Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 101 in total

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  1. Fariza Fadzil, Khadijah Shamsuddin, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Shuhaila Ahmad, Noor Shaheeran Abdul Hayi, Azah Abdul Samad, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):637-642.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: In maternal healthcare, pre-pregnancy weight is used to predict pregnancy outcomes. Since no recorded data on pre-pregnancy weight, perceived weight is used alternatively. This study examines the relationship between perceived and actual weight among non-pregnant urban Malaysian women of childbearing age and identifies differences in perceived and actual weight by selected socio-demographic characteristics.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2013 among urban Malaysian women attending public health clinics in the Klang Valley. Information on height, perceived current weight and time when their weight was last taken were obtained and actual weight was the average of two measurements (TANITA-HD-323-digital-scale). Socio-demographic data collected were age, ethnicity, education level, marital and employment status and total household income.
    Results: Mean age of 371 women in this study was 28.81±5.65, 82.2% were Malays, 62.8% had tertiary education, over 75% were married and employed, with more than half from middle-income households. Overall, the mean perceived and actual weight was 59.29±11.59 and 59.20±11.90 respectively. Pearson‟s Correlation test showed a very strong positive correlation between perceived and actual weight (r=0.957;p<0.0001), ranging between 0.852 to 0.994 among subgroups; 258 (69.5%) perceived their weight accurately (±2.0 kg of actual weight), 49 (13.2%) under and 64 (17.3%) overestimated their weight.Main outliers were among younger women, Malays, tertiary educated, employed, middle-income and had weight last measured a month or more ago.
    Conclusion: Strong correlation between perceived and actual weight among women in this study reassured weight perception can be used more confidently in patients‟ history taking and future research among urban Malaysian women using public health services.
  2. Hasimah Ismail, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Tahir Aris, Rashidah Ambak, Mohammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff, Lim, Kuang Kuay, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):677-684.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide
    and many of these affected individuals remain unidentified. Undiagnosed
    T2DM may impose substantial public health implications because these
    individuals remain untreated and at risk for complications. The objective of
    this study was to determine the national prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM
    and to identify the associated risk factors.

    Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted involving 17,783
    respondents. Two-stage stratified sampling design was used to select a
    representative sample of the Malaysian adult population. Structured
    validated questionnaires with face to face interviews were used to obtain
    data. Respondents, who claimed that they were not having diabetes, were
    then asked to perform a fasting blood glucose finger-prick test by Accutrend
    GC machine.

    Results The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was 8.9% (n=1587). The highest
    percentage of undiagnosed T2DM was found among males (10.2%), 55-59
    years old (13.4%), highest education attainers of primary school (11.1%),
    Indians (10.3%), married (10.3%), working (8.9%) and living in the urban
    areas (9.2%). Multivariate analyses showed that factors associated with
    undiagnosed T2DM were gender, age group, ethnicity, marital status, obesity
    and hypertension.

    Conclusion This study found an increasing trend of undiagnosed T2DM in Malaysia
    compared to 2006. This finding is alarming as risk factors associated with
    undiagnosed diabetes were related to most of the socio-demographic factors
    studied. Therefore, early diabetic screening is crucial especially among adults
    aged 30 and above to prevent more serious complications of this disease.
  3. Sanaz Aazami, Khadijah Shamsuddin, Syaqirah Akmal
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):606-612.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Family satisfaction is referred to the extent in which family members feel
    happy and fulfilled with each other. However, there has been lack of
    evidences on the family satisfaction scale within the Malaysian context.
    Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess validity of the Malay version of
    the Olson’s Family Satisfaction Scale. This is to allow Malaysian researchers
    to bring family satisfaction in line with the different field of studies.

    Methods This study was conducted among 567 Malaysian working women. Data were
    collected using self-administrated questionnaires. This study conducted
    exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity and internal
    consistency using Cronbach’s alpha.

    Results The findings of this study support the uni-dimensionality of the Malay
    version of the family satisfaction scale. The 10 items of the scale account for
    68.1% of the total variance and the un-rotated factor loadings ranged from
    0.76 to 0.87. Confirmatory factor analysis was run and supported the
    structure of family satisfaction scale. The results of confirmatory factor
    analysis using AMOS 21 in the current study reported the following indices:
    RMSEA= 0.06, CFI= 0.94, NFI= 0.94, TLI= 0.93. The convergent validity
    (average variance extracted= 0.65) and the internal consistency (Cronbach’s
    alpha= 0.94) of this construct were adequately supported.

