The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children in FELDA Sungai Koyan, Pahang. Anthropometric measurements were taken from 105 children comprising of 62 boys and 43 girls aged 12 to 72 months. Food intake records from 84 of these children aged 4-6.9 years were obtained. Socio-economic factors which may influence nutritional status were also studied. The anthropometric assessment showed that 14.3% (n=15) of the children were underweight, 10.5% (n=11) stunted and 2.9% (n=3) wasted when compared with the NCHS Reference. It was also found that 28.6% (n=30) of the children had low mid arm circumference for age according to the Frisancho reference, indicating a low protein calorie reserve. The result of the dietary study showed that the intake of calories, calcium, niacin and thiamine were below the recommended daily allowances (RDA) for Malaysia. However, the intake of protein, iron, vitamin A, riboflavin and vitamin C were above the RDA levels. Foods most frequently taken were rice, fish, milk and meat. Vegetables and fruits were also often consumed by the children. Based on the Pearson correlation test, a significant relationship was shown between the nutritional status of the children (weight for age and height for age) with the motherâ€™s educational level, and the number of children in the family. There was also a significant relationship between motherâ€™s nutrition knowledge and the nutritional status of the children (weight for age). Inadequate calorie intake is one of the important factors involved in the causation of protein energy malnutrition. This problem is influenced by socio-economic factor such as low educational level and nutrition knowledge of mothers and large family size. Parents should be encouraged to participate in activities that enhance nutrition knowledge and promote good nutritional practices. FELDA is encouraged to organize more such activities.
Research performed in four fishing villages in the district of Semporna, Sabah revealed a total 55 species of intertidal marine organisms were being utilized as source of food. Specimens were collected during low tides by accompanying the local people. The villages involved were Kg. Panjl, Kg. Bangau-Bangau (a resettlement area for the Sea Bajaus), Kg. Air and Kg. Kebimbangan. Idenfication of species was based on illustration described in texts as well as comparing with the collections in local muziums. Local name for each species was obtained from the population living within the vicinity of coastal areas. The total number of species collected, however, differed among the villages. Chemical analysis based on A.O.A.C of several species indicated variations in nutritive values and trace metals as well as lead content.
Food consumption of 50 female students in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia was recorded for 7 days. Foods and drinks most frequently consumed were selected for analysis of iron, zinc, copper and lead content. The mean daily intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat among the students are 6.5Â±1.4 MJ (1550Â±335 kcal), 59.8Â±18.5g. 227. 1Â±54.6 g and 46.0Â±11.5 g respectively. This diet contributed 19.6Â±6.4 mg Fe, 7.0Â±2.0 mg Zn and 1.6Â±0.6 mg Cu per day which were lower than the Malaysian RDA for Fe and US RDA for Zn, while Cu is within the recommended range. The main sources of these minerals in the studentâ€™s diet were rice, rice products, meat and animal products. Lead concentration in the diet (134Â±77 ug/day) is below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value suggested by Codex Alimentarius Commission (1984). This study indicated concern regarding the low intake of the essential trace elements on long term basis among the students.
An examination of the fat composition of the diet of a Malaysian urban hostel population obtained by chemical analysis of representative meals prepared by a 7-day rotation menu, revealed both nutritional attributes and limitations when compared against the dietary messages contained in the American Heart Association (AHA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) models. The Malaysian diet supplies 26% kcal i.e. 66 g total fat (51 g vegetable fats, 15 g animal fats) and contains
MeSH terms: American Heart Association; Animals; Diet; Food Habits; Rotation; United States; Vegetables; Meals
The objective of this paper is to assess the perception of bodyweight status among the office workers in two government departments in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 385 Malay workers aged between 18 to 55 years were randomly selected from the Prime Ministerâ€™s Department and the Ministry of National Unity and Community Development. The weights and heights of all subjects were measured and their Body Mass Index (BMI) determined. In this study, obesity is defined as individuals having ï‚³ï€ 25 kg/rn 2 . A questionnaire was prepared to obtained information on socioeconomic status, health aspects, dietary intakes, activity levels and perception on bodyweight status. The study revealed a high prevalence of obesity (38.1 %) and among the obese subjects, 21.7 % perceived themselves as having normal weight. The normal weight and underweight subjects perceived themselves as obese (33.5 % and 6.3 % respectively). A small percentage (5.7 %) of the obese individuals who perceived themselves as obese did not wish to lose weight. In contrast, 9.7 % of the normal weight subjects who perceived themselves as having normal weight wanted to lose weight. A third personâ€™s perception on the subjectsâ€™ bodyweight status is significantly associated with the subjectsâ€™ bodyweight status (P
MeSH terms: Adult; Body Weight; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Malaysia; Malaysia/ethnology; Male; Obesity; Perception; Surveys and Questionnaires; Body Mass Index; Prevalence
A study was carried out to investigate whether smoking had any effect on the Langerhans cells in the oral mucosa, which might throw light onto the mechanism of malignant transformation of some keratotic lesions in the oral cavity. Thirty-two cases of keratotic lesions from biopsy specimens of smokers and non-smokers were studied. Langerhans cells were identified by immuno cytochemical staining for 5100 proteins and their densities quantified. Smokers were associated with a significant reduction in the Langerhans cell population compared to non-smokers. The mean values of Langellans cell density in light smokers and heavy smokers were 2 2 2 28.64/mm and 33.421mm respectively compared to 66.51/mm in non- smokers. There was a dose-response relation between the number of cigarettes smoked daily and the effect on cell counts. These findings of a local immunological effect of smoking on oral epithelium may explain the means by which cigarette smoking contributes to the development of oral cancer.
