Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

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  1. Joanne S, Vythilingam I, Teoh BT, Leong CS, Tan KK, Wong ML, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2017 09;22(9):1154-1165.
    PMID: 28653334 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12918
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus with and without Wolbachia to the four dengue virus serotypes.

    METHODS: Two newly colonised colonies of Ae. albopictus from the wild were used for the study. One colony was naturally infected with Wolbachia while in the other Wolbachia was removed by tetracycline treatment. Both colonies were orally infected with dengue virus-infected fresh blood meal. Dengue virus load was measured using quantitative RT-PCR at four-time intervals in the salivary glands, midguts and ovaries.

    RESULTS: Wolbachia did not significantly affect Malaysian Ae. albopictus dengue infection or the dissemination rate for all four dengue virus serotypes. Malaysian Ae. albopictus had the highest replication kinetics for DENV-1 and the highest salivary gland and midgut infection rate for DENV-4.

    CONCLUSION: Wolbachia, which naturally exists in Malaysian Ae. albopictus, does not significantly affect dengue virus replication. Malaysian Ae. albopictus is susceptible to dengue virus infections and capable of transmitting dengue virus, especially DENV-1 and DENV-4. Removal of Wolbachia from Malaysian Ae. albopictus would not reduce their susceptibility status.

  2. Earnshaw VA, Jin H, Wickersham J, Kamarulzaman A, John J, Altice FL
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2014 Jun;19(6):672-679.
    PMID: 24666546 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12306
    OBJECTIVES: Stigma towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is strong in Malaysia. Although stigma has been understudied, it may be a barrier to treating the approximately 81 000 Malaysian PLWHA. The current study explores correlates of intentions to discriminate against PLWHA among medical and dental students, the future healthcare providers of Malaysia.
    METHODS: An online, cross-sectional survey of 1296 medical and dental students was conducted in 2012 at seven Malaysian universities; 1165 (89.9%) completed the survey and were analysed. Socio-demographic characteristics, stigma-related constructs and intentions to discriminate against PLWHA were measured. Linear mixed models were conducted, controlling for clustering by university.
    RESULTS: The final multivariate model demonstrated that students who intended to discriminate more against PLWHA were female, less advanced in their training, and studying dentistry. They further endorsed more negative attitudes towards PLWHA, internalised greater HIV-related shame, reported more HIV-related fear and disagreed more strongly that PLWHA deserve good care. The final model accounted for 38% of the variance in discrimination intent, with 10% accounted for by socio-demographic characteristics and 28% accounted for by stigma-related constructs.
    CONCLUSIONS: It is critical to reduce stigma among medical and dental students to eliminate intentions to discriminate and achieve equitable care for Malaysian PLWHA. Stigma-reduction interventions should be multipronged, addressing attitudes, internalised shame, fear and perceptions of deservingness of care.
    KEYWORDS: HIV/AIDS; Malaisie; Malasia; Malaysia; VIH/SIDA; cuidados sanitarios profesionales; discriminación; discrimination; estigma; homosexuality; professional healthcare students; stigma; stigmatisation; substance abuse; étudiants en profession de soins de santé
  3. Low GKK, Kagize J, Faull KJ, Azahar A
    PMID: 31373098 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13294
    OBJECTIVE: To review the diagnostic test accuracy and predictive value of statistical models in differentiating the severity of dengue infection.

    METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (complete), PubMed and Scopus. Eligible studies to be included in this review were cohort studies with participants confirmed by laboratory test for dengue infection and comparison among the different severity of dengue infection by using statistical models. The methodological quality of the paper was assessed by independent reviewers using QUADAS-2.

    RESULTS: Twenty-six studies published from 1994 to 2017 were included. Most diagnostic models produced an accuracy of 75% to 80% except one with 86%. Two models predicting severe dengue according to the WHO 2009 classification have 86% accuracy. Both of these logistic regression models were applied during the first three days of illness, and their sensitivity and specificity were 91-100% and 79.3-86%, respectively. Another model which evaluated the 30-day mortality of dengue infection had an accuracy of 98.5%.

