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  1. Bajuri MN, Abdul Kadir MR, Murali MR, Kamarul T
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2013 Feb;51(1-2):175-86.
    PMID: 23124814 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-012-0982-9
    The total replacement of wrists affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has had mixed outcomes in terms of failure rates. This study was therefore conducted to analyse the biomechanics of wrist arthroplasty using recently reported implants that have shown encouraging results with the aim of providing some insights for the future development of wrist implants. A model of a healthy wrist was developed using computed tomography images from a healthy volunteer. An RA model was simulated based on all ten general characteristics of the disease. The ReMotion ™ total wrist system was then modelled to simulate total wrist arthroplasty (TWA). Finite element analysis was performed with loads simulating the static hand grip action. The results show that the RA model produced distorted patterns of stress distribution with tenfold higher contact pressure than the healthy model. For the TWA model, contact pressure was found to be approximately fivefold lower than the RA model. Compared to the healthy model, significant improvements were observed for the TWA model with minor variations in the stress distribution. In conclusion, the modelled TWA reduced contact pressure between bones but did not restore the stress distribution to the normal healthy condition.
  2. Bajuri MN, Kadir MR, Amin IM, Ochsner A
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2012 Jul;226(7):510-20.
    PMID: 22913098 DOI: 10.1177/0954411912445846
    The wrist is the most complex joint for virtual three-dimensional simulations, and the complexity is even more pronounced when dealing with skeletal disorders of the joint such, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In order to analyse the biomechanical difference between healthy and diseased joints, three-dimensional models of these two wrist conditions were developed from computed tomography images. These images consist of eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, the distal radius and ulna. The cartilages were developed based on the shape of the available articulations and ligaments were simulated via mechanical links. The RA model was developed accurately by simulating all ten common criteria of the disease related to the wrist. Results from the finite element (FE) analyses showed that the RA model produced three times higher contact pressure at the articulations compared to the healthy model. Normal physiological load transfer also changed from predominantly through the radial side to an increased load transfer approximately 5% towards the ulnar. Based on an extensive literature search, this is the first ever reported work that simulates the pathological conditions of the rheumatoid arthritis of the wrist joint.
  3. Bajuri MN, Kadir MR, Raman MM, Kamarul T
    Med Eng Phys, 2012 Nov;34(9):1294-302.
    PMID: 22277308 DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2011.12.020
    Understanding the pathomechanics involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the wrist provides valuable information, which will invariably allow various therapeutic possibilities to be explored. The computational modelling of this disease permits the appropriate simulation to be conducted seamlessly. A study that underpins the fundamental concept that produces the biomechanical changes in a rheumatoid wrist was thus conducted through the use of finite element method. The RA model was constructed from computed tomography datasets, taking into account three major characteristics: synovial proliferation, cartilage destruction and ligamentous laxity. As control, a healthy wrist joint model was developed in parallel and compared. Cartilage was modelled based on the shape of the articulation while the ligaments were modelled with linear spring elements. A load-controlled analysis was performed simulating physiological hand grip loading conditions. The results demonstrated that the diseased model produced abnormal wrist extension and stress distribution as compared to the healthy wrist model. Due to the weakening of the ligaments, destruction of the cartilage and lower bone density, the altered biomechanical stresses were particularly evident at the radioscaphoid and capitolunate articulations which correlate to clinical findings. These results demonstrate the robust finding of the developed RA wrist model, which accurately predicted the pathological process.
  4. Bajuri MN, Isaksson H, Eliasson P, Thompson MS
    Biomech Model Mechanobiol, 2016 12;15(6):1457-1466.
    PMID: 26951049
    The healing process of ruptured tendons is problematic due to scar tissue formation and deteriorated material properties, and in some cases, it may take nearly a year to complete. Mechanical loading has been shown to positively influence tendon healing; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Computational mechanobiology methods employed extensively to model bone healing have achieved high fidelity. This study aimed to investigate whether an established hyperelastic fibre-reinforced continuum model introduced by Gasser, Ogden and Holzapfel (GOH) can be used to capture the mechanical behaviour of the Achilles tendon under loading during discrete timepoints of the healing process and to assess the model's sensitivity to its microstructural parameters. Curve fitting of the GOH model against experimental tensile testing data of rat Achilles tendons at four timepoints during the tendon repair was used and achieved excellent fits ([Formula: see text]). A parametric sensitivity study using a three-level central composite design, which is a fractional factorial design method, showed that the collagen-fibre-related parameters in the GOH model-[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]-had almost equal influence on the fitting. This study demonstrates that the GOH hyperelastic fibre-reinforced model is capable of describing the mechanical behaviour of healing tendons and that further experiments should focus on establishing the structural and material parameters of collagen fibres in the healing tissue.
  5. Thompson MS, Bajuri MN, Khayyeri H, Isaksson H
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2017 May;231(5):369-377.
    PMID: 28427319 DOI: 10.1177/0954411917692010
    Tendons are adapted to carry large, repeated loads and are clinically important for the maintenance of musculoskeletal health in an increasing, actively ageing population, as well as in elite athletes. Tendons are known to adapt to mechanical loading. Also, their healing and disease processes are highly sensitive to mechanical load. Computational modelling approaches developed to capture this mechanobiological adaptation in tendons and other tissues have successfully addressed many important scientific and clinical issues. The aim of this review is to identify techniques and approaches that could be further developed to address tendon-related problems. Biomechanical models are identified that capture the multi-level aspects of tendon mechanics. Continuum whole tendon models, both phenomenological and microstructurally motivated, are important to estimate forces during locomotion activities. Fibril-level microstructural models are documented that can use these estimated forces to detail local mechanical parameters relevant to cell mechanotransduction. Cell-level models able to predict the response to such parameters are also described. A selection of updatable mechanobiological models is presented. These use mechanical signals, often continuum tissue level, along with rules for tissue change and have been applied successfully in many tissues to predict in vivo and in vitro outcomes. Signals may include scalars derived from the stress or strain tensors, or in poroelasticity also fluid velocity, while adaptation may be represented by changes to elastic modulus, permeability, fibril density or orientation. So far, only simple analytical approaches have been applied to tendon mechanobiology. With the development of sophisticated computational mechanobiological models in parallel with reporting more quantitative data from in vivo or clinical mechanobiological studies, for example, appropriate imaging, biochemical and histological data, this field offers huge potential for future development towards clinical applications.
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