The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models. The extract, at concentrations of 10, 50 and 100%, was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in distilled water (dH2O) for 72 h. The extract solutions were administered subcutaneously in mice/rats 30 min prior to the tests. The extract exhibited significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. Overall, these activities occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, except for the 50% concentration of the extract, which was not effective in the abdominal constriction test. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects and thus supported traditional claims of its medicinal uses.
The anti-pyretic activity of a standardized methanol/water (50/50) extract of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (SEOS) was investigated for its effect on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The SEOS showed no effect on normal body temperature. Doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of SEOS significantly reduced the yeast-induced elevation in body temperature. This effect persisted up to 4 h following the administration of the extract. The anti-pyretic effect of SEOS was comparable with that of paracetamol (acetaminophen in U.S) (150 mg/kg p.o.), a standard anti-pyretic agent. HPLC study revealed that rosmarinic acid, sinensetin, eupatorin and tetramethoxyflavone were present in SEOS in the amounts of 7.58%, 0.2%, 0.34% and 0.24% respectively. The LD(50) of the extract in rats was higher than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, the present study ascertained that SEOS possesses a significant anti-pyretic activity.