    Conclusions The findings support the factor structure, convergent validity and the internal
    consistency of the examined construct. Therefore, Malay version of the
    family satisfaction scale is a valid and reliable instrument among Malaysian
    working women.
  4. Lim, Kuang Kuay, Jambai Endu, Chan, Ying Ying, Teh, Chien Huey, Hasimah Ismail, Lim, Kuang Hock, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):631-636.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Following the reveal of borderline iodine sufficiency among the Sarawakians
    from the 2008 National Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs) survey, a
    mandatory universal salt iodization (USI) was implemented in Sarawak
    thereafter. This study aimed to determine the current status of USI in
    Sarawak after a 3-year implementation of USI from 2008 to 2011.

    Methods The IDD survey was conducted between Jun 2011 to July 2011 involving six
    districts in Sarawak (Sarikei, Mukah, Kapit, Sibu, Bintulu and Miri). The
    schools were selected via multistage proportionate-to-population size
    sampling technique and the children were randomly selected via systematic
    sampling. A total of 19 schools and 661 children were recruited into the
    survey. Thyroid size was determined by palpation and was and graded
    according to the classification of the World Health Organization (grade 0-2).
    The iodine excretion level in spot morning urine was measured using inhouse
    microplate method. The urinary iodine concentration (UIC) values
    were compared by Kruskal-Wallis test and Chi-square tests were used to
    compare categorical variables.

    Results A total of 610 school children were participated in the study (92.3%). The
    TGR of grade 1 and 2 was found to be 0.3% (n = 2). Overall the median UIC
    level was 154.2 (IQR, 92.7 - 229.8) μg/L, with the highest median UIC been
    observed in Sarikei [178.0 (IQR, 117.6 - 308.9) μg/L], followed by Mukah
    [174.8 (IQR, 99.0 - 224.3) μg/L)], Miri [158.6 (IQR, 92.3 - 235.4) μg/L],
    Sibu [147.0 (IQR, 89.8 - 221.4) μg/L], Bintulu [142.3 (IQR, 52.8 - 245.1)
    μg/L] and Kapit [131.0 (IQR, 88.6 - 201.9) μg/L]. One in every ten child was
    of iodine deficient (UIC < 50μg/L) while a third of the child (32%) were of
    adequate level of UIC.

    Conclusion The present findings indicate that the mandatory USI successfully improves
    the iodine level of children in Sarawak. However, regular and proper
    monitoring of the UIC level in the communities is needed to prevent
    excessive iodine intake.
  5. Norfazillah Ab Manan, Rozita Hod, Hanizah Mohd Yusoff, Mazrura Sahani, Rosnah Ismail, Wan Rozita Wan Mahiyuddin
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):707-712.
    MyJurnal
    Air pollution has been widely known to have an influence on health of the general population.
    Air pollution can result from natural causes, human activities and transboundary air pollution.
    Weather and climate play crucial role in determining the pattern of air quality. In recent years,
    air pollution and recurrent episodes of haze has become a major concern in Malaysia.
    Surveillance data on concentrations of main air pollutants such as carbon dioxide, (CO2),
    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM10)
    were found to be higher during the haze days and this may have an impact on health of the
    community as reflected by an increase in hospital admissions particularly the respiratory and
    cardiovascular diseases.
  6. Nor Azian Mohd Zaki, Norhafizah Sahril, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Muhammad Hasnan Ahmad, Azli Baharudin, Noor Safiza Mohd Nor
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):670-676.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Physical activity assessment in children is the first step in assessing the
    relationship between activity and health, as well as the determinants of
    childhood physical activity and changes in activity level.Physical Activity
    Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) is self- administered
    questionnaire to assess physical activity among older children. The objective
    of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of Physical Activity
    Questionnaire for Older Children in Malay language PAQ-C (M).

