Displaying all 6 publications

  1. Alamaary MS, Haron AW, Hiew MWH, Ali M
    Vet Med Sci, 2020 11;6(4):666-672.
    PMID: 32602662 DOI: 10.1002/vms3.315
    Present study aimed to investigate the effect of adding antioxidants, cysteine and ascorbic acid on the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) enzymes of post-thawed stallion sperm. Ten ejaculates were collected each from four healthy stallions and cryopreserved using HF-20 freezing extender containing either 0 mg/ml cysteine or ascorbic acid, 0.5 mg/ml cysteine and 0.5 mg/ml ascorbic acid. All samples in freezing extender containing cysteine or ascorbic acid or none of them were assessed for sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity, morphology and enzymes concentration. The ALP, LDH and GGT were significantly higher in 0-group compared with cysteine and ascorbic acid groups. The sperm motility of frozen-thawed semen with 0-group was significantly better compared with cysteine and ascorbic acid groups. The variation on viability, sperm membrane integrity and morphology were insignificant between all treated groups. Therefore, these enzymes were reduced when using antioxidants in the freezing extender. Results of the present study suggest that concentration of ALP, LDH and GGT enzymes could be used as parameters for prediction of frozen-thawed stallion semen.
  2. Mohd Rajdi NZI, Mohamad MA, Tan LP, Choong SS, Reduan MFH, Hamdan RH, et al.
    Vet Med Sci, 2021 Mar;7(2):303-309.
    PMID: 33161648 DOI: 10.1002/vms3.379
    This is the first case report for the positive Trypanosoma evansi incident in Kelantan, Malaysia confirmed through protozoa detection in a Siam B mare. The horse was presented with complaints of lethargy and inappetence and it collapsed on the day of visit. Normal saline and dextrose solution were administered intravenously, while multivitamins and nerve supplements were given intramuscularly to stabilise the horse before further treatment. Haematological findings showed normocytic hypochromic anaemia and are suggestive of regenerative anaemia. Thin blood smear and examination revealed the presence of Trypanosoma sp., and it was confirmed as T. evansi through molecular identification. The horse was found dead 2 days after and post-mortem was conducted. Histopathology revealed that the horse had developed a neurological form of the disease, besides the detection of the protozoa in heart, spleen and kidney tissue. This first positive Surra case in Kelantan, Malaysia, that is bordering Thailand confirms the increasing concern of transboundary infections. In conclusion, Surra is a potential emerging disease and should be considered as differential diagnosis in horses with pale mucous membrane. This condition is particularly imperative in horses found in these regions as Surra is endemic.
  3. Yong TSM, Panting AJ, Juatan N, Perialathan K, Ahmad M, Ahmad Sanusi NH, et al.
    Vet Med Sci, 2021 Sep;7(5):1558-1563.
    PMID: 34137200 DOI: 10.1002/vms3.547
    BACKGROUND: Zoonoses among household pets are recognized as disease and infections transmitted between animals and humans. World Health Organization-estimated zoonotic diseases have contributed about one billion cases of illness and millions of mortalities every year. Despite the emerging and re-emerging zoonotic disease, most pet owners are unaware of the risks posed by their pets. As there are a lack of studies assessing infections at home, this study aimed to develop and validate a cognitive, affective and behaviour questionnaire (CAB-ZDQ) to assess household pets' zoonotic diseases.

    METHODS: This paper covers detailed explanation on the various developmental and validation process stages of the CAB zoonotic disease questionnaire development. The development phase comprised thorough literature search, focus group discussion, expert panel assessment and review. The validation process included pre-test and pilot testing, data analysis of results, analysis of internal consistency and the development of the final version of the questionnaire. Participants selected represented main ethnicities, gender, levels of education and population type (urban/rural) in the Klang Valley area.

    RESULTS: The items in the questionnaire has undergone various changes in structurally and linguistically. The final refined CAB questionnaire consists of 14 items cognitive (no items removed at pilot phase), nine items affective (one item removed at pilot phase) and five items behaviour (no items removed from pre-test phase), respectively. Reliability analysis revealed Cronbach's alpha values were 0.700 (cognitive) and 0.606 (affective) which indicated good internal consistency after item reduction.

    CONCLUSIONS: The developed questionnaire has proved its feasibility in assessing the Malaysian general population cognitive, affective and behavior regarding the household pets' zoonotic diseases.

