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  1. Leecyous B, Bakhtiar F, Tang MM, Yadzir ZHM, Abdullah N
    Allergol Immunopathol (Madr), 2020 06 09;48(6):626-632.
    PMID: 32532468 DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2020.01.006
    INTRODUCTION: Basophil activation test (BAT) and immunoassays are the most widely used in vitro tests to diagnose IgE-mediated allergic reactions to penicillin. However, studies to determine if one test is interdependent from another are limited.

    OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to measure the agreement between BAT and immunoassay in diagnosis of penicillin allergy.

    METHOD: BAT was performed using penicillin G (Pen G), penicillin V (Pen V), penicilloyl-polylysine (PPL), minor determinant mix (MDM), amoxicillin (Amx) and ampicillin (Amp) in 25 patients. Immunoassay of total IgE (tIgE) and specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies to Pen G, Pen V, Amx and Amp were quantified. Skin prick test (SPT) using PPL-MDM, Amx, Amp and Clavulanic acid were also performed.

    RESULTS: Minimal agreement was observed between BAT and immunoassay (k=0.25). Of two BAT-positive patients, one patient is positive to Amx (59.27%, SI=59) and Amp (82.32%, SI=82) but sIgE-negative to all drug tested. This patient is also SPT-positive to both drugs. Another patient is BAT-positive to Pen G (10.18%, SI=40), Pen V (25.07%, SI=100) and Amp (19.52%, SI=79). In sIgE immunoassay, four patients were sIgE-positive to at least one of the drugs tested. The sIgE level of three patients was between low and moderate and they were BAT-negative. One BAT-positive patient had a high level of sIgE antibodies (3.50-17.5kU/L) along with relatively high specific to total IgE ratio ≥0.002 (0.004-0.007).

    CONCLUSIONS: The agreement between BAT and immunoassay is minimal. Performing both tests provides little increase in the sensitivity of allergy diagnosis work-up for immediate reactions to penicillin.

  2. Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Bakhtiar F, Leecyous B, Murad S
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2014 Aug;13(4):240-6.
    PMID: 24659159
    Component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) using microarray technology has recently been introduced with the aim to improve diagnosis of allergy. The aim of this study was to compare performance of this allergen microarray to those of an established extract-based skin prick testing (SPT).45 patients with allergic rhinitis were studied (16 children and 29 adults). SPT to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Blomia tropicalis extracts and allergen microarray ImmunoCAP ISAC were carried out for all patients. Forty out of 45 patients demonstrated positive SPT to all mite extracts tested. These 40 patients were considered to be mite-allergic based on the positive SPT results. The remaining 5 patients with negative SPT to any mite extracts were classified as non-mite allergic. Comparatively, based on the microarray results, only 34 mite-allergic patients had detectable serum IgE to at least one of the mite allergen components tested whereas 6 patients with positive SPT to mite extracts showed no detectable IgE reactivity to any of the components tested. One non-mite allergic patient had a positive test- Blo t 5. Der p 10-positive patients also reacted to other cross-reactive tropomyosin from anisakis (Ani s 3) (25%), cockroach (Bla g 7) (50%) and shrimp (Pen m 1) (75%). CRD is a reliable tool for the diagnosis of allergy to mites. Der p 10 might be a useful indicator to identify a subset of mite-allergic patient that have additional sensitization due to cross-reactivity and thus allows selection of patients for immunotherapy.
  3. Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Bakhtiar F, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Leecyous B, Murad S
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2016 Apr;15(2):156-60.
    PMID: 27090369
    Allergy diagnosis needs to be improved in polysensitized patients due to the existence of possible confounding factors in this type of patients. Component resolved diagnosis (CRD) is a new concept in the investigation of polysensitized patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the utilization of ImmunoCAP ISAC improve the diagnosis of the polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Skin prick test (SPT) to 58 crude allergen extracts and CRD (ImmunoCAP ISAC) were carried out for 5 polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Two patients had a shellfish allergy and avoidance of shellfish was the only way to prevent an allergic reaction. In contrast, although the remaining three patients had low risk for shellfish allergy, but they were the best candidates for immunotherapy using mite extracts. CRD and particularly ImmunoCAP ISAC have proven to be a valuable diagnostic tool in polysensitized patients. ImmunoCAP ISAC helps refine the individual patient's sensitization profile and predict the potential risk of allergic reactions and improve the selection of patients for immunotherapy.
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