    CONCLUSION: Although there are several potential predictive or diagnostic models for dengue infection, their limitations could affect their validity. It is recommended that these models be revalidated in other clinical settings and their methods be improved and standardised in future.

  4. Wong SC, Ooi MH, Abdullah AR, Wong SY, Krishnan S, Tio PH, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2008 Jan;13(1):52-5.
    PMID: 18291002 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2007.01967.x
    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important encephalitis virus in Asia, but there are few data on Malaysia. A hospital-based surveillance system for Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been in operation in Sarawak, Malaysia, for the last 10 years. JEV is endemic in Sarawak, with cases occurring throughout the year and a seasonal peak in the last quarter (one-way anova, P < 0.0001). Ninety-two per cent of 133 cases were children aged 12 years or younger; the introduction of JE vaccination in July 2001 reduced the number of JE cases (84 in the four seasons prior to vs. 49 in the six seasons after, McNemar's test, P = 0.0001). After implementation of the programme, the mean age of infected children increased from 6.3 to 8.0 years (Student's t-test, P = 0.0037), suggesting the need for a catch-up programme.
  5. Rosenberger KD, Lum L, Alexander N, Junghanss T, Wills B, Jaenisch T, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2016 Mar;21(3):445-53.
    PMID: 26752720 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12666
    OBJECTIVE: Clinical management of dengue relies on careful monitoring of fluid balance combined with judicious intravenous (IV) fluid therapy. However, in patients with significant vascular leakage, IV fluids may aggravate serosal fluid accumulation and result in respiratory distress.
    METHODS: Trained physicians followed suspected dengue cases prospectively at seven hospitals across Asia and Latin America, using a comprehensive case report form that included daily clinical assessment and detailed documentation of parenteral fluid therapy. Applying Cox regression, we evaluated risk factors for the development of shock or respiratory distress with fluid accumulation.
    RESULTS: Most confirmed dengue patients (1524/1734, 88%) never experienced dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Among those with DSS, 176/210 (84%) had fluid accumulation, and in the majority (83%), this was detectable clinically. Among all cases with clinically detectable fluid accumulation, 179/447 (40%) were diagnosed with shock or respiratory distress. The risk for respiratory distress with fluid accumulation increased significantly as the infused volume over the preceding 24 h increased (hazard ratio 1.18 per 10 ml/kg increase; P < 0.001). Longer duration of IV therapy, use of a fluid bolus in the preceding 24 h, female gender and poor nutrition also constituted independent risk factors.
    CONCLUSIONS: Shock and respiratory distress are relatively rare manifestations of dengue, but some evidence of fluid accumulation is seen in around 50% of cases. IV fluids play a crucial role in management, but they must be administered with caution. Clinically and/or radiologically detectable fluid accumulations have potential as intermediate severity endpoints for therapeutic intervention trials and/or pathogenesis studies.
    KEYWORDS: IV fluid therapy; clinical spectrum; dengue; espectro clínico; fluidothérapie IV; fuga vascular; fuite vasculaire; prospectif; prospective; prospectivo; spectre clinique; terapia IV de fluidos; vascular leakage
  6. Vythilingam I, Phetsouvanh R, Keokenchanh K, Yengmala V, Vanisaveth V, Phompida S, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2003 Jun;8(6):525-35.
    PMID: 12791058
    A longitudinal study was conducted on the prevalence of Anopheles in three malaria endemic villages in Sekong province, in the southern region of Lao PDR, from August 2000 to October 2001. All night, human landing collections took place in August and October 2000 and April and October 2001, and blood smears were taken for malaria parasites during the same period. Mosquitoes were tested for sporozoite antigen using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In August 2000 (wet season) and April 2001 (dry season) the ovaries of the mosquitoes were examined for parity. A total of 16 species of Anopheles were caught in the study sites of which An. dirus A, An. maculatus sl and An. jeyporiensis were positive for sporozoites. The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) ranged from 0.06 to 0.25. There was a good correlation between EIR and vectorial capacity in the wet season, especially in Pai Mai where the prevalence of malaria was also high during the wet seasons (11.8 and 10.53). An. dirus A showed ambivalence in their choice of feeding as approximately 50% attacked man indoors and an equal proportion outdoors. An dirus A was the main vector in Pai Mai. The parous rate did not significantly differ between the wet and dry season, although it was higher in the dry season. In Takaio the parasite prevalence ranged from 8.7% (dry season) to 37.1% (wet season) and An. jeyporiensis was the vector, and the risk of infection was 0.85 in the dry season while 0.99 in the wet season. In Toumgno An. maculatus sl was the vector and infection was found only in August and October 2000. However, malaria prevalence ranged from 9.69 to 20.4% and was equally high in the dry season. Cattle were also present close to the houses in all the villages and this might be a contributory factor in the prevalence of malaria.
  7. Rahmah N, Anuar AK, Ariff RH, Zurainee MN, A'shikin AN, Fadzillah A, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1998 Mar;3(3):184-8.
    PMID: 9593356
    To evaluate the usefulness of antifilarial IgG4 antibody assay in detecting B. malayi infection in a filaria endemic area in Malaysia.
  8. Al-Darraji HA, Altice FL, Kamarulzaman A
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2016 Aug;21(8):1049-1058.
    PMID: 27197601 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12726
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of previously undiagnosed active tuberculosis (TB) cases among prisoners in Malaysia's largest prison using an intensified TB case-finding strategy.