    Methods The validation study was done among 73 students aged 10 to 17 years old.
    The PAQ-C was translated into Malay language using forward and backward
    translation. The evaluation of the psychometric properties included internal
    consistency, test-retest reliability and criterion validity. Reliability of PAQ-C
    (M) was determined using Cronbach alpha and intra-class correlation
    coefficient (ICC). The PAQ-C (M) was administered twice in one week
    interval to assess test-retest reliability. Criterion validity was assessed
    between PAQ-C (M) and 3 Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR).

    Results The internal consistency of PAQ-C (M) assessment calculated in this study
    was α = 0.75 and α = 0.77 for assessments one and two, respectively. The
    ICC between individual items of PAQ-C (M) was 0.59 to 0.91, indicating
    moderate to good correlation. The Spearmen correlation coefficient between
    PAQ-C (M) and 3DPARwas acceptable (r=0.60, p
  7. Lim, Kuang Kuay, Chan, Ying Ying, Ahmad Ali Zainuddin, Teh, Chien Huey, Hasimah Ismail, Lim, Kuang Hock, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):419-424.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), is one of the most important micronutrient
    deficiencies which has multiple adverse effects on growth and development.
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of IDD among school
    children and to elucidate the distribution of iodized salt at household level in
    Sarawak, East Malaysia.

    Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among school children aged 8 to 10
    years in 2008. A multi-stage probability proportionate to population size
    (PPS) cluster sampling method was used to obtain a representative state
    sample of 1200 school children. Spot urine samples were collected for the
    determination of urinary iodine concentration while the iodine content in salt
    was determined using field rapid test kits. The thyroid status was determined
    by palpation.

    Results Response rate was 92.0% (n=1104/1200). The prevalence of goitre among
    school children in Sarawak was 2.9% (5.2% in urban, 0.7% in rural). The
    median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among the school children was
    102.1 μg/L (IQR, 62.3-146.5 μg/L). Urban children had significantly higher
    median UIC of 109.3 μg/L (IQR, 72.4-159.0 μg/L) than their rural
    counterparts [91.9 μg/L (IQR, 55.7-140.2 μg/L)]. The salt samples tested by
    rapid test kit (RTK) showed only 46.0% of household salt contained iodine.

    Conclusions The present study revealed that the population in Sarawak were of borderline
    iodine sufficient with mild IDD seen in rural areas. Hence, the state IDD
    control programmes need to encourage and advocate the consumption of
    iodized salt in order to eliminate IDD-related health problems in Sarawak.
  8. William Cairns Steward Smith
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):425-430.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are a major component of non-communicable
    diseases and include coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular
    disease. Public health strategies to address cardiovascular disease require
    three elements: surveillance, health promotion, and individual health care.

    Methods Surveillance includes monitoring of mortality and morbidity as well as
    surveys to monitor risk factors levels in the community. Data on mortality
    from cardiovascular diseases are readily available and analysed by age and
    sex specific rates looking are secular trends, geographical and ethnical group
    variations and international comparisons. However many deaths from
    cardiovascular disease occur suddenly and the cause of death may be
    registered without autopsy or any other validation. Cardiovascular morbidity
    information is more difficult to collate and interpret as it is closely related to
    availability and access to health care. Periodic surveys of cardiovascular risk
    factors are essential in monitoring the underlying trends in blood pressure,
    smoking, cholesterol, obesity, and diabetes as they predict future trends, and
    support planning for prevention and healthcare.

    Results Prevention and health promotion activities are informed by the levels and
    trends in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. There has been debate
    about population health promotion and individual health care strategies, but
    both are necessary. Cigarette smoking, nutrition and physical exercise are the
    main behaviours to be addressed but these are complex and require
    multifaceted approaches. Education alone is insufficient to change health
    behaviours and health promotion needs to look to changing attitudes.
    Legislation, taxation and other fiscal interventions have been shown to be
    effective however these can be difficult for legislators as there are other
    competing interests, particularly in the area of nutrition and tobacco. Creating
    health promoting environments that make healthy behaviour choices easier
    can be beneficial.

    Conclusions Health care interventions are also effective in reducing the burden of
    cardiovascular disease. A balanced approach of health promotion and
    individual health care is recommended in the development of a strategy for
    cardiovascular disease.
  9. Zoharah Omar, Roohangiz Karimi, Nor Azida Nayan, Najwa Haneem Mohamad, Nor Aina Emran
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):457-464.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction This study investigates work engagement of employed breast cancer
    survivors in comparison to unmatched control samples of healthy working
    women without cancer and any other chronic diseases from the general
    population.

