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  1. Sinniah D, Sinniah R, Baskaran G, Pathmanathan R, Yamashita F, Yoshino M
    Acta Paediatr Jpn, 1990 Aug;32(4):462-8.
    PMID: 2288230
    Glucose and steroids have been used in the treatment of children with Reye's syndrome, while carnitine and coenzyme Q10 have been the subject of some recent studies which suggest that these agents may have a role in the treatment of Reye's syndrome and Reye-like syndrome due to margosa oil poisoning. Because of the paucity of causes of Reye's syndrome seen at any one centre, the clinical variability of the disease, and limited knowledge of definite aetiologic factors, controlled clinical trials are not easy to carry out or to interpret in human cases. These caveats were overcome by evaluation of these four treatment modalities in an established margosa-oil-induced animal model of Reye's syndrome. Effectiveness of the treatment modalities was determined from clinical response and histopathologic parameters (grading of light microscopic fatty changes and ultrastructural changes in the hepatocytes). Results show that carnitine per se produces a small improvement in survival, but statistically, more significant benefit is seen with glucose administration. Carnitine plus 10% dextrose appears to produce better results. Evaluation of coenzyme Q10 and carnitine on histopathologic parameters in the liver after a sublethal dose of margosa oil showed no obvious ameliorating effect on liver pathology. Steroids (dexamethasone/methylprednisolone) had no beneficial effects in reducing mortality, affecting glycogen storage or lipid accumulation. Changes in the mitochondria, ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum were unaltered from the groups treated with margosa oil alone. While glucose and carnitine supplements appear to be beneficial, the other modes of therapy do not seem to hold much promise in the treatment of Reye-like syndrome in the margosa-oil-induced animal model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reye Syndrome/drug therapy*
  2. Koga Y, Yoshida I, Kimura A, Yoshino M, Yamashita F, Sinniah D
    Pediatr Res, 1987 Aug;22(2):184-7.
    PMID: 3658544
    Margosa oil (MO), a fatty acid-rich extract of the seeds of the neem tree and a reported cause of Reye's syndrome, has been used in the induction of an experimental model of Reye's syndrome in rats. It has been reported that MO causes a decrease in in vivo mitochondrial enzyme activity similar to that seen in Reye's syndrome. We have attempted to uncover some of the biochemical mechanisms of MO's toxicity by examining its effect in vitro on isolated rat liver mitochondria. Male rat liver mitochondria were isolated by centrifugation; oxygen uptake, reduced forms of cytochrome b, c + c1, a + a3, and flavoprotein, intramitochondrial concentrations of acetyl coA, acid-soluble coA, acid-insoluble coA, and ATP content were measured after incubation with and without MO. Our results reveal that MO is a mitochondrial uncoupler. State 4 respiration was increased while the respiratory control ratio was decreased. The intramitochondrial content of ATP was also decreased. There were substantial changes in the reduction of the respiratory chain components after incubation of mitochondria with MO. This decelerative effect on mitochondrial electron transport was alleviated by the addition of coenzyme Q and/or carnitine. These effects of MO on mitochondrial respiration may be due to changes in fatty acid metabolism caused by MO as MO caused a shift in the proportion of acid-soluble or acid-insoluble coA esters. Supplementary therapy with L-carnitine and coenzyme Q may be useful in the management of MO-induced Reye's syndrome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reye Syndrome/drug therapy
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