Browse publications by year: 1995

  1. Okamoto M, Ito A, Kurosawa T, Oku Y, Kamiya M, Agatsuma T
    Int J Parasitol, 1995 Feb;25(2):221-8.
    PMID: 7622329
    The technique of isoenzyme electrophoresis was applied to Japanese wild populations of Taenia taeniaeformis (isolated from Norway rats) and three laboratory reared isolates (KRN isolated from a Malaysian Norway rat, BMM from a Belgian house mouse and ACR from a Japanese gray red-backed vole). The average heterozygosities of Japanese wild populations were fairly small and total genetic variability was 0.0499. The genetic make-up of T. taeniaeformis in Norway rats was rather uniform in the whole of Japan. In KRN isolate, each of all 10 loci examined possessed the allele which was predominant in Japanese wild populations. Similarly, each of 9 loci in BMM isolate possessed the same alleles, but one of 2 alleles at HK locus was different from that in the others. T. taeniaeformis parasitizing house mice and rats were considered to be genetically closely related to each other. In ACR isolate, 7 out of 10 loci possessed different alleles from those in the other populations. It was considered that ACR isolate was genetically distant and its phylogenetic origin in Japan should be different from worms parasitizing Norway rats.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel; Geography; Heterozygote Detection; Isoelectric Focusing; Isoenzymes/analysis; Isoenzymes/genetics*; Japan; Mice, Inbred Strains; Species Specificity; Taenia/enzymology; Taenia/genetics*; Taenia/isolation & purification; Genetic Variation*; Mice/parasitology; Rats/parasitology
  2. Suleiman AB
    Citation: Abu Bakar, Suleiman
    Keynote Address. Bengkel “Program Perubatan Keluarga: Posting Pusat Kesihatan”. Pusat Kesihatan Padang Serai, Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia, 27 Mac 1995
    MeSH terms: Education, Medical, Graduate; Family Practice; Malaysia; Primary Health Care; Rural Health; Rural Health Services
  3. Pathmanathan R, Prasad U, Sadler R, Flynn K, Raab-Traub N
    N Engl J Med, 1995 Sep 14;333(11):693-8.
    PMID: 7637746 DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199509143331103
    BACKGROUND: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is consistently detected in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To determine whether EBV infection is an early, initiating event in the development of this malignant tumor, we screened nasopharyngeal-biopsy samples, most of which were archival, for preinvasive lesions, including dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. Preinvasive lesions were found in 11 samples, which were tested for the presence of EBV.
    METHODS: EBV infection was detected with in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) and by immunohistochemical staining for latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1). The larger samples were also tested for the EBV genome with the use of Southern blotting. The expression of specific EBV RNAs was determined by the amplification of complementary DNA with the polymerase chain reaction.
    RESULTS: Evidence of EBV infection was detected in all 11 tissue samples with dysplasia or carcinoma in situ. EBERs were identified in all eight samples tested, and LMP-1 was detected in all six of the tested samples. Six of the seven samples tested for the EBV termini contained clonal EBV DNA: Transcription of the latent EBV gene products, EBV nuclear antigen 1, LMP-1, LMP-2A, and the BamHI-A fragment, was detected in most of the samples. Viral proteins characteristic of lytic lesions were not detected.
    CONCLUSIONS: Preinvasive lesions of the nasopharynx are infected with EBV. The EBV DNA is clonal, indicating that the lesions represent a focal cellular growth that arose from a single EBV-infected cell and that EBV infection is an early, possibly initiating event in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Preinvasive lesions contain EBV RNAs that are characteristic of latent infection but not the viral proteins that are characteristic of lytic infection. The detection of the EBV-transforming gene, LMP-1, in all the neoplastic cells suggests that its expression is essential for preinvasive epithelial proliferations associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
    MeSH terms: Antigens, Viral/analysis; Carcinoma in Situ/chemistry; Carcinoma in Situ/virology; Clone Cells; Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics*; Herpesvirus 4, Human/isolation & purification; Herpesviridae Infections/complications; Herpesviridae Infections/diagnosis*; Humans; Hyperplasia/pathology; Hyperplasia/virology; Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology; Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/chemistry; Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/virology*; Nasopharynx/pathology*; Nasopharynx/virology; Precancerous Conditions/chemistry; Precancerous Conditions/virology*; RNA, Viral/isolation & purification*; Transcription, Genetic; Tumor Virus Infections/complications; Tumor Virus Infections/diagnosis*; Viral Matrix Proteins/analysis; Blotting, Southern; In Situ Hybridization
  4. Yoong KY, Cheong I, Choy KC
    Family Physician, 1995;7:24-27.
    A 32 year old HIV positive intravenous drug user (IVDU) with a promiscuous lifestyle in the past presented with altered behaviour and was diagnosed to have pulmonary tuberculosis, tuberculous meningitis and tuberculous osteomyelitis. After initial response to anti-tuberculous therapy, his symptoms recurred with the appearance of cerebral mass lesions. A presumptive diagnosis of toxoplasma encephalitis was made based on clinical, serological and radiological evidence. He showed clinical improGement with anti-toxoplasmic therapy.
