Present study aimed to investigate the effect of adding antioxidants, cysteine and ascorbic acid on the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) enzymes of post-thawed stallion sperm. Ten ejaculates were collected each from four healthy stallions and cryopreserved using HF-20 freezing extender containing either 0 mg/ml cysteine or ascorbic acid, 0.5 mg/ml cysteine and 0.5 mg/ml ascorbic acid. All samples in freezing extender containing cysteine or ascorbic acid or none of them were assessed for sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity, morphology and enzymes concentration. The ALP, LDH and GGT were significantly higher in 0-group compared with cysteine and ascorbic acid groups. The sperm motility of frozen-thawed semen with 0-group was significantly better compared with cysteine and ascorbic acid groups. The variation on viability, sperm membrane integrity and morphology were insignificant between all treated groups. Therefore, these enzymes were reduced when using antioxidants in the freezing extender. Results of the present study suggest that concentration of ALP, LDH and GGT enzymes could be used as parameters for prediction of frozen-thawed stallion semen.
Epiglottic entrapment is a condition in racing horses, associated with abnormal respiratory noises and exercise intolerance. Epiglottic entrapment has been linked to both poor and superior athletic performance, leading to concerns regarding whether surgery is indicated, and whether surgical correction may have a deleterious effect on future race performance. The objective of the current study was to assess the race-day performance of horses racing with epiglottic entrapment and the effect of surgical correction on performance outcomes using an intra-oral technique in anaesthetised horses. A case-control study was conducted at the Singapore Turf Club from 2008 to 2011. Controls were selected 1:1 to cases, based on Malaysian Racing Authority number. The performance of horses racing with epiglottic entrapment was recorded and post-surgery race performance was described. Further, post-surgery race performance was compared between cases and with non-case controls. Twenty horses raced with epiglottic entrapment were retrospectively enrolled. There was a significant difference in racing performance in case horses racing with and without epiglottic entrapment (P