In this study, MgO nanoparticles are applied to control the initial burst release by modification of matrix structure, thereby affecting the release mechanism. The effects of MgO nanofiller loading on the in vitro release of a model drug are investigated. Surface topography and release kinetics of hydrogel nanocomposites are also studied in order to have better insight into the release mechanism. It was found that the incorporation of MgO nanofillers can significantly decrease the initial burst release. The effect of genipin (GN) on burst release was also compared with MgO nanoparticles, and it was found that the impact of MgO on burst release reduction is more obvious than GN; however, GN cross-linking caused greater final release compared to blanks and nanocomposites. To confirm the capability of nanocomposite hydrogels to reduce burst release, the release of β-carotene in Simulated Gastric Fluid and Simulated Intestinal Fluid was also carried out. Thus, the application of MgO nanoparticles seems to be a promising strategy to control burst release.
In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea.
Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of beta-glucanase produced by transformed Lactobacillus strains on the intestinal characteristics and feed passage rate of broiler chickens fed barley-based diets. Supplementation of transformed Lactobacillus strains to the diet of chickens significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the intestinal fluid viscosity by 21 to 46% compared with chickens fed an unsupplemented diet or a diet supplemented with parental Lactobacillus strains. The relative weights of pancreas, liver, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and colon were reduced (P < 0.05) by 6 to 27%, and the relative length of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca was reduced (P < 0.05) by 8 to 15%. Histological examination of the intestinal tissues showed that the jejunal villus height of chickens fed a diet supplemented with transformed Lactobacillus strains was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of chickens fed other dietary treatments. The transformed Lactobacillus strains were found to reduce (P < 0.05) the time of feed passage rate by 2.2 h. Supplementation of transformed Lactobacillus strains to the diet improved the intestinal characteristics and feed, passage rate of the chickens.