    Methods A case-control study design using unmatched controls was adopted in this
    study. The case comprised of 80 female breast cancer survivors who have
    returned to full-time employment selected using purposive sampling
    technique. Meanwhile, controls were 88 healthy female working women in
    full time paid employment, selected using quota sampling. Questionnaire
    covering socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated work engagement
    measured using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) was distributed to
    the cancer survivors through face-to-face meeting during their hospital visits.
    For the healthy controls the questionnaires were distributed using drop-andcollect
    method through the human resource personnel of the participating
    organization.

    Results The results revealed, after controlling for age, marital status, ethnic group and
    tenure with organization, no significant differences in the overall work
    engagement was found between the breast cancer survivors [mean (SD) =
    4.66 (0.92)] and the healthy controls [mean (SD) = 4.75 (0.85)]; F(1, 163)
    =1.70. In comparison to the work engagement domains, only the Vigor
    domain was found to be significantly lower for the survivors, survivors [F (1,
    163) =14.94; p
  10. Hasimah Ismail, Tahir Aris, Rashidah Ambak, Lim, Kuang Kuay
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):465-471.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Healthy dietary practice is important in preventing diabetes, managing existing diabetes, and preventing, or at least slowing the rate of diabetes complication development. It is, therefore, important at all levels of diabetes prevention. The objective of this study was to determine the association of dietary practice with glycaemic control among Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, who received treatment from an urban Health Clinic in Kuala Lumpur.
    Methods A total of 307 patients with T2DM aged 18 years and above participated in this study. A pre-tested structured questionnaire with guided interview was used to collect information on socio-demographic, clinical and dietary practice. Anthropometric and biological measurements were also taken. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used in the data analysis. Good glycaemic control was defined as HbA1c level less than 6.5%.
    Results The prevalence of good glycaemic control was only 27% (n=83). The highest percentage of good glycaemic control were among male patients (29.1%), aged 60 and above (33.3%), educational level of primary school (35.4%) and those with monthly income group between RM1001 to RM1500 (32.0%). About three quarter of T2DM patient (n=224) had poor control of HbA1c (≥6.5%). Age (p=0.045) and working status (p=0.039) had significant relationship with the level of HbA1c. Dietary practice showed no significant relationship with the HbA1c level.
    Conclusions Effective interventional health education strategies are needed, focussing on modification of dietary behaviour in order to achieve glycaemic control among diabetic patients.
  11. Najwa Haneem Mohamad, Zoharah Omar, Nor Aina Emran
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):376-383.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Breast cancer is ranked number one from the ten most frequent cancers in
    female, Peninsular Malaysia. Various studies provide negative evidence on
    malignancies and one of the end results is impaired quality of life (QOL).
    Studies show lifestyle approaches are key factors in enhancing the QOL
    among cancer survivors. The purpose of this study is to describe the lifestyle
    practices (LP) among breast cancer survivors (BCS) which consist of dietary
    intake, exercise habits, and stress management and to determine whether
    these practices have influence on the QOL among Malaysian BCS.

    Methods This study adopts a cross-sectional study design using a self-administered
    questionnaire. A total of 280 BCS from public and private hospitals
    throughout Peninsular Malaysia had participated. The questionnaire covers
    QOL and LP items which consist of dietary intake (consumption of high-fat
    food, high-fibre food, fruits and vegetables), exercise habits, and stress
    management. Descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA were used to
    determine the relationship between LP and QOL.

    Results Mean age of the study sample was at 41 (SD=7.37). Majority of them were
    Malay (74%), 53% were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1 to 2 years
    whereas 54% were presented with stage 2 at diagnosis. There was a
    statistically significant difference (p
  12. Yuhanif Yusof, Anisah Che Ngah, Zaki Morad Mohamad Zaher
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):384-390.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the aspect of information disclosure by
    doctor-investigator during the process of obtaining informed consent in
    clinical trials.