    METHODS: From October 2012 to May 2013, prisoners housed in two distinct units (HIV-negative and HIV-positive) were approached to participate in the TB screening study. Consenting prisoners submitted two sputum samples that were examined using GeneXpert MTB/RIF, smear microscopy and liquid culture. Socio-demographic and clinical information was collected and correlates of active TB, defined as having either a positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF or culture results, were assessed using regression analyses.

    RESULTS: Among the total of 559 prisoners, 442 (79.1%) had complete data; 28.7% were HIV-infected, 80.8% were men and the average age was 36.4 (SD 9.8) years. Overall, 34 (7.7%) had previously undiagnosed active TB, of whom 64.7% were unable to complete their TB treatment in prison due to insufficient time (<6 months) remaining in prison. Previously undiagnosed active TB was independently associated with older age groups (AOR 11.44 and 6.06 for age ≥ 50 and age 40-49 years, respectively) and with higher levels of immunosuppression (CD4 < 200 cells/ml) in HIV-infected prisoners (AOR 3.07, 95% CI 1.03-9.17).

    CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of previously undiagnosed active TB in this prison highlights the inadequate performance of internationally recommended case-finding strategies and suggests that passive case-finding policies should be abandoned, especially in prison settings where HIV infection is prevalent. Moreover, partnerships between criminal justice and public health treatment systems are crucial to continue TB treatment after release.

  9. Vythilingam I, Tan SB, Krishnasamy M
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2002 Jun;7(6):539-40.
    PMID: 12031077
    The susceptibility of Culex sitiens to Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus was examined in the laboratory. Cx. sitiens became infected with JE virus on day 8 and subsequently it is able to transmit the virus when it takes a blood meal. Both parts of the experiment were carried out using artificial membrane feeding technique.
  10. Bandyopadhyay S, Lum LC, Kroeger A
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2006 Aug;11(8):1238-55.
    PMID: 16903887 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01678.x
    BACKGROUND: The current World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of dengue includes two distinct entities: dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome; it is largely based on pediatric cases in Southeast Asia. Dengue has extended to different tropical areas and older age groups. Variations from the original description of dengue manifestations are being reported.
    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the experience of clinicians in using the dengue case classification and identify challenges in applying the criteria in routine clinical practice.
    METHOD: Systematic literature review of post-1975 English-language publications on dengue classification.
    RESULTS: Thirty-seven papers were reviewed. Several studies had strictly applied all four WHO criteria in DHF cases; however, most clinicians reported difficulties in meeting all four criteria and used a modified classification. The positive tourniquet test representing the minimum requirement of a haemorrhagic manifestation did not distinguish between DHF and DF. In cases of DHF thrombocytopenia was observed in 8.6-96%, plasma leakage in 6-95% and haemorrhagic manifestations in 22-93%. The low sensitivity of classifying DHF could be due to failure to repeat the tests or physical examinations at the appropriate time, early intravenous fluid therapy, and lack of adequate resources in an epidemic situation and perhaps a considerable overlap of clinical manifestations in the different dengue entities.
    CONCLUSION: A prospective multi-centre study across dengue endemic regions, age groups and the health care system is required which describes the clinical presentation of dengue including simple laboratory parameters in order to review and if necessary modify the current dengue classification.
  11. Tengku-Idris TIN, Fong MY, Lau YL
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2018 12;23(12):1374-1383.
    PMID: 30286271 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13160
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the seroprevalence of Sarcocystosis in the local communities of Pangkor and Tioman islands, Malaysia, by using antigenic recombinant surface antigens 2 and 3 from Sarcocystis falcatula (rSfSAG2 and rSfSAG3) as the target proteins via Western blot and ELISA assays.

