Enterovirus 71 (EV71) belongs to human enterovirus species A of the genus Enterovirus within the family Picornaviridae. EV71, together with coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), are most frequently associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Although HFMD is considered a mild exanthematous infection, infections involving EV71, but not CVA16, can progress to severe neurological disease, including fatal encephalitis, aseptic meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis. In recent years, epidemic and sporadic outbreaks of neurovirulent EV71 infections have been reported in Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Japan and China. Here, we show that human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2, also known as lysosomal integral membrane protein II or CD36b like-2) is a receptor for EV71. EV71 binds soluble SCARB2 or cells expressing SCARB2, and the binding is inhibited by an antibody to SCARB2. Expression of human SCARB2 enables normally unsusceptible cell lines to support EV71 propagation and develop cytopathic effects. EV71 infection is hampered by the antibody to SCARB2 and soluble SCARB2. SCARB2 also supports the infection of the milder pathogen CVA16. The identification of SCARB2 as an EV71 and CVA16 receptor contributes to a better understanding of the pathogenicity of these viruses.
Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that was first isolated in 1999 during an outbreak in Malaysia. In contrast to other paramyxoviruses NiV infects many mammalian species. Because of its zoonotic potential, the high pathogenicity and the lack of therapeutic treatment, NiV was classified as a biosafety level 4 pathogen. In humans NiV causes a severe acute encephalitis whereas in some animal hosts respiratory symptoms are predominantly observed. Despite the differences in the clinical outcome, microvascular endothelial cell damage predominantly underlies the pathological changes in NiV infections in all susceptible host species. NiV generally induces a pronounced vasculitis which is primarily characterised by endothelial cell necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. For future developments of specific antiviral therapies or vaccines, a detailed understanding of the molecular basis of NiV pathogenesis is required. This article reviews the current knowledge about natural and experimental infections in different mammals, focusing on the main organ and cell tropism in vivo, and summarises some recent studies in cell culture on the role of ephrin-B2 and -B3 receptors in NiV infection of endothelial cells.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an issue of global significance that has taken the lives of many across the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for its pathogenesis. The pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 have been well described in the literature. Initially, it was thought to be limited to the respiratory system; however, we now recognize that COVID-19 also affects several other organs, including the nervous system. Two similar human coronaviruses (CoV) that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) are also known to cause disease in the nervous system. The neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are growing rapidly, as evidenced by several reports. There are several mechanisms responsible for such manifestations in the nervous system. For instance, post-infectious immune-mediated processes, direct virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS), and virus-induced hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable states are commonly involved. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and its variants, dysfunction of taste and smell, and muscle injury are numerous examples of COVID-19 PNS (peripheral nervous system) disease. Likewise, hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, encephalitis, meningitis, encephalopathy acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, endothelialitis, and venous sinus thrombosis are some instances of COVID-19 CNS disease. Due to multifactorial and complicated pathogenic mechanisms, COVID-19 poses a large-scale threat to the whole nervous system. A complete understanding of SARS-CoV-2 neurological impairments is still lacking, but our knowledge base is rapidly expanding. Therefore, we anticipate that this comprehensive review will provide valuable insights and facilitate the work of neuroscientists in unfolding different neurological dimensions of COVID-19 and other CoV associated abnormalities.