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  1. Ho CC, Singam P, Hong GE, Zainuddin ZM
    Asian J. Androl., 2011 Jul;13(4):537-42.
    PMID: 21643001 DOI: 10.1038/aja.2010.135
    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care.
  2. Chun KH, Inn FX, Hing EY, Hong GE
    Urol Ann, 2017 11 10;9(4):387-389.
    PMID: 29118545 DOI: 10.4103/UA.UA_69_17
    Inguinal scrotal swelling is a common presentation to surgical clinic with various differential diagnoses. In most circumstances, a good clinical assessment is sufficient to identify the diagnosis. Imaging is necessary when diagnostic difficulty was encountered. The choice of imaging study could affect the management and outcome. A 60-year-old male presented with an enlarging right inguinal scrotal swelling for 5 years. Clinical examination showed a swelling extended from the right inguinal region down to the right scrotum, firm, not reducible, and not separable from the right testis. Differential diagnoses range from the malignant testicular tumor, irreducible inguinal hernia to the soft-tissue tumor. Ultrasonography and computed tomography scan were unable to conclude the origin of the tumor and involvement of the right testis. Inguinal exploration with potential radical orchiectomy was planned and caused much distress to the patient, resulted in delay in surgery. Intraoperatively, the mass was separated from the testis and spermatic cord, and thus, excision biopsy was performed sparing the testis and spermatic cord. Histopathological examination showed cellular angiofibroma. The right choice of imaging modality is important to provide a precise diagnosis and better treatment plan. This could avoid the unnecessary distress to the patient for potential organ lost. A review through the literature showed the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to better delineate the anatomy of inguinal scrotal soft-tissue mass and thus should have been the imaging modality of choice.
  3. Ho CC, Hee TG, Hong GE, Singam P, Bahadzor B, Md Zainuddin Z
    Nephrourol Mon, 2012;4(2):454-7.
    PMID: 23573465 DOI: 10.5812/numonthly.2211
    Retrograde intra-renal surgery (RIRS) has been used to remove stones of less than 2 cm in the kidney. However, its role is not well defined.
  4. Hong GE, Kong CH, Singam P, Cheok LB, Zainuddin ZM, Azrif M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(5):1351-3.
    PMID: 21198291
    INTRODUCTION: Analysis of epidemiological as well as survival differences among the multiethnic population of Malaysia with prostate cancer is important.

    METHODS: Patients confirmed by transrectal-ultrasonographic-guided-biopsy performed from 2002 to 2008 were enrolled and analysed according to ethnicity, age, PSA level, Gleason score, stage of disease and survival.

    RESULTS: Among 83 patients, there were 38 Malay, 40 Chinese, 3 Indians and 2 others. Median age at diagnosis was 69.9 (range: 59-93), 43 patients (51.8%) being diagnosed before the age of 70. The median PSA level upon diagnosis was 574 ng/ml (range: 1-8632) and the median Gleason score was 7 (range: 2-10). Over half were already in Stage 4 when diagnosed. The most common site of metastasis was the bone. As a result the commonest prescribed treatment was hormonal manipulation. Five patients underwent radical prostatectomy and a further thirteen patients had radical radiotherapy (stage I: 1 patient, stage II: 7 patients and stage III: 5 patients). Ten patients defaulted follow-up. The median disease-specific survival was 21.9 months (range: 1-53).

    CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic carcinoma is a disease of the elderly and it is frequently diagnosed late in Malaysia. Greater efforts should be made to educate Malaysians regarding prostate cancer.

  5. Kong CH, Singam P, Hong GE, Cheok LB, Azrif M, Tamil AM, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(1):149-52.
    PMID: 20593947
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinicopathological features of bladder tumours encountered over a five year period in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.

    METHODS: Medical records of bladder tumour cases from 2005 till 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and tabulated.

    RESULTS: A total of 83 cases were recorded. The incidence was highest among the Chinese (56.6%), followed by Malays (34.9%), Indians (6%) and other races (2.4%). The male-to-female ratio was 9.4:1. The median age was 65 years (range 30-91 years) and median duration of follow up was 17.2 months (range 2-60 months). The main histopathology was transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) (90.4%), followed by adenocarcinoma (6%), squamous cell carcinoma (1.2%), leiomyoma (1.2%) and myeloid sarcoma (1.2%). For the TCCs, 58.6% were superficial while 41.4% were muscle invasive, and 13.3% had nodal metastasis with distant metastasis in 8%. Of the total, 5.3% were papillary urothelial tumours of low malignant potential, 33.3% pTa, 20% pT1, 10.7% pT2, 12.0% pT3 and 18.7% pT4. Of the superficial tumours, 32.5% were high grade tumours. There were ten radical cystectomies performed for transitional cell carcinomas; two had neobladder reconstruction whereas the other eight had ileal conduits. All the adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas were treated by radiotherapy due to the advanced stage of the disease while the myeloid sarcoma received chemotherapy. Mean survival of patients with muscle invasive cancer was 33+/-5 months. By the end of the study, 18.1% of patients had died of their cancer.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of bladder tumours is highest among the Chinese. When compared to other studies, the incidence of muscle invasive and high-grade superficial tumours was greater.

  6. Kong CH, Ali SA, Singam P, Hong GE, Cheok LB, Zainuddin ZM
    Int. J. Infect. Dis., 2010 Sep;14 Suppl 3:e250-2.
    PMID: 20117032 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2009.10.006
    Spontaneous bladder perforation secondary to tuberculosis (TB) is very rare. Only three cases have been reported so far in the literature. Due to its rarity, the diagnosis of spontaneous bladder perforation is often missed. Confirmation of TB via culture takes a long time and starting empirical treatment for TB is necessary. We relate our experience with a young woman who presented with clinical features of a perforated appendix and was only diagnosed with bladder perforation during laparotomy. She also had distal right ureteral stricture and left infundibular stenosis. The provisional diagnosis of TB was attained via typical histopathological features and a positive Mantoux test. She was started empirically on anti-TB treatment and recovered without any complications. Urine culture after 6 weeks confirmed the diagnosis of TB.
  7. Singam P, Ho C, Hong GE, Mohd A, Tamil AM, Cheok LB, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(2):503-6.
    PMID: 20843141
    Renal cancer is rare and its incidence is 1.9 per 100,000 in the Malaysian population, which consists of three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indians). A retrospective study was her conducted to identify clinical characteristics and ethnic background influences on presentation. The study included all renal cancer patients from a single medical institution over ten years, with a total of 75 cases. Seventy-three patients underwent surgery while 2 received only radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The male to female ratio was 2.75:1. Incidence was equal among the Malay (49.3%) and Chinese ethnic groups (45.3%). Mean age of patients were 57.1 (18-93) years old. There were 26 (37.4%) patients with Stage I disease, 14 (18.7%) at Stage II, 23 (30.7%) at Stage III and 12 (16%) at Stage IV. The Chinese race presented at mean older age (p= 0.02) and later stage of disease (p= 0.046). Patients above 40 years old had more advanced stage disease (p= 0.023). Tumour histology were clear cell (72%), urothelial cell (13.3%), sarcomatoid cell and nephroblastoma each contributed 2.7%. The mean tumour size was 8.1 (2-20) cm. There was substantial agreement between the pre and post operative staging (kappa 0.691). In conclusion we observed significant influences of age and race in the clinical presentation of renal cancer in our institution based population. There was larger male to female ratio and mean tumour size as compared to previous epidemiology studies.
  8. Singam P, Hong GE, Ho C, Hee TG, Jasman H, Inn FX, et al.
    Aging Male, 2015 Jun;18(2):112-7.
    PMID: 25690022 DOI: 10.3109/13685538.2015.1011614
    The aim of study was to evaluate the influence of ageing, lifestyle, and co morbid illnesses on treatment outcome of nocturia among men with BPH.
  9. Hee TG, Shah SA, Ann HS, Hemdan SN, Shen LC, Al-Fahmi Abdul Galib N, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6327-30.
    PMID: 24377526
    Haematuria is a common presentation of bladder cancer and requires a full urologic evaluation. This study aimed to develop a scoring system capable of stratifying patients with haematuria into high or low risk groups for having bladder cancer to help clinicians decide which patients need more urgent assessment. This cross- sectional study included all adult patients referred for haematuria and subsequently undergoing full urological evaluation in the years 2001 to 2011. Risk factors with strong association with bladder cancer in the study population were used to design the scoring system. Accuracy was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 325 patients with haematuria were included, out of which 70 (21.5%) were diagnosed to have bladder cancer. Significant risk factors associated with bladder cancer were male gender, a history of cigarette smoking and the presence of gross haematuria. A scoring system using 4 clinical parameters as variables was created. The scores ranged between 6 to 14, and a score of 10 and above indicated high risk for having bladder cancer. It was found to have good accuracy with an area under the ROC curve of 80.4%, while the sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 55.7%, respectively. The scoring system designed in this study has the potential to help clinicians stratify patients who present with haematuria into high or low risk for having bladder cancer. This will enable high-risk patients to undergo urologic assessment earlier.
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