    METHODS: SfSAG2 and SfSAG3 genes were isolated from S. falcatula and expressed in Escherichia coli expression system. A total of 348 serum samples [volunteers from both islands (n = 100), non-Sarcocystis parasitic infections patients (n = 50) and healthy donors (n = 100)] were collected and tested with purified SfSAGs in Western blot and ELISA assays to measure the seroprevalence of human sarcocystosis.

    RESULTS: None of the sera in this study reacted with rSfSAG2 by Western blot and ELISA. For rSfSAG3, relatively high prevalence of sarcocystosis was observed in Tioman Island (75.5%) than in Pangkor Island (34%) by Western blot. In ELISA, the different prevalence rate was observed between Tioman Island (43.8%) and Pangkor Island (37%). The prevalence rate in other parasitic infections (amoebiasis, cysticercosis, filariasis, malaria, toxocariasis and toxoplasmosis) was 30% by Western blot and 26% by ELISA. Only 8% (by Western blot) and 10% (by ELISA) of healthy donors showed reactivity towards rSfSAG3.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first study reporting a seroprevalence of sarcocystosis in Pangkor and Tioman Islands, Malaysia. The combination of Western blot and ELISA is suitable to be used for serodiagnosis of sarcocystosis. With further evaluations, SfSAG3 can potentially be used to confirm infection, asymptomatic screening, surveillance and epidemiological studies.

  12. Lee BW
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1998 Nov;3(11):886-90.
    PMID: 9855401
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) predominantly affects children in temperate countries, with near-universal seroconversion occurring by late childhood. However, in tropical regions, VZV infection is common in adolescents and adults. This review identifies age-related VZV seroprevalence patterns in a number of Asian countries which indicate that seroconversion in tropical countries occurs at a later age than in temperate countries. Seasonal and regional variations in acute disease within some Asian countries suggest that temperate climates might favour transmission of the varicella virus, with incidence peaking during cooler months and in cooler, more temperate regions. VZV infection is often more severe in adults than in children, suggesting that tropical countries may be at risk of greater morbidity and mortality as a result of later-age seroconversion. Susceptibility of pregnant women and their infants, and of people infected with HIV/AIDS is also cause for concern. Vaccination may be beneficial in reducing the impact of VZV in Asian populations.
  13. Samsudin S, Sakinah SNS, Malina O, Norliza BA, Noh MA, Fairuz A, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2018 03;23(3):327-333.
    PMID: 29356240 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13033
    OBJECTIVE: The high prevalence of leptospirosis in humans is of great public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies and distribution of serovars, and to assess the usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a screening method for leptospiral antibodies in a high-risk healthy community.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 231 market workers and food handlers in wet markets and food premises from two localities in central Malaysia. Respondents' background information was obtained using a questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for leptospiral antibodies using ELISA and microscopic agglutination test (MAT).

    RESULTS: Seroprevalence of leptospirosis among healthy workers was 46.3%. Detection of seropositivity was higher by MAT (46%) than ELISA (15%). We observed high seropositivity among local workers (49%), food handlers (49.5%), females (60.8%) and those aged 34 years and older (46.3%). Local strain LEP175 was the predominant serovar, followed by WHO strain Patoc.

