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  1. Zakaria ZA, Sulaiman MR, Morsid NA, Aris A, Zainal H, Pojan NH, et al.
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2009 Mar;31(2):81-8.
    PMID: 19455262 DOI: 10.1358/mf.2009.31.2.1353876
    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models. The extract, at concentrations of 10, 50 and 100%, was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in distilled water (dH2O) for 72 h. The extract solutions were administered subcutaneously in mice/rats 30 min prior to the tests. The extract exhibited significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. Overall, these activities occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, except for the 50% concentration of the extract, which was not effective in the abdominal constriction test. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects and thus supported traditional claims of its medicinal uses.
  2. Zakaria ZA, Kumar GH, Mat Jais AM, Sulaiman MR, Somchit MN
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2008 Jun;30(5):355-62.
    PMID: 18806894 DOI: 10.1358/mf.2008.30.5.1186084
    The present study was carried out to elucidate the antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and antipyretic properties of the aqueous and lipid-based extracts of Channa striatus fillet in rats. The antinociceptive activity was assessed using the formalin test, and the antiinflammatory and antipyretic activities were assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. Both types of extracts were prepared in concentrations of 10%, 50% and 100% by serial dilution in distilled water or dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively, and were administered subcutaneously 30 min prior to each test. Except for the 10% aqueous extract which exhibits activity only in the early phase, the extracts were found to exhibit significant (P < 0.05) activity in the early and late phases of the formalin test. Furthermore, the aqueous and lipid-based extracts were also found to show significant (P < 0.05) antiinflammatory activity, with the former showing a greater effect at the lowest concentration used. The lipidbased, but not the aqueous, extract was found to have significant (P < 0.05) activity in the pyrexia test. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that C. striatus extracts possess antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and antipyretic activities.
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