Cellulose with ample hydroxyl groups is considered as a promising supportive biopolymer for fabricating cellulose supported promising magnetic sorbents (CMS) for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). The easy recovery via external magnetic field, and recyclability of CMS, associated with different types and surface modifications of cellulose has made them a promising sorbent in the field of solid-phase extraction. CMS based sorbent can offer improved adsorption and absorption capabilities due to its high specific surface area, porous structure, and magnetic attraction feature. This review mainly focuses on the fabrication strategies of CMS using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and various forms of cellulose as a heterogeneous and homogeneous solution either in alkaline mediated urea or Ionic liquids (ILs). Moreover, CMS will be elaborated based on their structures, synthesis, physical performance, and chemical attraction of MNPs and their MSPE in details. The advantages, challenges, and prospects of CMS in future applications are also presented.
The properties of a composite material depend on its constituent materials such as natural biopolymers or synthetic biodegradable polymers and inorganic or organic nanomaterials or nano-scale minerals. The significance of bio-based and synthetic polymers and their drawbacks on coating film application is currently being discussed in research papers and articles. Properties and applications vary for each novel synthetic bio-based material, and a number of such materials have been fabricated in recent years. This review provides an in-depth discussion on the properties and applications of biopolymer-based nanocomposite coating films. Recent works and articles are cited in this paper. These citations are ubiquitous in the development of novel bionanocomposites and their applications.
New and emerging demand for polyurethane (PU) continues to rise over the years. The harmful isocyanate binding agents and their integrated PU products are at the height of environmental concerns, in particular PU (macro and micro) pollution and their degradation problems. Non-isocyanate poly(hydroxy urethane)s (NIPUs) are sustainable and green alternatives to conventional PUs. Since the introduction of NIPU in 1957, the market value of NIPU and its hybridized materials has increased exponentially in 2019 and is expected to continue to rise in the coming years. The secondary hydroxyl groups of these NIPU's urethane moiety have revolutionized them by allowing for adequate pre/post functionalization. This minireview highlights different strategies and advances in pre/post-functionalization used in biobased NIPU. We have performed a comprehensive evaluation of the development of new ideas in this field to achieve more efficient synthetic biobased hybridized NIPU processes through selective and kinetic understanding.
Recently, surface functionality and thermal property of the green nanomaterials have received wide attention in numerous applications. In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used to prepare the nanocrystalline celluloses (NCCs) using acid hydrolysis method. The NCCs was treated with TEMPO [(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy radical]-oxidation to prepare TEMPO-oxidized NCCs. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) also prepared from MCC using TEMPO-oxidation. The effects of rapid cooling and chemical treatments on the thermo-structural property studies of the prepared nanocelluloses were investigated through FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric (TGA-DTG), and XRD. A posteriori knowledge of the FTIR and TGA-DTG analysis revealed that the rapid cooling treatment enhanced the hydrogen bond energy and thermal stability of the TEMPO-oxidized NCC compared to other nanocelluloses. XRD analysis exhibits the effect of rapid cooling on pseudo 2Ihelical conformation. This was the first investigation performed on the effect of rapid cooling on structural properties of the nanocellulose.