    CONCLUSION: Overall seroprevalence among healthy food handlers and market workers was high in this study. The workplace places susceptible individuals at risk of leptospirosis.

  14. Zarizal S, Yeo CC, Faizal GM, Chew CH, Zakaria ZA, Jamil Al-Obaidi MM, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2018 08;23(8):905-913.
    PMID: 29873865 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13090
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to profile the antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance and virulence genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA nasal carriage, by means of genotypic analyses, in students of a tertiary institution in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 370 agricultural biotechnology students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin in Besut, Terengganu, were enrolled in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were evaluated by standard methods. PCR detection of resistance and virulence genes was performed on S. aureus that were methicillin-resistant, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB )-positive phenotype and/or positive for the leukocidin (pvl) gene followed by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), staphylococcal protein A (spa) and accessory gene regulator (agr) typing.

    RESULTS: One hundred and nineteen of 370 students carried S. aureus (32%); 18 of the isolates were MRSA (15%). Erythromycin resistance was detected in 20% (24/119) of which 15% (18/119) were MRSA and 5% (6/119) MSSA. Among the 24 erythromycin-resistant isolates, D-test was positive in 29% (7/24) displaying inducible MLSB , whereas the remaining 71% (17/24) showed constitutive MLSB phenotypes. Nine (7.6%) of 119 isolates were pvl positive: 44% MRSA (4/9) and 56% MSSA (5/9). Staphylococcal surface protein sasX gene was present in 92% of MRSA and 8% of MSSA isolates. The majority of MRSA isolates were agr type I (15/18; 83%). Five spa types identified with spa t037 were predominant, followed by spa types (t304 and t8696) as newly reported Malaysian MRSA in a community setting.

    CONCLUSION: The presence of MRSA with SCCmec of hospital-associated features and globally recognised spa types in community setting is worrisome. Furthermore, the presence of MLSB strains among multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. aureus with sasX as well as pvl-positive isolates highlights the potential risk of a community setting in facilitating the dissemination of both virulence and resistance determinants.

  15. Vadivelu J, Puthucheary SD, Drasar BS, Dance DA, Pitt TL
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1998 Jul;3(7):518-21.
    PMID: 9705184
    The constancy of strain genotypes of multiple isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei from 13 patients with melioidosis was examined by BamHI ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of XbaI digests of DNA. Seven of 8 patients with single episodes of melioidosis each yielded genetically identical isolates and only one of five patients with recurrent episodes was infected with a new strain clearly distinct from the original primary strain. Variation was observed in PFGE patterns of primary and relapse isolates of another patient but this was insufficient to define genetically distinct strains. We conclude that most patients with single or multiple episodes of melioidosis retain a single strain.
  16. Jamail M, Andrew K, Junaidi D, Krishnan AK, Faizal M, Rahmah N
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2005 Jan;10(1):99-104.
    PMID: 15655019
    We conducted a field study of a rapid test (Brugia Rapid) for detection of Brugia malayi infection to validate its sensitivity and specificity under operational conditions. Seven districts in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia, which are endemic for brugian filariasis, were used to determine the test sensitivity. Determination of specificity was performed in another state in Malaysia (Bachok, Kelantan) which is non-endemic for filariasis but endemic for soil-transmitted helminths. In Sarawak both the rapid test and thick blood smear preparation were performed in the field. The rapid test was interpreted on site, whereas blood smears were taken to the district health centres for staining and microscopic examination. Sensitivity of Brugia Rapid dipstick as compared with microscopy of thick blood smears was 87% (20/23; 95% CI: 66.4-97.2) whereas the specificity was 100% (512/512). The lower sensitivity of the test in the field than in laboratory evaluations (> or =95%), was probably due to the small number of microfilaraemic individuals, in addition to difficulties in performing the test in remote villages by field personnel. The overall prevalence of brugian filariasis as determined by the dipstick is 9.4% (95% CI: 8.2-0.5) while that determined by microscopy is 0.90% (95% CI: 0.5-1.3) thus the dipstick detected about 10 times more cases than microscopy. Equal percentages of adults and children were found to be positive by the dipstick whereas microscopy showed that the number of infected children was seven times less than infected adults. The rapid dipstick test was useful as a diagnostic tool for mapping and certification phases of the lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in B. malayi-endemic areas.
  17. Hamidah A, Sham Marina M, Tamil AM, Loh CK, Zarina LA, Jamal R, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2014 Oct;19(10):1177-84.
    PMID: 25047756 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12358
    To determine the behavioural impact of chemotherapy in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treated with chemotherapy only and to identify treatment-related or sociodemography-related factors that might be associated with behavioural outcome.
  18. Rahmah N, Lim BH, Azian H, Ramelah TS, Rohana AR
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2003 Feb;8(2):158-63.
    PMID: 12581442
    Brugian filariasis infects 13 million people in Asia. The routine prevalence survey method using night thick blood smear is not sensitive enough to reflect the actual infection prevalence. In 1997-2001, only three microfilaraemic cases (of 5601 individuals screened; 0.05%) were reported in Pasir Mas, a district in Kelantan (Malaysia), which shares a border with Thailand. We therefore investigated the infection prevalence in this district by employing a sensitive and specific serological assay (Brugia-Elisa). This test is based on detection of specific IgG4 antibody against a Brugia malayi recombinant antigen. A total of 5138 children, aged 7-12 years, from 16 primary schools, were tested. Eighteen pupils in eight schools, located in five subdistricts, tested positive, giving an overall prevalence rate of 0.35%. Infection in these children is significant as they represent more recent cases. These subdistricts should be included in the national filariasis elimination programme.
  19. Haresh K, Suresh K, Khairul Anus A, Saminathan S
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1999 Apr;4(4):274-7.
    PMID: 10357863
    Isolates of Blastocystis hominis from infected immigrant workers from Indonesia, Bangladesh and infected individuals from Singapore and Malaysia were assessed for growth pattern and degree of resistance to different concentrations of metronidazole. Viability of the cells was assessed using eosin-brillian cresyl blue which stained viable cells green and nonviable cells red. The Bangladeshi and Singaporean isolates were nonviable even at the lowest concentration of 0.01 mg/ml, whereas 40% of the initial inoculum of parasites from the Indonesian isolate at day one were still viable in cultures with 1.0 mg/ml metronidazole. The study shows that isolates of B. hominis of different geographical origin have different levels of resistance to metronidazole. The search for more effective drugs to eliminate th parasite appears inevitable, especially since surviving parasites from metronidazole cultures show greater ability to multiply in subcultures than controls.
  20. Rahmah N, Shenoy RK, Nutman TB, Weiss N, Gilmour K, Maizels RM, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2003 Oct;8(10):895-900.
    PMID: 14516300
    A multicentre evaluation of the Brugia Rapid dipstick test was performed using 1263 serum samples in four international laboratories, i.e. T.D. Medical College (TDMC, India), National Institutes of Health (NIH, USA), Swiss Tropical Institute (STI, Switzerland) and Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC, Netherlands). In comparison with microscopy, the dipstick demonstrated sensitivities of 97.2% (70 of 72) at TDMC, 91.6% (175 of 191) at LUMC and 100% (six of six) at STI. Sera of chronic patients showed a positivity rate of 11.3% (19 of 168) and 61.2% (71of 116) at TDMC and LUMC, respectively. All 266 sera of non-endemic normals from STI, NIH and LUMC tested negative with the dipstick. At LUMC, sera of 'endemic normals' (amicrofilaraemics with no clinical disease) from an area with approximately 35% microfilaria positivity showed 60.8% positive results (31 of 51), thus demonstrating the likelihood of many cryptic infections occurring in this population. Specificities of the test with Onchocerca volvulus sera were 98.8% (80 of 81) and 100% (10 of 10) at the NIH and STI, respectively; while specificity with Loa loa sera at the NIH was 84.6% (44 of 52). At the STI, the dipstick test also demonstrated 100% specificity when tested with 75 sera from various protozoan and helminthic infections.
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