Biocompatibility of two variants of accelerated Portland cement (APC) were investigated in vitro by observing the cytomorphology of SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells in the presence of test materials and the effect of these materials on the expression of markers of bone remodelling. Glass ionomer cement (GIC), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and unmodified Portland cement (RC) were used for comparison. A direct contact assay was undertaken in four samples of each test material, collected at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scored. Culture media were collected for cytokine quantification using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). On SEM evaluation, healthy SaOS-2 cells were found adhering onto the surfaces of APC variant, RC and MTA. In contrast, rounded and dying cells were observed on GIC. Using ELISA, levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-18 and OC were significantly higher in APC variants compared with controls and GIC (p<0.01), but these levels of cytokines were not statistically significant compared with MTA. The results of this study provide evidence that both APC variants are non-toxic and may have potential to promote bone healing. Further development of APC is indicated to produce a viable dental restorative material and possibly a material for orthopaedic
The physical mechanisms of ultrasound, namely cavitation and acoustic streaming, generated by the Enac-Osada ultrasonic unit were investigated for effectiveness in disrupting Streptococcus mitis. In addition, the bactericidal effect of ultrasound in the presence of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite was examined. Bacterial suspensions were irradiated directly with ultrasound in simulated root canals, and the viability of bacteria was examined after growth on a blood agar medium under anaerobic conditions at 37 degrees C for 5 days. The results indicated that ultrasound per se failed to disrupt bacteria but resulted in increases in the viable counts; the former was considered to be because of the lack of cavitation and the latter because of the dispersal effects of acoustic streaming. The 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution demonstrated powerful bactericidal activity.