contributed to the regulation in the zinc transport expression of the prostate cells in the benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH).
  15. Hasan NAHM, Harith HH, Israf DA, Tham CL
    Mol Biol Rep, 2020 May;47(5):3511-3519.
    PMID: 32279207 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-020-05439-x
    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the mechanisms that contribute to bronchial remodelling which underlie chronic inflammatory airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and asthma. Bronchial EMT can be triggered by many factors including transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1). The majority of studies on TGFβ1-mediated bronchial EMT used BEGM as the culture medium. LHC-9 medium is another alternative available which is more economical but a less common option. Using normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) cultured in BEGM as a reference, this study aims to validate the induction of EMT by TGFβ1 in cells cultured in LHC-9. Briefly, the cells were maintained in either LHC-9 or BEGM, and induced with TGFβ1 (5, 10 and 20 ng/ml) for 48 h. EMT induction was confirmed by morphological analysis and EMT markers expression by immunoblotting. In both media, cells induced with TGFβ1 displayed spindle-like morphology with a significantly higher radius ratio compared to non-induced cells which displayed a cobblestone morphology. Correspondingly, the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin was significantly lower, whereas the mesenchymal marker vimentin expression was significantly higher in induced cells, compared to non-induced cells. By contrast, a slower cell growth rate was observed in LHC-9 compared to that of BEGM. This study demonstrates that neither LHC-9 nor BEGM significantly influence TGFβ1-induced bronchial EMT. However, LHC-9 is less optimal for bronchial epithelial cell growth compared to BEGM. Thus, LHC-9 may be a more cost-effective substitute for BEGM, provided that time is not a factor.
  16. Ilori NTO, Liew CX, Fang CM
    Mol Biol Rep, 2020 Dec;47(12):9883-9894.
    PMID: 33244664 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-020-06025-x
    This appraisal is comprised of the inflammatory studies that have been conducted on Clinacanthus nutans, Acanthus ebracteatus, and Barleria lupulina. The review aims to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the supporting and contradictory evidence on each plants' anti-inflammatory properties, whilst addressing the gaps in the current literature. The databases used to obtain relevant studies were Google Scholar, ResearchGate, PubMed and Nusearch (University of Nottingham). A total of 13 articles were selected for this review. A. ebracteatus was found to suppress neutrophil migration and weakly inhibits chronic inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, B. lupulina and C. nutans were shown to possess very similar anti-inflammatory properties. The studies on C. nutans indicated that its anti-inflammatory effect is strongly related to the inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Moreover, several phytoconstituents isolated from B. lupulina were shown to activate the anti-inflammatory Nrf2 pathway. Overall, all the studies have provided evidence to support the use of these plants as anti-inflammatory herbal remedies. However, their exact mechanism of action and the responsible phytoconstituents are yet to be established.
  17. Mohd Zain MZ, Ismail NH, Ahmad N, Sulong S, Karsani SA, Abdul Majid N
    Mol Biol Rep, 2020 Oct;47(10):7735-7743.
    PMID: 32959195 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-020-05848-y
    Telomerase is a cancer promoting ribonucleoprotein complex and is a potential therapeutic target for cancer. In this study, the effects of telomerase downregulation on the whole cell proteome were investigated. Understanding how the effect of downregulation on the whole proteome profile will generate a greater understanding of the possible roles played by telomerase in cancer. Downregulation was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi), targeting the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) subunits of telomerase. Transfection of TERT siRNA downregulates TERT gene expression and induced downregulation of telomerase activity. Investigation of the effect of silencing TERT in telomerase was further validated through proteomic analysis by performing 2-dimension electrophoresis (2DE) coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF. 12 protein spots in HeLa cells were reported to be significantly differentially expressed with 11 of them were upregulated and 1 downregulated. Through STRING analysis, differentially expressed proteins demonstrated strong associations with endoplasmic reticulum stress marker and mitochondrial energy production marker. In conclusions, the result exhibited novel integrated proteomic response involving endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial energy production in response to the TERT downregulation in cervical cancer cells.
  18. Che Mat MF, Mohamad Hanif EA, Abdul Murad NA, Ibrahim K, Harun R, Jamal R
    Mol Biol Rep, 2021 Feb;48(2):1493-1503.
    PMID: 33590411 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-021-06144-z