    Methods This research employed a mixed-method data collection that is library
    research and interview. A qualitative methodology and analysis were used in
    an open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 17 patient-subjects. The
    interview questions were based on information that needed to be disclosed to
    patient-subjects during the process of obtaining informed consent. Each
    interview took place in Kajang Hospital and National Heart Institute and
    lasted 25-30 minutes. Interviews were conducted in Bahasa Melayu and
    English. The interviews were tape-recorded, and the main points from the
    interviews were jotted down to ensure that all information was adequately
    gathered. Interviewed occurred in Kajang Hospital and National Heart
    Institute. The participants were patients who had been referred to the Kajang
    Hospital and National Heart Institute. They were recruited (8 from Kajang
    Hospital and 9 from National Heart Institute) by their own doctors to
    participate in a study to evaluate the safety and effectivenes of the
    investigational stent after been diagnosed with coronary artery disease and
    also in a study to investigate drug for antidepressant. respectively.

    Results The study revealed that doctor-investigators fail to disclose full information
    to patient-subjects. Instead, doctor-investigators only disclosed information
    which they thought were necessary for the patient-subjects to know. The
    study also showed that there were doctor-investigators who did not disclose
    information at all to the patient-subjects.

    Conclusions This study implies that the aspect of information disclosure in the process of
    obtaining informed consent in clinical trials is rather poor and did not fulfill
    the criterion of good medical practice. A random monitoring task to be
    conducted by the research ethics commitees during the informed consent
    process is suggested.
  13. Yeo Pei Sien, Suzana Shahar, Roslee Rajikan, Noor Aini Mohd Yusoff
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):399-404.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Low bone mineral density is a significant problem in children with
    Thalassemia which may lead to increased risk for fragility fractures and
    suboptimal peak bone mass. This cross-sectional study was conducted to
    determine the bone health status of Thalassemia children Universiti
    Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and Paediatrics Insititute Kuala
    Lumpur Hospital.

    Methods A total of 81 respondents diagnosed with transfusion dependant beta
    Thalassemia (41 boys and 40 girls) aged between 7 to 19 years old completed
    the study. The data collected were demographic information, anthropometric
    measurements, dairy frequency questionnaires, dietary habits of the
    respondents and their parents, dietary intakes and bone densitometry using
    Ultrasound Bone Densitometer.

    Results For Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) parameters, T-score of 9.8% participants
    were lower than -1.0 and 30.9% of the participants had lower Speed of Sound
    (SOS) than healthy SOS. This study showed there was no difference in bone
    density by sex (p>0.05). The median bone density of boys was 1616.00 m/
    sec (IQR= 39.00) and girls’ was 1579.00 m/ sec (IQR= 116.00). SOS was not
    increased with age, height and weight; but girls’ Body Mass Index (BMI).
    Malay children had significantly higher SOS than non-Malay children.

    Conclusions This study highlights a need of proper intervention for the high risk group to
    achieve optimal bone health.
  14. Noor Sazarina Mad Isa @ Yahya, Baba Md Deros, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Mazrura Sahani
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):412-418.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction It is well known that low back pain among working population is a global
    problem throughout the world. However, the current situation of occupational
    low back pain in Malaysia is still vague due to limited number of studies
    conducted locally.

    Objective A cross sectional study was conducted among three automotive industry
    workers in Selangor, Malaysia from October 2010 to April 2011.
    Methods This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors of low back pain
    among automotive industry workers performing manual material handling
    tasks using self-administered questionnaire survey.

    Results A modified Standardised Nordic Questionnaire was used to assess low back
    pain problem, to obtain personal and psychosocial risk factors information.
    The prevalence of low back pain showed increment in the point prevalence of
    57.9%, 49.5%, and 35.1 % for 12 months, one month, and of 7 days
    respectively. Working hour, frequency of overtime, stress at work, work
    pace, and faster movement were found to be significantly associated with the
    12 months prevalence for low back pain.

    Conclusions This finding indicates that psychosocial risk factors are associated to the
    occurrence of low back pain.
  15. Rashidah Ambak, Balkish Mahadir Naidu, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Nor Azian Mohd Zaki, Syafinaz Mohd Sallehuddin, Tahir Aris
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):449-456.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Food labeling regulation has been implemented to enable consumers,
    including those with chronic diseases to make healthy informed choices
    before purchasing pre-packaged foods. The purpose of this study is to
    determine the prevalence of obese adults in Malaysia who practice reading
    food labels. It explored types of labels read and understanding of the
    information.

