1. The Proteus strain XL, isolated by Dr. LIMA in the endemic area at Sao Paulo, represents the serological type of Proteus which corresponds to the local variety of typhus virus. 2. The Proteus strain "Muar", isolated in the Federated Malay States and described by MARTIN, antigenically corresponds to the virus of the local variety of tropical typhus (type XK). 3. The agglutinins for the two types OX19 and OX2, present in the serum from cases of "fie`vre boutonneuse" of the Mediterranean, are of the order of group agglutinins and are due to group antigens present in the virus. 4. It is suggested that the type of the main antigen of the virus of "fie`vre boutonneuse" will remain unknown until the corresponding type of Proteus has been isolated. 5. The relationship between the agglutinogenic and the immunogenic properties of different varieties of typhus virus is discussed. The established facts indicate that cross-immunity between typhus viruses is accompanied by identity of the serum reactions to Proteus X whereas failure to obtain cross-immunity coincides with dissimilarity in agglutination reactions. 6. The present knowledge of serological varieties of typhus, based on the occurrence in the patients' serum of main and group agglutinins for various types of Proteus X is presented in tabular form. It is suggested that serological methods, using various types of Proteus, are indispensable in the experimental study of the typhus group of viruses. 7. The technique of the agglutination reaction with Proteus X strains is discussed. The use of O variants and of the new Oxford standard suspension are recommended. 8. The isolation of Proteus X strains and the hypothesis of the transformation of Rickettsia into Proteus X are discussed and some technical details of the methods of cultivation are described. c 1933.
(1) A number of indications and analogies snggest the trial of coal-tar dyes and their derivativ es in leprosy. (2) Intravenous injections of a large number of dyes have been given to 85 patients. (3) A number of these dyes show marked selective concentration in the leprotic lesions, a phenomenon not seen in certain non-leprotic lesions. (4) With trypan blue, brilliant green, fluorescein and perhaps eosin a definite diminution of the external manifestations of leprosy has been observed, accompanied by other signs of clinical improvement. (5) With the other dy es administered no signs of clinical improvement were observed. (6) This report is a study of the immediate reaction of the lesions; we have as yet no knowledge of the later effects of the injection of these dyes. We consider from this preliminary report that further trial and study of these dyes is definitely indicated in the hope that it may lead to further possibilities in the chemotherapy of this disease.
1. 1. Paris green was used as a larvicide on an inland hilly estate where A. maculatus was the carrier-and where most of the water treated was moving, more or less rapidly. 2. 2. Three different diluents were tried, viz., lime, talcum and soapstone powder. 3. 3. The strength of the mixture was one part of Paris green to ninety-nine parts of diluent by volume. 4. 4. Distribution was carried out by mechanical blowers and sprayers. 5. 5. The application was checked twenty-four hours afterwards. For one month it was checked forty-eight hours afterwards. 6. 6. There was an increase in breeding places-most of which were found in moving water. 7. 7. There was an increase in larvÃ¦, many of them being over two days old. 8. 8. In spite of treatment of epidemics with plasmochin and quinine, the malaria rate was higher than during the previous year. The rise was more or less consistent, pointing to constant infections. 9. 9. The morbidity rate, death rate and infantile mortality were apparently not adversely affected, but in view of the treatments given with plasmochin, they are of no help in deciding the value of Paris green. 10. 10. There was a distinct fall in anti-larval costs, but the total anti-malarial costs were still high on account of the treatments necessary for epidemics of malaria. 11. 11. The advantages and disadvantages of Paris green are discussed.
MeSH terms: Breeding; Death; Infection; Malaria; Morbidity; Mortality; Quinine; Water