The discharge of an alarming number of recalcitrant pollutants from various industrial activities presents a serious threat to environmental sustainability and ecological integrity. Bioremediation has gained immense interest around the world due to its environmentally friendly and cost-effective nature. In contrast to physical and chemical methods, the use of microbial enzymes, particularly immobilized biocatalysts, has been demonstrated as a versatile approach for the sustainable mitigation of environmental pollution. Considerable attention is now devoted to developing novel enzyme engineering approaches and state-of-the-art bioreactor design for ameliorating the overall bio-catalysis and biodegradation performance of enzymes. This review discusses the contemporary and state of the art technical and scientific progress regarding applying oxidoreductase enzyme-based biocatalytic systems to remediate a vast number of pharmaceutically active compounds from water and wastewater bodies. A comprehensive insight into enzyme immobilization, the role of mediators, bioreactors designing, and transformation products of pharmaceuticals and their associated toxicity is provided. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate enzymatic degradation mechanisms, monitor the toxicity levels of the resulting degraded metabolites and optimize the entire bio-treatment strategy for technical and economical affordability.
An increase in temperature of up to 2 °C occurs when the amount of CO2 reaches a range of 450 ppm. The permanent use of mineral oil is closely related to CO2 emissions. Maintaining the sustainability of fossil fuels and eliminating and reducing CO2 emissions is possible through carbon capture and storage (CCS) processes. One of the best ways to maintain CCS is hydrate-based gas separation. Selected type T1-5 (0.01 mol % sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) + 5.60 mol % tetrahydrofuran (THF), with the help of this silica gel promotion was strongly stimulated. A pressure of 36.5 bar of CO2 is needed in H2O to investigate the CO2 hydrate formation. Therefore, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME at 0.10 mol %) along with SDS (0.01 mol %) labeled as T1A-2 was used as an alternative to THF at the comparable working parameters in which CO2 uptake of 5.45 mmol of CO2/g of H2O was obtained. Additionally, it was found that with an increase in tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) supplementation of CO2, the hydrate and operating capacity of the process increased. When the bed height was reduced from 3 cm to 2 cm with 0.1 mol % TBAB and 0.01% SDS (labelled as T3-2) in fixed bed reactor (FBR), the outcomes demonstrated a slight expansion in gas supply to 1.54 mmol of CO2/g of H2O at working states of 283 K and 70 bar. The gas selectivity experiment by using the high-pressure volume analysis through hydrate formation was performed in which the highest CO2 uptake for the employment of silica contacts with water in fuel gas mixture was observed in the non-IGCC conditions. Thus, two types of reactor configurations are being proposed for changing the process from batch to continuous with the employment of macroporous silica contacts with new consolidated promoters to improve the formation of CO2 hydrate in the IGCC conditions. Later, much work should be possible on this with an assortment of promoters and specific performance parameters. It was reported in previous work that the repeatability of equilibrium moisture content and gas uptake attained for the sample prepared by the highest rates of stirring was the greatest with the CIs of ±0.34 wt % and ±0.19 mmol of CO2/g of H2O respectively. This was due to the amount of water occluded inside silica gel pores was not an issue or in other words, vigorous stirring increased the spreadability. The variation of pore size to improve the process can be considered for future work.