    MeSH terms: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Case Reports; Diagnosis; Encephalitis; HIV; Life Style; Malaysia; Meningitis; Osteomyelitis; Radiology; Toxoplasma; Tuberculosis; HIV Infections; Drug Users
  5. Yap HW
    Family Physician, 1995;7:9-11.
    MeSH terms: Epidemiology; Humans; Hyperplasia; Malaysia; Nephrology; Prostatic Hyperplasia; Urology
  6. The Ambulatory PS
    Family Physician, 1995;7:40-41.
    MeSH terms: Fever
  7. The Ambulatory PS
    Family Physician, 1995;7:42-43.
    MeSH terms: Infection; Urinary Tract; Urinary Tract Infections
  8. The Ambulatory PS
    Family Physician, 1995;7:38-39.
    MeSH terms: Enuresis
  9. The Ambulatory PS
    Family Physician, 1995;7:36-37.
    MeSH terms: Child; Constipation
  10. Teng CL, Krishnan R
    Family Physician, 1995;7:1-2.
    MeSH terms: Malaysia; Morbidity; Primary Health Care
  11. Tan HM, Lei CCM
    Family Physician, 1995;7:16-21.
    Medical therapy is effective in patients with mild to moderate symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Selective alpha-1 blockers (e.g. terazosin) and 5 alpha reductase inhibitors (e.g. finasteride) are the main drugs used. Alpha blockers reduce the dynamic component of obstruction while the later reduces the size of the prostate.
    MeSH terms: Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; Humans; Prostatic Hyperplasia; 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors
  12. Ng PEP
    Family Physician, 1995;7:12-15.
    MeSH terms: Epidemiology; Hyperplasia; Malaysia; Prostatic Hyperplasia
  13. Md Shajahan MY
    Family Physician, 1995;7:1-2.
    MeSH terms: Malaysia; Primary Health Care; Editorial
  14. Mahmud M, Shajahan M
    Family Physician, 1995;7:28-30.
    MeSH terms: Malaysia; Primary Health Care; Smoking
  15. Lim CS
    Family Physician, 1995;7:6-8.
    MeSH terms: Epidemiology; Hyperplasia; Malaysia; Nephrology; Prostatic Hyperplasia; Urology
  16. Lei CCM
    Family Physician, 1995;7:22-23.
    MeSH terms: Epidemiology; Hyperplasia; Malaysia; Nephrology; Prostate; Prostatic Hyperplasia; Urology
  17. Lei CCM
    Family Physician, 1995;7:3-5.
    MeSH terms: Epidemiology; Hyperplasia; Malaysia; Nephrology; Prostate; Prostatic Hyperplasia; Urology
  18. Lane MJ, Zulkifli A
    Family Physician, 1995;7:16-20.
    The aim of this study was first to analyse the prescribing habits of primary care doctors with a view to providing feedback which may help them to rationalise their prescribing. This analysis was helped by comparing the prescribing practices in two different settings and thus highlighting anomalous differences. The second aim of this study was to obtain data on the diagnoses being made in primary care settings in Malaysia as this information, though available from other countries, is limited here. Lists of the most commonly prescribed drugs and most common diagnoses made are provided, together with tables showing the most commonly prescribed drugs for the ten most common diagnoses. Differences in prescribing habits between the two settings are discussed and possible reasons are suggested.
    MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities; Cross-Sectional Studies; Hospitals; Humans; Malaysia; Outpatients; Primary Health Care
  19. Kannan P, Jeyamalar R, Soo CS, Thuraisingham S, Robaayah Z
    Family Physician, 1995;7:26-35.
    Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Malaysia. Management strategies for this disease have changed dramatically. This article, based on discussions of real cases, reviews current treatment methods for various patient subsets, with acute myocardial ischemia.
    MeSH terms: Coronary Disease; Review; Myocardial Ischemia
  20. Chan SC
    Family Physician, 1995;7:3-10.
    This study aimed to established baseline data on patients' demographic and morbidity patterns over three months in the Outpatients Department (OPD) Ipoh Hospital. Entry of the first ten thousand patients into a computerised database for analysis showed that the majority were unemployed and from the low income group. There were more Malays and Indians, less Chinese. Respiratory infections accounted for 18.5 % while major chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, asthma) were common. Overall a wide spectrum of illnesses were seen. A career structure for OPD doctors and incorporation of Family Medicine concepts were proposed to improve primary care in OPD.
    Study site: Outpatients Department (OPD), Hospital Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
    MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities; Asthma; China/ethnology; Chronic Disease; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diabetes Mellitus; Hospitals, General; Humans; Hypertension; India/ethnology; Malaysia/ethnology; Morbidity; Outpatient Clinics, Hospital; Outpatients; Primary Health Care; Respiratory Tract Infections; Public Health Practice
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