  4. Perison PWD, Amran NS, Adrus M, Anwarali Khan FA
    Vet Med Sci, 2022 Sep;8(5):2059-2066.
    PMID: 35636429 DOI: 10.1002/vms3.849
    BACKGROUND: Rodent species are well known for their potential as hosts and reservoirs for various zoonotic diseases. Studies on blood parasite infection in small mammals focused on urban cities in Peninsular Malaysia and have been conducted over the years. In contrast, there are information gaps related to molecular detection of blood parasites in urban areas of Sarawak that are associated with veterinary importance and zoonotic spillover potential. Increasing prevalence and transmission of blood parasite diseases is the most crucial public health issue, particularly in developing urban areas of Sarawak. Therefore, molecular identification studies were performed to determine and identify the blood parasites infecting rodents.

    METHODS: A total of 40 rodent blood samples were analysed for blood parasite infection and a combined approach using polymerase chain reaction-based technique, and traditional microscopic examination (blood smear test) was conducted. 18s rRNA (Plasmodium spp.) and cytochrome b (Hepatocystis spp.) gene marker were used to identify the blood parasites.

    RESULTS: Note that 67.5% (n = 27) blood samples were tested negative for blood parasites, while 32.5% (n = 13) blood samples collected were infected with at least one protozoan parasite. Out of 13 samples, 69.2% (n = 9) were detected with Hepatocystis sp., while 15.4% (n = 2) were positive with Hepatozoon ophisauri. Two individuals had multiple infections from both species. No Plasmodium spp. have been detected throughout this study using universal primer (targeted Plasmodium spp.); however, different parasite species which were H. ophisauri were detected.

    CONCLUSION: Although there is no evidence of human infection from H. ophisauri and Hepatocystis sp. detected from the study, the data show the host species are heavily infected, and the information is essential for future prevention of zoonotic outbreaks and surveillance programmes. Therefore, it is suggested that the surveillance programmes should be incorporated in targeted areas with a high risk of disease emergence.

  5. Habeebur-Rahman SP, Noni V, Khan FAA, Tan CS
    Vet Med Sci, 2023 Nov;9(6):2634-2641.
    PMID: 37658663 DOI: 10.1002/vms3.1251
    BACKGROUND: Sarawak has one of the highest diversity of fruit bats species (family Pteropodidae) in Malaysia, with 19 species described. Most coronavirus (CoV) studies have mainly focused on insectivorous bats, resulting in a lack of information on CoVs present in frugivorous bats. In addition, bat CoV surveillance activities are lacking in Malaysia.

    OBJECTIVES: Our study focuses on determining the presence of bat CoVs in dusky fruit bat (Penthetor lucasi).

    METHODS: Guano samples belonging to P. lucasi were collected from Wind Cave Nature Reserve. The samples were screened for the presence of CoVs using validated hemi-nested consensus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase consensus primers.

    RESULTS: The bat CoV positivity rate was 38.5% (n = 15/39), with the viruses belonging to two subgenera: Alphacoronavirus (α-CoV) and Betacoronavirus (β-CoV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CoVs from 14 samples of P. lucasi belong to the genus α-CoV and may represent previously described genetic lineages in insectivorous bats in Wind Cave. However, only one sample of P. lucasi was detected with β-CoV which is closely related to subgenus Nobecovirus, which is commonly seen in frugivorous bats.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first available data on CoVs circulating in P. lucasi.

  6. Bhuiyan MSA, Sarker S, Amin Z, Rodrigues KF, Bakar AMSA, Saallah S, et al.
    Vet Med Sci, 2023 Dec 27.
    PMID: 38151844 DOI: 10.1002/vms3.1153
    BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is classified as a highly contagious viral agent that causes acute respiratory, reproductive and renal system pathology in affected poultry farms. Molecular and serological investigations are crucial for the accurate diagnosis and management of IBV.

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of IBV and to characterise the circulating IBV in poultry farms in Sabah Province, Malaysia.

    METHODS: To determine IBV antibodies, a total of 138 blood samples and 50 organ samples were collected from 10 commercial broiler flocks in 3 different farms by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (IDEXX Kit) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by sequencing.

    RESULTS: A total of 94.2% (130/138) of the samples were seropositive for IBV in the vaccinated flock, and 38% (52/138) of the birds was the IBV titre for infection. The selected seropositive samples for IBV were confirmed by RT-PCR, with 22% (11/50) being IBV positive amplified and sequenced by targeted highly conserved partial nucleocapsid (N) genes. Subsequently, phylogenetic analysis constructed using amplified sequences again exposed the presence of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Chinese QX variants circulating in poultry farms in Sabah, Malaysia.

    CONCLUSIONS: The unexpectedly increasing mean titres in serology indicated that post infection of IBV and highly prevalent IBV in selected farms in this study. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of multiple IBV variants circulating in Malaysian chicken farms in Sabah, which further monitoring of genetic variation are needed to better understand the genetic diversity.

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