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  1. Shamsuddin AM, Chen YC, Wong AR, Le TP, Anderson RH, Corno AF
    Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg, 2016 Aug;23(2):231-4.
    PMID: 27170744 DOI: 10.1093/icvts/ivw129
    OBJECTIVES: Doubly committed ventricular septal defects (VSDs) account for up to almost one-third of isolated ventricular septal defects in Asian countries, compared with only 1/20th in western populations. In our surgical experience, this type of defect accounted for almost three-quarters of our practice. To date, patch closure has been considered the gold standard for surgical treatment of these lesions. Our objectives are to evaluate the indications and examine the outcomes of surgery for doubly committed VSDs.

    METHODS: Between October 2013, when our service of paediatric cardiac surgery was opened, and December 2014, 24 patients were referred for surgical closure of VSDs. Among them, 17 patients (71%), with the median age of 6 years, ranging from 2 to 9 years, and with a median body weight of 19 kg, ranging from 11 to 56 kg, underwent surgical repair for doubly committed defects. In terms of size, the defect was considered moderate in 4 and large in 13. Aortic valvular regurgitation (AoVR) was present in 11 patients (65%) preoperatively, with associated malformations found in 14 (82%), with 5 patients (29%) having two or more associated defects.

    RESULTS: After surgery, there was trivial residual shunting in 2 patients (12%). AoVR persisted in 6 (35%), reducing to trivial in 5 (29%) and mild in 1 (6%). Mean stays in the intensive care unit and hospital were 2.6 ± 1.2 days, ranging from 2 to 7 days, and 6.8 ± 0.8 days, ranging from 6 to 9 days, respectively. The mean follow-up was 14 ± 4 months, ranging from 6 to 20 months, with no early or late deaths and without clinical deterioration.

    CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of doubly committed lesions is high in our experience, frequently associated with AoVR and other associated malformation. Early detection is crucial to prevent further progression of the disease. Patch closure remains the gold standard in management, not least since it allows simultaneous repair of associated intracardiac defects.

  2. Wittawatmongkol O, Mohamed TJ, Le TP, Ung V, Maleesatharn A, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Virus Erad, 2015;1(3):192-195.
    PMID: 27076917
    After a median of 115.9 months of follow-up, 90% of 206 HIV-1-infected children in a cohort in Asia who initiated antiretroviral treatment (ART) with mono or dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were alive and had comparable immunological and virological outcomes as compared to the 1,915 children who had started with highly active antiretroviral regimens. However, these children had higher rates of treatment-related adverse events, opportunistic infections, and cumulative mortality, and were more likely to require protease inhibitor-containing regimens or other more novel ART-based regimens.
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