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  1. Quah BS, Anuar AK, Rowani MR, Pennie RA
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1997 Mar;17(1):77-81.
    PMID: 9176582
    Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is considered to be a variant of human filarial infection. The pulmonary manifestations of TPE have been well described. Extra-pulmonary features of the disease, although not commonly seen, have been reported previously. A 9-year-old Malay girl with a history of recurrent cough and wheezing was admitted because of cardiac failure. Physical examination revealed a very sick girl with tachypnoea, central cyanosis, finger clubbing, elevated jugular venous pulse, generalized crackles and rhonchi in the chest, a loud second heart sound and hepatosplenomegaly. A chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly and right pleural effusion. Laboratory investigations revealed hypochromic, microcytic anaemia with persistent blood eosinophilia (absolute eosinophil counts varied from 1.9 to 5.5 x 10(9)/1). The ELISA test for antifilarial IgG antibodies was strongly positive. She responded promptly to treatment with diethylcarbamazine. In summary, this is a patient with TPE who presented with cor pulmonale, probably due to late-stage interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In order to prevent the long term morbidity of cardiorespiratory disability, the early signs of TPE should be recognized and the infection treated.
  2. Mardhiah M, Azize NAA, Yakob Y, Affandi O, Hock NL, Rowani MR, et al.
    Mol Genet Metab Rep, 2020 Mar;22:100548.
    PMID: 32300527 DOI: 10.1016/j.ymgmr.2019.100548
    Introduction: Biotinidase deficiency (BD) is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by developmental delay, seizures, hypotonia, ataxia, skin rash/eczema, alopecia, conjunctivitis/visual problem/optic atrophy and metabolic acidosis. Delayed diagnosis may lead to irreversible neurological damage.

    Methodology: Clinically suspected patients were screened for biotinidase level by a fluorometry method. Profound BD patients were confirmed by mutation analysis of BTD gene.

    Results: 9 patients had biotinidase activity of less than 77 U. 3 patients (33%) had profound BD while 6 patients (67%) had partial BD. Compound heterozygous mutations were detected at c.98_104delinsTCC p.(Cys33Phefs*36) in Exon 2 and c.833T>C p.(Leu278Pro) in Exon 4 in two patients and a homozygous mutation at c.98_104delinsTCC p.(Cys33Phefs*36) in Exon 2 in another patient.

    Conclusion: Correct diagnosis lead to early treatment and accurate management of patient. Biochemical screening of BD in symptomatic child is prerequisite to determine enzyme status however molecular confirmation is vital in differentiating individuals with profound biotinidase deficiency from partial biotinidase deficiency and also individuals' carriers.

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