A 73.1 percent response rate was obtained in a postal questionnaire survey conducted among Malaysian dentists to assess their attitudes and needs for continuing dental education. It appeared that on an average the Malaysian dentist spent very little time on continuing education,reading journals and participation in professional dental meetings.The need for continuing education was strongly evident as almost all dentists indicated that such activities be further developed in Malaysia. Crown and Bridgework, Oral Surgery and Orthodontic appeared to be areas in which more continuing education were required.
A postal questionnaire concerning the Malaysian dentists' attitudes towards their patients yielded a 73.1% response rate. The results of this study indicated that a majority of dentists felt that patients had more negative than positive attributes. Private practitioners attributed more negative traits to their patients than their public sector colleaques. About 88% of dentists indicated that the most negative patient attribute was fear of pain. Fear of pain was perceived to be stronger than fear of the dentist (62.2%). likewise the patients' inability to seek treatment soon enough (78.4%), to come for regular check-up (72.7%) and to follow advice on personal oral hygiene(70.1%) were worrisome.
MeSH terms: Attitude; Dentists; Emotions; Fear; Humans; Oral Hygiene; Pain; Surveys and Questionnaires; Public Sector
The aim of the article is to report on the perception of utilizers of government dental services towards the preservation of natural teeth for life and relate it to their past utilization pattern and the associated demographic factors. All patients aged 15 years and over attending ten randomly selected government dental clinics in Selangor, Wilayah Persekutuan and Negri Sembilan during the study period of thirty non consecutive outpatients days were interviewed and examined clinically. Five-hundred and fifty subjects were included in the survey. It was found that the majority of respondents (63%)have a.rather pessimistic perception of their ability to preserve natural teeth for life and most have a very poor past utilization behaviour (90%).The most pessimistic and worst utilization behaviour was reported by the Malay ethnic group, the least formally educated and the lowest income group (p O.O1).It is postulated that one of the main reason for this trend among Malay respondents could be due to their lower educational and income status, rather than cultural influences. Further research into the influence of culture on the utilization pattern of the Malays is therefore recommended.
The mangement of vascular lesions such as haemangiomas frequently present difficult choices between various treatment modalities. Circumstances may limit the,number of options available for the surgeon. This article describes the circumstances, investigations, difficult choices, and eventual treatment of a case of a mandibular haemangioma. It is concluded that for a medium sized haemangioma such as in this case,in the absence of facilities to embolize it, surgical excision may be safely carned out provided that proper investigations and precautions have been conducted. An angiogram is of utmost important in determining the feeding vessels and is very important before any surgical procedure is attempted.
The ability of a pathologist to accurately interpret a lesion is largely dependent on a good biopsy performed by the surgeon. This article describes the common pittfalls in biopsy techniques and offers ways to minimize them. It also discusses the difficulties encountered by the pathologist in attempting to interpret artefactually damaged tissues.
An apartment complex collapsed in Malaysia killing 48 people trapped inside.The dental disaster victim identification team comprising of officers from the Kuala Lumpur General Hospital, Armed Forces and the Dental
Faculty, University of Malaya played a very active role in the identification process. Most of the bodies were badly decomposed and some grossly disfigured. Problems were encountered due to inadequate facilities and
equipments at the mortuary.Difficulties were also encountered during the procurement and deciphering of information from dental records. Suggestions have been made to improve facilities, expertise and also to create awareness amongst dentists to ensure proper recording of their patients' dental status.
