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  1. Yeang HY
    Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol., 2000 Jun;84(6):628-32.
    PMID: 10875493 DOI: 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)62415-5
    BACKGROUND:
    The prevalence of latex-specific IgE computed from the results of serologic assays is commonly thought to reflect, to a greater or lesser extent, the prevalence of latex allergy and its implied risk.

    OBJECTIVE:
    The study examines how imperfect test specificity of in vitro assays influences the precision of latex allergy prevalence that it estimates.

    METHODS:
    Various models encompassing a range of hypothetical test sensitivity and specificity values are investigated to gauge their influence on the estimate of latex allergy prevalence. The models examine these interactions in situations of high or low allergy prevalence.

    RESULTS:
    Serologic latex diagnostic assays with test specificity within the range of those of commercially available assays can greatly overestimate prevalence where the true prevalence is low (eg, of the order of one in 100 or one in 1,000). A formula to correct for errors in prevalence estimates arising from imperfect test sensitivity and specificity of an in vitro assay is presented.

    CONCLUSION:
    While serologic assays for latex IgE pose few hazards to the patient and are useful for confirming the diagnosis of latex allergy, the test results may vastly overestimate the true prevalence of latex allergy and its associated risks in situations where latex allergy is actually rare.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex Hypersensitivity/diagnosis
  2. Yeang HY
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol, 2004 Apr;4(2):99-104.
    PMID: 15021061
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW:
    New allergenic latex proteins have been identified, whereas further information on known latex allergens has emerged in recent years. Although prevalence figures for sensitization to the various latex allergens have been published in several studies in the past, the data have not been collated to facilitate cross-comparison.

    RECENT FINDINGS:
    Salient characteristics of the three most recently identified latex allergens, Hev b 11, 12 and 13 are described, whereas new findings on some of the previously recognized allergens are examined. Hev b 2 is viewed from the standpoint of allergenicity and protein glycosylation, Hev b 4 in relation to its biochemical identity and molecular cloning, Hev b 5 with respect to its recombinant form, and Hev b 6 in connection with conformational IgE epitopes. Reports on sensitization or allergic reaction to purified latex allergens from recent and past work are summarized. The use of latex allergens in latex allergy diagnostics is reviewed and discussed.

    SUMMARY:
    Thirteen latex allergens have been recognized by the International Union of Immunological Societies. Based on the results of published studies, native Hev b 2, recombinant Hev b 5, native or recombinant Hev b 6, native Hev b 13, and possibly native Hev b 4 are the major allergens relevant to latex-sensitized adults. Although there is an increasing tendency to identify and characterize latex allergens largely on the basis of their recombinant forms, not all such recombinant proteins have been fully validated against their native counterparts with respect to clinical significance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex Hypersensitivity/diagnosis
  3. Yeang HY, Chow KS, Yusof F, Arif SA, Chew NP, Loke YH
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol, 2000 Jul-Aug;10(4):215-22.
    PMID: 11039838
    Six Hevea brasiliensis latex protein allergens, Hevb 1, Hev b 2, Hev b 3, Hev b 4, and two variants of Hev b 7 (7b and 7c), were purified from Hevea latex, while a seventh protein, Hev b 5, was prepared in recombinant form. The presence of these proteins in glove extracts was indicated by their respective antibodies in the serum of rabbits immunized against the extracts. The relative propensities of IgE binding to the individual latex allergens were compared using sera from latex-allergic patients. IgE recognition of Hev b 4, Hev b 7b, Hev b 5 and Hev b 2 was most frequently encountered, with 75, 61, 31 and 28%, respectively, of the patient sera reacting. Sensitivity to multiple latex proteins was common, and out of the 31 seropositive patients, 23 (74%/ ) had IgE against at least two latex allergens, while 12 (39%) had IgE specific for at least three allergens. Statistical analysis of the data suggested that many patients might have acquired sensitivity to Hev b 2, Hev b 4 and Hev b 7b from a common source. (e.g., from latex products). On the other hand, sensitivity to Hev b 5 and to Hev b 7c were interrelated. It is plausible that sensitivity to these two proteins might have been acquired from sources other than latex products (e.g., from certain foods).
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex Hypersensitivity/diagnosis*
  4. Chaubal TV, Bapat RA, Patil PG, Shetty A
    Contact Derm., 2016 Oct;75(4):256-7.
    PMID: 27620128 DOI: 10.1111/cod.12625
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex Hypersensitivity/diagnosis
  5. Hamilton RG, Adkinson NF
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 1998 Sep;102(3):482-90.
    PMID: 9768592
    BACKGROUND: No characterized diagnostic natural rubber latex skin testing material is licensed for use in the United States.