    Despite the advancements in primary brain tumour diagnoses and treatments, the mortality rate remains high, particularly in glioblastoma (GBM). Chemoresistance, predominantly in recurrent cases, results in decreased mean survival of patients with GBM. We aimed to determine the chemosensitisation and oncogenic characteristics of zinc finger protein 36-like 2 (ZFP36L2) in LN18 GBM cells via RNA interference (RNAi) delivery. We conducted a meta-analysis of microarray datasets and RNAi screening using pooled small interference RNA (siRNA) to identify the druggable genes responsive to GBM chemosensitivity. Temozolomide-resistant LN18 cells were used to evaluate the effects of gene silencing on chemosensitisation to the sub-lethal dose (1/10 of the median inhibitory concentration [IC50]) of temozolomide. ZFP36L2 protein expression was detected by western blotting. Cell viability, proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis assays were carried out using commercial kits. A human apoptosis array kit was used to determine the apoptosis pathway underlying chemosensitisation by siRNA against ZFP36L2 (siZFP36L2). Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance; p > 0.05 was considered significant. The meta-analysis and RNAi screening identified ZFP36L2 as a potential marker of GBM. ZFP36L2 knockdown significantly induced apoptosis (p 
  19. Yeoh KA, Othman A, Meon S, Abdullah F, Ho CL
    Mol Biol Rep, 2013 Jan;40(1):147-58.
    PMID: 23065213 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-012-2043-8
    Chitinases are glycosyl hydrolases that cleave the β-1,4-glycosidic linkages between N-acetylglucosamine residues in chitin which is a major component of fungal cell wall. Plant chitinases hydrolyze fungal chitin to chitin oligosaccharides that serve as elicitors of plant defense system against fungal pathogens. However, plants synthesize many chitinase isozymes and some of them are not pathogenesis-related. In this study, three full-length cDNA sequences encoding a putative chitinase (EgChit3-1) and two chitinase-like proteins (EgChit1-1 and EgChit5-1) have been cloned from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The abundance of these transcripts in the roots and leaves of oil palm seedlings treated with Ganoderma boninense (a fungal pathogen) or Trichoderma harzianum (an avirulent symbiont), and a combination of both fungi at 3, 6 and 12 weeks post infection were profiled by real time quantitative reverse-transcription (qRT)-PCR. Our findings showed that the gene expression of EgChit3-1 increased significantly in the roots of oil palm seedlings treated with either G. boninense or T. harzianum and a combination of both; whereas the gene expression of EgChit1-1 in the treated roots of oil palm seedlings was not significantly higher compared to those of the untreated oil palm roots. The gene expression of EgChit5-1 was only higher in the roots of oil palm seedlings treated with T. harzianum compared to those of the untreated oil palm roots. In addition, the gene expression of EgChit1-1 and EgChit3-1 showed a significantly higher gene expression in the leaf samples of oil palm seedlings treated with either G. boninense or T. harzianum.
  20. Jinying W, Keming L, Hanqing T, Xuqing Z, Muccee F, Xuan L, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2023 Nov;50(11):9367-9378.
    PMID: 37819498 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-023-08858-8
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy on pain relief in sciatica rats and to explore the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect.

    METHODS: SPF grade 4-6-week-old Kunming rats were randomly divided into 5 groups including a blank group, sham-operated group, model group, acupuncture, and moxibustion (AnM) group, and positive group. A total of 10 rats were included in each group. The model group, the AnM group, and the positive group were prepared by ligating the left sciatic nerve. AnM group was used for acupuncture and moxibustion therapy intervention, and the positive group was rendered to quick-acting sciatica pills once a day for 7 days (3 courses of treatment). The blank group, sham-operated group, and model group were not treated. The changes in thermal and mechanical pain thresholds were observed before and after the operation, and the morphological changes of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in the lumbosacral region of the rats in each group were observed by HE staining after the courses of treatment finished. The contents of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α were measured by ELISA and the expressions of NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, and NLRP3 genes were detected by RT-qPCR while the protein expressions of NOX1, NOX2, NOX4 and NLRP3 were analyzed by Western blotting.

    RESULTS: The AnM and positive group showed a significant increase in thermal and mechanical pain thresholds after treatment, while there was no significant change in the model group. As compared to the control group, the contents of IL- 1β, IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α, as well as the relative expressions of NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, and NLRP3 genes were significantly increased in the model group (P 

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