Temporary obturator is necessary for maxillectomy procedures to minimise functional disabilities of speech and the swallowing of food and fluid following surgery.l.2 It also provides a base to hold surgical packing and/ or tissue conditioners in place. This packing helps to restore function and counter act contraction during healing of the ,tissues at the operated site. Dental clinicians are often faced with the problem of surgical staffs requesting an obturator for their patients at short notice.This article describes a fast technique of constructing an immediate surgical obturator.
The preliminary investigation was carried out to assess the severity of malocclusion between two centres, the dental schools in Leeds, United Kingdom and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 99 study models were analysed using the Index ofOrthodontic Treatment Need (lOIN). Thestudy models were ofpatients aged 8to 15years, equally distributed between male and female patients taken from the undergraduate and staff clinics. Forty nine and fifty study models were analysed at the Leeds Dental School and FacultyofDentistry,University ofMalaya,respectively.Fromthisobservation, it appeared that the sample of patients treated at the Faculty of Dentistry, Kuala Lumpur presented approximately 25%higher with casesin the severe end of the malocclusion based on the dental health component and almost 70%more with the aesthetic component. Factors contributing to this finding are discussed.
This paper represents a study of35casesofodontogenic keratocyst (OKC) diagnosed in a Malaysian population. The clinical, radiological and histopathological features, treatment modalities and recurrence of this lesion were analysed. There was a higher prevalence rate among Malaysian Chinese (51.42 percent), while the Malays and Indians accounted for22.86 percent and 25.72 percent respectively. The male to female ratio was 16 : 19.Age at presentation ranged from nine to 71 year,with about 70percent occurring between ages ten to 39 years. A total of40cysts were analysed. Of these, 67.5 percent occurred in the mandible and 32.5 percent in the maxilla. About 88percent of OKC presented as unilocular radiolucencies and 42.0 percent were associated with unerupted or impacted teeth. Histologically, the parakeratinized OKC was the predominant variant found (75.8 percent). The majority of caseswere treated by enucleation (85 percent), and a recurrence rate of20percent was recorded.
The root canal walls of twenty -five deciduous molar teeth with exposed and necrotic pulps were examined using thescanning electronmicroscope. Immediately after extraction, all teeth were fixed in Kamosky's solution. The coronal portion of the tooth was sectioned at about 2mm above the enamel cemental junction.The mesial and distal roots were separat~d and either split in the mesio-distal or bucco-lingual direction. All specimens were prepared for SEM. Obsevations showed that all roots were infected with organisms consisting of cocciand short rods. Some of the coccihad penetrated the dentine layer. However, the distribution of organisms is. not uniform throughout thecanals. Bacterialinvasion ismostinthecoronal region and reduces towards the apical region: Accompanying bacterial invasion is root canal walls deterioration. The odontoblastic processes are the first to deteriorate followed by the predentine layer.
A differential phenomenological study of acute and chronic schizophrenia is scanty. Thought disorder was assessed in 22 acute and 23 chronic schizophrenics. The scale for the assessment of thought, language and communication was used. Poverty of speech was significantly more frequent in acute schizophrenia. Positive formal thought disorder was unusually found to be severer in chronic schizophrenia. No other significant difference was found. From the perspective of thought disorder, acute and chronic forms of schizophrenia seem to be in a continuum with minimal difference.
We determined the 240-nucleotide sequences of the E/NS1 gene junction of four dengue-2 viruses by the primer extension dideoxy chain termination method. These viruses were isolated from dengue patients with different clinical severities in Nakhon Phanom, Northeastern Thailand in 1993. The results were compared with the 52 published dengue-2 sequences of the same gene region. Sequence divergence of four new isolates varied from 4.17% to 5.42% compared with dengue-2 prototype New Guinea C strain whereas it varied from 5.42% to 6.67% and from 6.67% to 7.09% when compared with Jamaica 1409 strain and PR159/S1 strain, respectively. All nucleotide substitutions were found at the 3rd position of the codons which were silent mutations. All 56 isolates studied were classified into five genotypic groups by constructing the dendrogram. The results indicated that four new isolates from Northeastern Thailand belong to genotype II of dengue virus serotype 2, and were most closely related to prototype New Guinea C strain. We also observed the variation in nucleotide and amino acid sequences among clusters of isolates (Thailand-1980, Malaysia-1989 and Thailand-1993) which were obtained from the dengue patients with different clinical severities. The significance of these genetic differences have been discussed in terms of the possible correlation between genetic variability and virulence.