    Methods Findings presented in this study were captured from the secondary analysis of
    National Health and Morbidity Survey’s (NHMS, 2006) food label study
    which focused only on obese adults (BMI > 30 kg/m2) aged 18 and above.
    This nation-wide cross sectional study was conducted from April to August
    2006 using an interview-based questionnaire. Complex data analysis was
    done using Stata version 12.0.

    Results There were 4565 obese respondents with the mean age of 33 ± 9.7 (18 – 60
    years old). About 54.7% completed high-school and 9.9% were higher degree
    holders. Prevalence of obese adults who claimed to read label was 80.5%
    (95%CI: 79.3, 81.6). Findings showed significant results in reading and
    understanding labels among all age group categories, Malay, Indian and other
    Bumiputras, all education categories and married respondents. Expiry date
    was the highest percentage being read (74.5%), followed by fat content
    (15.3%), vitamin (11.8%) and carbohydrate (10.9%).

    Conclusions The obese population in Malaysia claimed to read and understand the food
    label but did not focus on specific macronutrients related to their health
    condition. Findings can be used to implement effective education
    programmes targeting the relevant groups to instill an awareness to read,
    understand and use the label information as one of the means in combating
    obesity.
  16. Yong, Kang Cheah
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):391-398.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction In light of the important role of health-promoting expenditure in health, the
    objective of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic determinants
    of health-promoting expenditure such as purchase of medical equipment and
    services, food supplements and health education services and products among
    Malaysian adults.

    Methods Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) consisting of 28771
    observations was used for analysis. It was the latest nationally representative
    cross-sectional population-based survey conducted by the Ministry of Health
    Malaysia from April 2006 to January 2007. A censored regression model
    (Tobit) was applied to examine the factors affecting health-promoting
    expenditure.

    Results The results showed that age, income, gender, ethnicity, education, marital
    status, employment status and location of residence were able to affect healthpromoting
    expenditure. In particular, individuals who were younger, poor,
    males, Indian/others, less educated, unmarried, unemployed and residing in
    rural areas tended to spend less money on health promotion compared to
    others.

    Conclusions This study reached a conclusion that socio-demographic factors were
    significantly associated with individual’s preferences for health promotion.
    Therefore, the government should devote its attention to these factors when
    formulating nationwide health policies.
  17. Satrinawati, Rosnah Sutan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):472-479.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The health of newborns is inextricably linked to that of their mothers. Some
    maternal factors can influence neonatal survival, particularly for low birth
    weight babies who are more vulnerable to diseases than normal weight
    babies. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of maternal factors on
    neonatal mortality among low birth weight babies in Aceh Province,
    Indonesia.

    Methods Study design was unmatched case control. Data collected from 2010 to 2012
    in 8 districts in Aceh province, Indonesia. Total sample was 500, divided into
    250 LBW who died in neonatal period (case group) and 250 who did not die
    in neonatal period (control group). There were 6 maternal variables analysed.

    Results Three of six variables analysed were not associated with neonatal mortality
    among LBW (P > 0.05); these were: maternal death, parity and education
    level. The age of the mother had a significant association with neonatal
    mortality among LBW (P < 0.05), but was not a determinant factor. The
    maternal illness and birth interval were determinant factors of neonatal
    mortality among LBW(P < 0.05); maternal illness (Adj OR= 2.6; 95 % CI:
    1.68 - 4.0) and birth interval (Adj OR= 1.8; 95 % CI: 1.20 - 2.91).

    Conclusions Maternal illness and birth interval were determinant factors of neonatal
    mortality among LBW. Appropriate care throughout stages of pregnancy and
    increasing women’s knowledge on high risk pregnancy are the key factors to
    the decrease of the neonatal mortality related to the maternal factors.
  18. Muhammad Firdaus Ujang, Rosnah Sutan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):500-509.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Prevalence of adolescents involved in sexual and reproductive problems is on
    rise and it was associated with its knowledge. Several factors found to be
    associated with the knowledge and various sources of knowledge are chosen
    by adolescents for this information. Thus, this study was to determine the
    knowledge score, its influencing factors and the preference of the sources of
    knowledge.

