The main aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of ED and the associated socio-demographic and psychological correlates among hypertensive patients from a rural multiethnic community in Malaysia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among hypertensive patients attending rural primary care clinics. The socio-demographic, health characteristics, erectile function and levels of depression, anxiety and stress were recorded and analysed. The International Index of ErectileFunction-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were used to assess erectile function and the levels of depression, anxiety and stress, respectively.
A total of 253 hypertensive patients comprising 178 (70.4%) Malays, 56 (22.1%) Chinese and 18 (7.5%) Indians participated. The mean age of participants was 59.8 ± 10.62 years. Overall, the prevalence rate of ED was 62%: 90 (35%) with moderate and 69 (27%) with severe ED. The prevalence rate of ED among those aged 65 years or older (83.1%) was significantly higher than those less than 65 years (51.8%), (p<0.001). Higher prevalence rates were also noted among the Chinese (78.6%) compared to Malays (59.6%) and Indians (50%) (p=0.021); lower education level (69.1%) (p=0.026), among hypertensive patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (70.6%) (p=0.026) and WHR ≥ 0.9 (31.3%) (p=0.021). However, no significant association was found between depression, anxiety and stress scores with IIEF-5 score.
The prevalence rate of ED among Malaysian hypertensive patients is high. The rate increases significantly with age, Chinese ethnicity, concomitant diabetes mellitus, lower education level, WHR and the number of pack years of smoking. ED should be properly recognized and managed in hypertensive patients.
OBJECTIVE: To determine, in a population-based survey, the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), erectile dysfunction (ED) and incontinence in community-dwelling men in multiethnic Malaysia, as currently available Western demographic data might not be applicable in the Asian population.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out in the State of Penang, Malaysia, with a target population of men aged > or = 40 years. Using a multistage study design, random systematic sampling was used to represent the target population, who were weighted based on ethnicity and rural-urban ratios so as to represent the general population distribution. Trained field-workers conducted direct interviews and administered the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire and questions on incontinence based on the International Continence Society 2002 definition.
RESULTS: In all, 418 men aged > or = 40 years were interviewed, of whom 353 completed the AUA-SI questionnaire (84.5% response rate). The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe LUTS was 80.6%, 6% and 0.3%, respectively. The prevalent symptoms were frequency and nocturia. There was moderate and severe ED in 45.9% of men, whereas incontinence was reported by 8.2%. The AUA-SI correlated strongly with age (R = 0.291, P < 0.001), IIEF-5 (R = - 0.265, P < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence and severity of LUTS, ED and incontinence increased with age in this multiethnic Asian population, in which ED correlated strongly with LUTS. Compared to the Western population, the prevalence of LUTS was significantly lower, while the prevalence of ED and incontinence were comparable.
This paper highlights women's perceptions of sildenafil citrate (Viagra, Pfizer). It is based on a qualitative study on perceptions of erectile dysfunction in the Malaysian multicultural society. Six focus groups were conducted, consisting of 69 women, aged between 40 and 70 years, recruited from the general public and who had given informed consent. The findings revealed that the women were aware of erectile dysfunction and Viagra. Due to their concern about the negative aspects of Viagra, the Chinese and Malay traditional methods of treatment were commonly mentioned. The women from three ethnic groups viewed the possibility of their husband starting to take Viagra with lots of suspicion, mistrust and fear. They would prefer their husband discussing with them the issue of resorting to taking Viagra. The Chinese and Indian women perceived that if a man takes Viagra, it will boost his ego and he will feel more manly. Indian women felt that a man taking Viagra is proof of his love for his wife. The Malay women felt that a man would be ashamed and have a low self-esteem if he were to resort to taking Viagra. Although Viagra is meant for the male, understanding of women's perception of it is beneficial for a couple's sexual relationship.
Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care.
To explore by a pooled subanalysis of the Global Better Sex Survey sexual aspirations and unmet needs of men and women from Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand.
To qualify, respondents must have had sexual intercourse at least once in the past 12 months. Women must have had heterosexual intercourse. Data were weighted by population size between countries.
Of 3538 Asian respondents (1776 men and 1762 women), 52% were aged <40 years, 40% were aged 40-59 years, and 8% were aged >or=60 years. The majority were married or in a relationship. Men and women reported having sexual intercourse 5.1 and 4.0 times monthly, respectively. Attraction to partner, foreplay, intercourse, and achieving orgasm were important to most men and women. Two thirds were less than very satisfied with their sex life, and 36% of men were interested in improving sex. For a good sexual experience, the man's ability to get and maintain an erection and erection hardness were important to the majority of Asian men and women. Few respondents reported using a prescription erectile dysfunction medication, but many showed interest in using these medications to improve their sex lives. A comparison between individual countries suggests that attitudes about sex differ from country to country, and between men and women in each country.
Sex is very important to Asian men and women, but many of them are not fully satisfied with their sex lives and want to improve them.
This qualitative study aimed to examine cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction (ED) utilizing focus group discussion. Six focus groups consisting of 66 men, 45-70-y-old were conducted-two Malay groups (n=18), two Chinese groups (n=25) and two Indian groups (n=23). Participants were purposely recruited from the general public on a voluntary basis with informed consent. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative data analysis software ATLASti. The Malay and Chinese traditional remedies for preventing or treating ED are commonly recognized among all races. Many have a negative perception of someone with ED. Malay and Chinese men tended to blame their wife for their problem and thought that the problem might lead to extra-marital affairs, unlike the Indian men who attributed their condition to fate. Malays would prefer traditional medicine for the problem. The Chinese felt they would be more comfortable with a male doctor whilst this is not so with the Malays or Indians. Almost all prefer the doctor to initiate discussion on sexual issues related to their medical condition. There is a need for doctors to consider cultural perspectives in a multicultural society as a lack of understanding of this often contributes to an inadequate consultation.
Sildenafil citrate (Viagra), a selective inhibitor of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type-5, has been used as an oral therapeutic drug for erectile dysfunction. The present paper is a clinical study of the success rate and side-effects of the use of sildenafil in a multi-racial population in Singapore.