The effect of extracts of champedak (Artocarpus integer) seed lectin on the proliferation of normal human lymphocyte was investigated. The IgA1 binding lectin was demonstrated to stimulate the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Action of the lectin on enriched T and B cell populations demonstrated T lymphocyte specificity. The lectin was not mitogenic to B lymphocytes. Optimal stimulation of proliferative response was achieved when cells were subjected to 5 days exposure to the crude lectin at 20 micrograms/ml.
Purified lectins from seeds of six distinct clones of Artocarpus integer (lectin C) were shown to be structurally and functionally similar. All lectins comprised of two types of non-covalently-linked subunits with apparent M(r) of 13,300 and 16,000. The lectins appeared to interact with several human serum proteins, with the predominance of the IgA1 and C1 inhibitor molecules. Interaction was not detected with IgA2, IgD, IgG and IgM. The lectin Cs were also shown to precipitate monkey, sheep, rabbit, cat, hamster, rat and guinea-pig serum. Due to their uniform properties, lectin C may provide better alternative to the Artocarpus heterophyllus lectin, jacalin, for use in future investigations.
Hannahtoxin, the major hemorrhagin purified from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom, elicits hemorrhages in rabbits but not in mice. Two antisera against hannahtoxin were prepared: one raised against purified hannahtoxin, while the other was raised against glutaraldehyde cross-linked and detoxified hannahtoxin. The antisera were refined by pepsin digestion and ammonium sulfate precipitation. They are of approximately equal potency in their ability to neutralize the hemorrhagic activity of king cobra venom in rabbits. The antisera did not form a precipitin line with venom of snakes of the Viperidae family nor neutralize hemorrhages elicited in mice by any of these venoms. However, when the hemorrhagic activity was assayed in rabbits, both antisera were able to abolish the hemorrhages elicited by all of the venoms tested. These results suggest that hannahtoxin displays few epitopes in common with hemorrhagins of viperid venoms, except those involved in the neutralization of hemorrhagic activity in rabbits. The epitopes of viperid venom hemorrhagins involved in the neutralization reaction in rabbits are different from those in mice.
The specificity and sensitivity of an indirect and two (an 'ordinary' and a 'rapid') double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures for the quantitation of Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper) venom were examined. The three assays were equally sensitive and the accuracy of the assays was not substantially affected by individual variation in the venom composition. The specificity of the assays was examined against 26 venoms from snakes of the families Viperidae and Elapidae. While the double sandwich ELISA procedures were sufficiently specific to be used in the clinical immunodiagnosis of C. rhodostoma bite in Malaysia, the indirect ELISA procedure exhibited extensive cross-reactivity with other Malaysian pit viper venoms. Attempts were made to improve the specificity of the indirect ELISA procedure for the quantitation of C. rhodostoma venom. A 'low ELISA cross-reactivity' venom fraction (termed VF52) was isolated from C. rhodostoma venom by repeated Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. The indirect ELISA procedure using antibodies to VF52 as immunoreagent showed an improvement in specificity. The use of the indirect ELISA procedure for the detection of C. rhodostoma antibodies was also examined and the results show that the assay was sufficiently specific to be used for retrospective diagnosis of C. rhodostoma bite in Malaysia, in particular when VF52 was used as the coating antigen.
The antigenic cross-reactivity of four Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) venom components, the neurotoxin (OH-NTX), phospholipase A2 (OH-PLA2), hemorrhagin (OH-HMG) and L-amino acid oxidase (OH-LAAO) were examined by indirect and double sandwich ELISAs. The indirect ELISAs for OH-NTX, OH-PLA2 and OH-HMG were very specific when assayed against the various heterologous snake venoms and O. hannah venom components, at 25 ng/ml antigen level. At higher antigen concentrations (100-400 ng/ml), there were moderate to strong indirect ELISA cross-reactions between anti-O. hannah neurotoxin and venoms from various species of cobra as well as two short neurotoxins. However, anti-O. hannah hemorrhagin did not cross-react with any of the venoms tested, even at these high antigen concentrations, indicating that O. hannah hemorrhagin is antigenically very different from other venom hemorrhagins. Examination of the indirect ELISA cross-reactions between anti-O. hannah PLA2 and several elapid PLA2 enzymes suggests that the elapid PLA2 antigenic class has more than two subgroups. The antibodies to O. hannah L-amino acid oxidase, however, yielded indirect ELISA cross-reactions with many venoms as well as with OH-NTX, OH-PLA2 and OH-HMG, indicating that OH-LAAO shares common epitopes even with unrelated proteins. The double sandwich ELISAs for the four anti-O. hannah venom components, on the other hand, generally exhibited a higher degree of selectivity than the indirect ELISA procedure.
The discovery of jacalin, a group of lectins from jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus), has attracted considerable attention due to its numerous interesting immunological properties as well as its usefulness in the isolation of various serum proteins. We have further identified a similar lectin from the seeds of Champedak (Artocarpus integer) which we refer to as lectin-C and performed comparative studies with two types of jacalin isolated from different batches of the Malaysian jackfruit seeds (jacalin-M1 and jacalin-M2). The three purified lectins demonstrated equivalent apparent Mr of about 52,500, each of which comprised of a combination of two types of non-covalently-linked subunits with apparent Mr of approximately 13,300 and 16,000. The lectins demonstrated equal haemagglutinating activity against human erythrocytes of blood groups A, B, AB and O. Our data also demonstrated that lectin-C, jacalin-M1 and jacalin-M2 are similar by selectively precipitating human serum IgA1 and colostral sIgA but not IgA2, IgD, IgG and IgM. When immunoelectrophoresis was performed on normal human sera and reacted with the lectins, single precipitin arcs corresponding to IgA immunoprecipitates were detected with lectin-C and jacalin-MI. Jacalin-M2, however, exhibited two closely associated precipitin arcs. The binding of these lectins with IgA was pronouncedly inhibited in the presence of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 1-o-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, D-melibiose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-galactose. The data therefore provide evidence on the differential specificity of IgA binding lectins isolated from seeds of similar as well as distinct Artocarpus species.
The effect of Artocarpus integer lectin (lectin C) on the functional activity of guinea-pig complement was investigated. Purified and crude extract of lectin C from six cultivars of Artocarpus integer seeds were found to consume complement and thus decreased the complement-induced haemolytic activity of sensitized sheep erythrocytes. The change in the complement-mediated haemolytic activity was significantly decreased when incubation of the lectins was performed in the presence of melibiose. The reversal effect of the carbohydrate, which is a potent inhibitor of the lectin's binding to O-linked oligosaccharides of glycoprotein, demonstrate involvement of the lectins interaction with O-glycans of glycoproteins in the consumption of guinea-pig complement.