    Methods A cross-sectional study was done using adopted questionnaire involving 330
    respondents aged 18 and 19 years old in Kolej MARA Seremban selected by
    simple random sampling. They were gathered in the halls and 338
    adolescents from 454 students consented to involve in this study. Selfadministered
    questionnaire was used whereby a correct response was given a
    score of 2, 0 for an incorrect response and 1 for an answer of don’t know.
    Total score for all correct answers was 42. Descriptive analysis, bivariate and
    multivariate analysis was done in the analysis.

    Results The mean knowledge score was 37.32 (±2.967) with a significant difference
    for gender. Internets were the most common and preferred sources of the
    knowledge among them. There was 5.2% of them had heard on SMS
    intervention and 37.0% of them disagreed on SMS intervention.

    Conclusions The result showed that the knowledge score was lower in males than females
    and internets were the most preferred source of the knowledge. Thus,
    interventions for knowledge improvement should be more on male
    adolescents.
  19. Rozaimah Abu Talib, Idayu Badilla Idris, Rosnah Sutan, Norizan Ahmad, Norehan Abu Bakar, Sharifah Hildah Shahab
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):719-726.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction In Malaysia although mortality rate among women of reproductive ages has
    reduced over the years, the reduction has been stagnant for the past ten years.
    In order to achieve the 5th Millennium Development Goal, several measures
    need to be taken including a proper implementation of pre-pregnancy
    services in this country. This study explores the awareness, intention and
    usage of pre-pregnancy care (PPC) services and its determinant among
    women of reproductive ages in Kedah, Malaysia.

    Methods This is a qualitative study, which consisted of a focus group discussion
    (FGD) among women in the ages of 18 to 45 years old from all ethnic groups
    who attended four government clinics in the state of Kedah. The mothers
    were chosen through purposive sampling from twelve districts that were
    selected through a multistage random sampling. A semi-structured
    questionnaire was utilized during the FGD. The results from the FGD were
    recorded verbatim and thematic analysis was finalized once saturation of
    information from respondents was achieved.

    Results These are two themes was identified, namely personal reasons and reasons of
    service and there are several subthemes under two main themes. Under the
    Personal reason themes, the subthemes including awareness and intention to
    used the services, knowledge, perception, social support and history of
    medical illness. While under pre-pregnancy care services themes, the
    subthemes including the promotion of the services, the communication
    relationship with the health staff, the waiting time and also the accessibility
    of the service.

    Conclusions As a conclusion, there is still part of society who was unaware of prepregnancy
    services and its importance in reducing maternal mortality rate as
    well as producing good pregnancy outcome. Information and knowledge on
    pre-pregnancy care services should be disseminated among community
    members through various means including roadshows and pre wedding
    workshops.
  20. Narwani Hussin, Wong, Mabelle, Liew, Houng Bang, Liau, Siow Yen
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):736-740.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) has been thought as a disease of poor socioeconomic status. It is more prevalent in underdeveloped and developing countries than in developed countries. It is also common among the population with multiple social issues such as overcrowded dwellings, undernutrition, poor sanitation and suboptimal medical care. This study was done to review the socio demographic profiles of RHD patients in Hospital Queen Elizabeth (HQE) II, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
    Methods: A secondary data review of all patients registered under the RHD registry in HQE II for one- year starting from July 2013 to June 2014.
    Results: 204 RHD patients were included. Nearly three quarter (74.0%) were female. The mean age was 40.43 (14.75) years old. 61.1% has completed secondary
    education. 42.7% were housewives. The mean monthly income was RM 1363.83 (1297.05) which was categorized under the vulnerable income group. When they were categorized under the poverty level and the vulnerable income group, 42.6% and 76.5% of them fell under those categories respectively. The nearest health facilities to their houses were district hospitals (33.3%) with the mean distance of 9.17 km and health clinics (30.8%) with the mean distance of 4.27 km. Only 11.5% of them lived near the specialist hospitals with the mean distance of 21.32 km.
    Conclusions: Results from this review suggested that majority of RHD patients were in the low socioeconomic group with less access to health care facilities with specialist care. They are the most vulnerable groups and need to be prioritized in the specialized care program. .
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