    OBJECTIVE: We have conducted a multicenter clinical skin testing study to document the safety and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a candidate Hevea brasiliensis nonammoniated latex (NAL) extract. These data are intended to support the licensing of this reagent for the diagnosis of latex allergy in high-risk populations.

    METHODS: Three hundred twenty-four subjects (304 adults and 20 children) were classified by their clinical history as having latex allergy (LA group, 124 adults and 10 children) or having no latex allergy (NLA group, 180 adults and 10 children). All subjects provided blood samples and then received sequential puncture skin tests (PSTs) at 1, 100, or 1000 microg/mL protein with a bifurcated needle and NAL (Greer Laboratories) from Malaysian Hevea brasiliensis (clone 600) sap. A 2-stage glove provocation test was used to clarify latex allergy status of individuals with positive history/negative PST result and negative history/positive PST result mismatches.

    RESULTS: Twenty-four subjects (15%) originally designated as having LA on the basis of their initial clinical history were reclassified to the NLA group on the basis of a negative glove provocation test result. Of the 134 subjects with LA, 54 (40%) were highly sensitive to latex, with a positive PST result at 1 microg/mL NAL. The Greer NAL reagent produced a positive PST rate (sensitivity) of 95% and 99% in subjects with LA at 100 microg/mL and 1 mg/mL, respectively. The negative PST rate (specificity) in 190 subjects with a negative history with the NAL extract at 100 microg/mL and 1 mg/mL, was 100% and 96%, respectively. Immediately after the PST, mild systemic reactions (mainly pruritus) were recorded in 16.1 % of the adults in the LA group and 4.4% of the adults in the NLA group. No reactions required treatment with epinephrine. Only mild delayed reactions were observed in 9.6% (LA group) and 2.8% (NLA group) of subjects 24 to 48 hours after PST. Mean wheal and erythema diameters measured in the 10 children in the LA group with spina bifida at 100 microg/mL and 1 mg/mL were similar to those observed in the adults in the LA group, suggesting that children are not at increased risk for systemic reactions compared with adults.

    CONCLUSIONS: A suggestive clinical history is necessary but not sufficient for a definitive diagnosis of IgE-dependent latex allergy. These data support the safety and diagnostic efficacy of the Greer NAL, skin test reagent at 100 micro/mL and 1 mg/mL for confirmatory PSTs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Latex Hypersensitivity/diagnosis*
  6. Yeang HY, Hamilton RG, Bernstein DI, Arif SA, Chow KS, Loke YH, et al.
    Clin. Exp. Allergy, 2006 Aug;36(8):1078-86.
    PMID: 16911364 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02531.x
    BACKGROUND:
    Hevea brasiliensis latex serum is commonly used as the in vivo and in vitro reference antigen for latex allergy diagnosis as it contains the full complement of latex allergens.

    OBJECTIVE:
    This study quantifies the concentrations of the significant allergens in latex serum and examines its suitability as an antigen source in latex allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy.

    METHODS:
    The serum phase was extracted from centrifuged latex that was repeatedly freeze-thawed or glycerinated. Quantitation of latex allergens was performed by two-site immunoenzymetric assays. The abundance of RNA transcripts of the latex allergens was estimated from the number of their clones in an Expressed Sequence Tags library.

    RESULTS:
    The latex allergens, Hev b 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 13, were detected in freeze-thawed and glycerinated latex serum at levels ranging from 75 (Hev b 6) to 0.06 nmol/mg total proteins (Hev b 4). Hev b 6 content in the latex was up to a thousand times higher than the other seven latex allergens, depending on source and/or preparation procedure. Allergen concentration was reflected in the abundance of mRNA transcripts. When used as the antigen, latex serum may bias the outcome of latex allergy diagnostic tests towards sensitization to Hev b 6. Tests that make use of latex serum may fail to detect latex-specific IgE reactivity in subjects who are sensitized only to allergens that are present at low concentrations.

    CONCLUSION:
    Latex allergy diagnostics and immunotherapy that use whole latex serum as the antigen source may not be optimal because of the marked imbalance of its constituent allergens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex Hypersensitivity/diagnosis*
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