PIP: The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. We have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers' (Malay, Chinese and Indians) of full term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/l) of sodium is highest (48.2+or-1.7, Mean+or-SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation (mature milk). Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers were similar while the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7+or-3.4 mmol/l) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited lowest concentration (25.9+or-2.6 mmol/l) of sodium that is significantly (P0.05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. (Author's).
PIP: In 1986, single puncture laparoscopic application of the Filshie clip was introduced into Malaysia's National Population and Family Development Board's female sterilization program for an evaluation. A total of 42 female sterilizations were performed by this method between June 1986 and December 1986. Laparoscopy was performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia. In 37 cases, the sterilization was interval. Filshie clips were successfully applied to the fallopian tubes of 40 women; in the remaining 2 cases, the latching mechanism jammed and Falope rings were used instead. The average time from application of 1st clip to skin closure was 10 minutes. During clip application, technical problems (faulty applicator, clip fell into the pelvic cavity, failure of latching mechanism) were encountered in 4 cases and surgical difficulties (poor visualization, hydrosalpinx, and tubal adhesions) occurred in 10 cases. In general, complications were minimal: 1 patient developed cynosis after anesyhesia (Pethidine) injection, the omentum was torn during introduction of the trocar in another, and a 3rd patient developed thrombophlebitis at the intravenous site. Only 1 pregnancy was recorded during the follow-up period; this occurred 15 months postoperatively and was intrauterine. Given the facts that this procedure is easy to learn, fast and simple, associated with no more complications than other laparoscopic procedures, and is cosmetically more acceptable to women, its more widespread application is recommended.
A study was conducted on a total of 100 women attending the Family Planning Clinic in Kuala Lumpur. 50 took combined low-dose estrogen and progesterone pills for a year or more and the other 50 used different methods of birth control. Platelet aggregation, ATP release, Thromboxane B2, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha estimations were made to evaluate the effect of oral contraceptives (OCs) on platelet function and prostanoid production. The results showed no significant differences in the parameters measured in the 2 groups investigated. These findings are comparable to those reported by other studies, suggesting relatively low risk, if any, of thrombosis in OC users.
PIP: Previous studies have shown the users of intrauterine devices have a 4.4 times greater risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. This present study intends to categorize the distribution of microbes in cultures from different types of extracted copper intrauterine devices (IUCDs). Bacteriological studies of aerobic and anaerobic organisms were performed on the extracted IUCDs of 522 IUCD users; 480 wearing a Multiload Cu 250, 15 wearing a Copper T, 22 Lippes Loop and 5 a Copper 7. Cultures were negative in 46 (8.8%) IUCD cultures where 43 were Multiloads, Copper T (1) and Lippes Loop (2). 91.2% yielded bacterial growth and the commonest organisms isolated were Staphylococcus species, (23%), E.coli (9.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (4.0%. Candida albicans, E.coli and Staphylococcus sp. were commonly isolated from Multiload, Copper T, Lippes Loop and Copper 7. Beta-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida sp. were frequently recovered from Multiload, Copper T and Lippes Loop. Only Multiload cultures yielded Bacillus, Streptococcus viridans, Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter, Citrobacter diversus, Citrobacter freundii, Moraxella, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. One woman with complaint of PID yielded E.coli in her IUCD culture.
PIP: Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives.