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  1. Yip Ch, Bhoo-Pathy N, Daniel J, Foo Y, Mohamed A, Abdullah M, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(3):1077-82.
    PMID: 27039727
    BACKGROUND: The three standard biomarkers used in breast cancer are the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The Ki-67 index, a proliferative marker, has been shown to be associated with a poorer outcome, and despite absence of standardization of pathological assessment, is widely used for therapy decision making. We aim to study the role of the Ki-67 index in a group of Asian women with breast cancer.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 450 women newly diagnosed with Stage 1 to 3 invasive breast cancer in a single centre from July 2013 to Dec 2014 were included in this study. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between Ki-67 (positive defined as 14% and above) and age, ethnicity, grade, mitotic index, ER, PR, HER2, lymph node status and size. All analyses were performed using SPSS Version 22.

    RESULTS: In univariable analysis, Ki -67 index was associated with younger age, higher grade, ER and PR negativity, HER2 positivity, high mitotic index and positive lymph nodes. However on multivariable analysis only tumour size, grade, PR and HER2 remained significant. Out of 102 stage 1 patients who had ER positive/PR positive/HER2 negative tumours and non-grade 3, only 5 (4.9%) had a positive Ki-67 index and may have been offered chemotherapy. However, it is interesting to note that none of these patients received chemotherapy.

    CONCLUSIONS: Information on Ki67 would have potentially changed management in an insignificant proportion of patients with stage 1 breast cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods
  2. Nordin N, Yaacob NM, Abdullah NH, Mohd Hairon S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2018 Feb 26;19(2):497-502.
    PMID: 29480991
    Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease and the leading cause of cancer death among
    women globally. This study aimed to determine the median survival time and prognostic factors for breast cancer
    patients in a North-East State of Malaysia. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted from January till
    April 2017 using secondary data obtained from the state’s cancer registry. All 549 cases of breast cancer diagnosed
    from 1st January 2007 until 31st December 2011 were selected and retrospectively followed-up until 31st December
    2016. Sociodemographic and clinical information was collected to determine prognostic factors. Results: The average
    (SD) age at diagnosis was 50.4 (11.2) years, the majority of patients having Malay ethnicity (85.8%) and a histology of
    ductal carcinoma (81.5%). Median survival times for those presenting at stages III and IV were 50.8 (95% CI: 25.34,
    76.19) and 6.9 (95% CI: 3.21, 10.61) months, respectively. Ethnicity (Adj. HR for Malay vs non-Malay ethnicity=2.52;
    95% CI: 1.54, 4.13; p<0.001), stage at presentation (Adj. HR for Stage III vs Stage I=2.31; 95% CI: 1.57, 3.39; p<0.001
    and Adj. HR for Stage IV vs Stage I=6.20; 95% CI: 4.45, 8.65; p<0.001), and history of surgical treatment (Adj. HR
    for patients with no surgical intervention=1.95; 95% CI: 1.52, 2.52; p<0.001) were observed to be the statistically
    significant prognostic factors associated with death caused by breast cancer. Conclusion: The median survival time
    among breast cancer patients in North-East State of Malaysia was short as compared to other studies. Primary and
    secondary prevention aimed at early diagnosis and surgical management of breast cancer, particularly among the Malay
    ethnic group, could improve treatment outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods
  3. Fauzi MFA, Chen W, Knight D, Hampel H, Frankel WL, Gurcan MN
    J Med Syst, 2019 Dec 18;44(2):38.
    PMID: 31853654 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-019-1515-y
    Tumor budding is defined as the presence of single tumor cells or small tumor clusters (less than five cells) that 'bud' from the invasive front of the main tumor. Tumor budding (TB) has recently emerged as an important adverse prognostic factor for many different cancer types. In colorectal carcinoma (CRC), tumor budding has been independently associated with lymph node metastasis and poor outcome. Pathologic assessment of tumor budding by light microscopy requires close evaluation of tumor invasive front on intermediate to high power magnification, entailing locating the 'hotspot' of tumor budding, counting all TB in one high power field, and generating a tumor budding score. By automating these time-consuming tasks, computer-assisted image analysis tools can be helpful for daily pathology practice, since tumor budding reporting is now recommended on select cases. In this paper, we report our work on the development of a tumor budding detection system in CRC from whole-slide Cytokeratin AE1/3 images, based on de novo computer algorithm that automates morphometric analysis of tumor budding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods*
  4. Hassan MR, Suan MA, Soelar SA, Mohammed NS, Ismail I, Ahmad F
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(7):3575-81.
    PMID: 27510011
    BACKGROUND: Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for effective early detection and improvements in cancer treatment. This study was undertaken to document colorectal cancer survival and associated prognostic factors in Malaysians.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: All data were retrieved from the National Cancer Patient Registry Colorectal Cancer. Only cases with confirmed diagnosis through histology between the year 2008 and 2009 were included. Retrieved data include sociodemographic information, pathological features and treatment received. Survival curves were plotted using the KaplanMeier method. Univariate analysis of all variables was then made using the Logrank test. All significant factors that influenced survival of patients were further analysed in a multivariate analysis using Cox' regression.

    RESULTS: Total of 1,214 patients were included in the study. The overall 3 and 5year survival rates were 59.1% and 48.7%, respectively. Patients with localized tumours had better prognosis compared to those with advanced stage cancer. In univariate analysis, staging at diagnosis (p<0.001), primary tumour size (p<0.001), involvement of lymph nodes (p<0.001) and treatment modalities (p=0.001) were found to be predictors of survival. None of the sociodemographic characteristics were found to exert any influence. In Cox regression analysis, staging at diagnosis (p<0.001), primary tumour size (p<0.001), involvement of lymph nodes (p<0.001) and treatment modalities (p<0.001) were determined as independent prognostic factors of survival after adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity.

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall survival rate for colorectal cancer patients in Malaysia is similar to those in other Asian countries, with staging at diagnosis, primary tumor size, involvement of lymph node and treatment modalities having significant effects. More efforts are needed to improve national survival rates in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods
  5. Loh SY, Chew SL
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(1):199-202.
    PMID: 21517257
    Breast self-examination (BSE) is a self-generated, non-invasive and non-irradiative method of breast cancer detection. This paper documents Malaysian women's awareness and practice of regular BSE as a potent breast cancer detection tool. A pre-test post-test questionnaire survey on women diagnosed with breast cancer (n=66) was conducted. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were performed to correlate demographic variables, knowledge and regular practice of BSE. Findings showed that 80% of the breast cancer survivors self-detected the breast lumps, despite a high 85% of these women reporting they were never taught about BSE. More than 70% of the women maintained that lack of knowledge/skill on the proper practice of BSE was the key barrier to a more regular BSE practice. After an educational intervention on BSE and breast awareness, we found an increase report from 17% (at pre-test) to 67% (at post-test) of self reported monthly BSE practices. Provision of self-management education incorporating BSE, a readily available cheap method, should be introduced at primary care and breast clinics. This strategy promotes women's self-efficacy which contributes towards cancer control agenda in less resource available countries around Asia Pacific. Longer follow up may be crucial to examine the adherence to positive BSE behaviour.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods
  6. Liam CK, Andarini S, Lee P, Ho JC, Chau NQ, Tscheikuna J
    Respirology, 2015 May;20(4):526-34.
    PMID: 25682805 DOI: 10.1111/resp.12489
    For a long time lung cancer was associated with a fatalistic approach by healthcare professionals. In recent years, advances in imaging, improved diagnostic techniques and more effective treatment modalities are reasons for optimism. Accurate lung cancer staging is vitally important because treatment options and prognosis differ significantly by stage. The staging algorithm should include a contrast computed tomography (CT) of the chest and the upper abdomen including adrenals, positron emission tomography/CT for staging the mediastinum and to rule out extrathoracic metastasis in patients considered for surgical resection, endosonography-guided needle sampling procedure replacing mediastinoscopy for near complete mediastinal staging, and brain imaging as clinically indicated. Applicability of evidence-based guidelines for staging of lung cancer depends on the available expertise and level of resources and is directly impacted by financial issues. Considering the diversity of healthcare infrastructure and economic performance of Asian countries, optimal and cost-effective use of staging methods appropriate to the available resources is prudent. The pulmonologist plays a central role in the multidisciplinary approach to lung cancer diagnosis, staging and management. Regional respiratory societies such as the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology should work with national respiratory societies to strive for uniform standards of care. For developing countries, a minimum set of care standards should be formulated. Cost-effective delivery of optimal care for lung cancer patients, including staging within the various healthcare systems, should be encouraged and most importantly, tobacco control implementation should receive an absolute priority status in all countries in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods
  7. Wong YF, Yusof MM, Wan Ishak WZ, Alip A, Phua VC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(7):2903-8.
    PMID: 25854381
    BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the eighth most common cancer as estimated from worldwide data. The incidence of HNC in Peninsular Malaysia was reported as 8.5 per 100,000 population. This study was aimed to determine the treatment outcomes for HNC patients treated in the Oncology Unit of University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: All newly diagnosed patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (HNSCC) referred for treatment to the Oncology Unit at UMMC from 2003-2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment outcomes were 5-year overall survival (OS), cause specific survival (CSS), loco-regional control (LRC) and radiotherapy (RT) related side effects. Kaplan-Meier and log rank analyses were used to determine survival outcomes, stratified according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage.

    RESULTS: A total of 130 cases were analysed. Most cases (81.5%) were at late stage (AJCC III-IVB) at presentation. The 5-year OS for the whole study population was 34.4% with a median follow up of 24 months. The 5-year OS according to AJCC stage was 100%, 48.2%, 41.4% and 22.0% for stage I, II, III and IVA-B, respectively. The 5-year overall CSS and LCR were 45.4% and 55.4%, respectively. Late effects of RT were documented in 41.4% of patients. The most common late effect was xerostomia.

    CONCLUSIONS: The treatment outcome of HNSCC at our centre is lagging behind those of developed nations. Efforts to increase the number of patients presenting in earlier stages, increase in the use of combined modality treatment, especially concurrent chemoradiotherapy and implementation of intensity modulated radiotherapy, may lead to better outcomes for our HNC patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods
  8. Chan KK, Dassanayake B, Deen R, Wickramarachchi RE, Kumarage SK, Samita S, et al.
    World J Surg Oncol, 2010;8:82.
    PMID: 20840793 DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-8-82
    This study compares clinico-pathological features in young (<40 years) and older patients (>50 years) with colorectal cancer, survival in the young and the influence of pre-operative clinical and histological factors on survival.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods*
  9. Wong PS, Lau WF, Worth LJ, Thursky KA, Drummond E, Slavin MA, et al.
    Intern Med J, 2012 Feb;42(2):176-83.
    PMID: 21309995 DOI: 10.1111/j.1445-5994.2011.02450.x
    BACKGROUND:
    FDG-PET/CT is widely used in the management of a variety of malignancies with excellent overall accuracy, despite the potential for false positive results related to infection and inflammation.

    AIM:
      As cancer patients can develop clinically inapparent infections, we evaluated the prevalence and nature of incidental findings reported to be suggestive of infections that had been identified during clinical cancer staging with FDG-PET/CT.

    METHODS:
    The study involved a retrospective analysis of 60 patients managed primarily at our facility from a total of 121 cases identified as having possible infection on clinical reporting of more than 4500 cancer staging investigations performed during the calendar year of 2008.

    RESULTS:
    Occult infections were uncommon overall (≤1%), but most often because of pneumonia (31.6%), upper respiratory tract infections (21.1%) or wound infections (15.8%). Abnormal scans contributed to patients' management in 52.7% of cases. Two out of 13 patients whose scan abnormalities were not investigated further had worsening changes on repeated scan and one of these patients had clinical deterioration.

    CONCLUSIONS:
    In patients with FDG-PET/CT scans suggestive of infection and in whom a final diagnosis could be reached, the positive predictive value for FDG-PET/CT scans was 89% suggesting that abnormal scans indicative of infection should be investigated further in this population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods*
  10. Azrif M, Ibrahim J, Aslan NM, Fong KV, Ismail F
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(1):157-62.
    PMID: 21517250
    INTRODUCTION: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer is given with the aim of shrinking the disease sufficiently for surgery. However, many clinical trials investigating neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens were conducted for operable breast cancer.

    METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with T3-4, N2 M0 breast cancer diagnosed between January 2005 and December 2008 and who received at least one cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were eligible for this study. Thirty-four patients were identified from the Chemotherapy Daycare Records and their medical records were reviewed retrospectively. The neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen administered was at the discretion of the treating oncologist. Breast tumour size and nodal status was assessed at diagnosis, at each cycle and before surgery.

    RESULTS: All 34 patients had invasive ductal cancer. The median age was 52 years (range 27-69). 65% had T4 disease and 76% were clinically lymph node positive at diagnosis. The median size of the breast tumour at presentation was 80 mm (range 42-200 mm). Estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity was seen in less than 40% and HER2 positivity, by immunohistochemistry, in 27%. The majority (85%) of patients had anthracycline based chemotherapy, without taxanes. The overall response rate (clinical CR+PR) was 67.6% and pathological complete responses were apparent in two (5.9%). 17.6% of patients defaulted part of their planned treatment. Recurrent disease was seen in 44.1% and the median time to relapse was 11.3 months. The three year disease free and overall survival rates were 52.5% and 58% respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer in a Malaysian setting confers response and pCR rates comparable to published clinical trials. Patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy are at risk of defaulting part of their treatment and therefore their concerns need to be identified proactively and addressed in order to improve outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods
  11. Hassan BA, Yusoff ZB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(1):185-91.
    PMID: 21517255
    INTRODUCTION: Nausea and vomiting are recognized as two separate and distinct conditions with a wide spectrum of etiologies either directly associated with cancer itself or its treatment. According to the new ranking of chemotherapy side effects, nausea is the number one or the most disturbing side effects while vomiting is the third and sometimes the fifth. The introduction of 5-HT3-recptor antagonists in the early of 1990s has revolutionized the treatment of nausea and vomiting, these agents remaining the mainstay of antiemetic therapy today. Ethnic variation (due to genetic polymorphisms) may lead to diversity in antiemetic treatment pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, in terms of distribution, elimination, disposition and clinical effects. The aim of the present study was to clarify genetic polymorphism effects in the three main races in Malaysia i.e., Malay, Chinese and Indian, on the clinical antiemetic effects of granisetron.

    METHODS: In this longitudinal prospective observational study, 158 breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy were monitored for nausea and vomiting in the first 24 hours after chemotherapy administration. The patients were then followed up again after 3 to 5 days of chemotherapy.

    RESULTS: Genetic polymorphisms in the three races in Malaysia have significant effect on granisetron clinical antiemetic action because each is characterized by variant CYP3A4 enzymatic action.

    CONCLUSION: According to the result, different type of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, such as tropisetron and dolasetron which are predominantly metabolized by CYP2D6, should be used especially for Chinese breast cancer patients.

    Study site: Hospital Pulau Pinang
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods
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